Michelle Shumate

Michelle Shumate
Northwestern University | NU · Department of Communication Studies

PhD

About

86
Publications
31,900
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1,977
Citations
Introduction
Michelle Shumate is the founding director of Network for Nonprofit and Social Impact (NNSI), dedicated to studying how nonprofit networks be rewired for maximum social impact. She created the bona-fide network perspective, a public communication-centered model of corporation-nonprofit relationships, and a typology of communication networks. She was awarded a National Science Foundation CAREER award for her work on interorganizational networks and nonprofit capacity.
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - present
Northwestern University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2006 - May 2012
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2003 - May 2006
North Dakota State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
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Background Modifications to interventions can jeopardize intervention outcomes. Pre-existing perceived barriers and facilitators to the intervention arising in the implementation preparation phase may help explain why modifications to the intervention may occur during the implementation phase. This two-site comparative case study describes modifica...
Article
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Introduction: Sustainment refers to continued intervention delivery over time, while continuing to produce intended outcomes, often with ongoing adaptations, which are purposeful changes to the design or delivery of an intervention to improve its fit or effectiveness. The Hispanic Kidney Transplant Program (HKTP), a complex, culturally competent i...
Article
The contemporary media environment transforms the organization-volunteer relationship by attenuating the formation of organizational belonging, often thought to be the result of direct interactions and face-to-face meetings. We examine and compare factors that influence offline and online volunteering. We investigate the ties for communicating abou...
Chapter
The final chapter synthesizes arguments from the book. We offer a systems approach that integrates the configuration and processes approaches, addressing the possible network designs needed for success and how the system must adapt to a changing environment. We do so by unpacking the axioms that underly our approach, integrating material from the r...
Chapter
This introductory chapter describes the key concepts and approaches used throughout the rest of the book. First, it defines social impact and distinguishes it from individual, organizational, and network outcomes. Second, it defines networks as arrangements of organizations characterized by autonomy and interdependence. Further, the chapter unpacks...
Chapter
Generally, goal-directed networks are a more, not less, expensive way to coordinate organizational activity. This chapter describes the different types of resources typically required to achieve social impact, including financial resources, human resources, technology, and time. It describes the unique challenges in managing network resources, incl...
Book
Networks for Social Impact is a broad review of how nonprofits, businesses, and governments work together to tackle social problems. The book takes a systems approach to explain how networks make a social impact, and when they are unlikely to do so. It argues that network design and management is not a one-size-fits-all formula. Instead, the type o...
Chapter
This chapter suggests several reasons that networks fall short of social impact. First, it defines social impact as distinct from outcomes. Further, it indicates that networks may intentionally focus on results other than social impact. The chapter introduces a typology of social impact. Second, the chapter explores how the complexity of various so...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the process of starting a network. Drawing from the configurational and process approaches, it describes critical decisions involved. These decisions include what role the network instigator should play, how to recruit participants and manage membership, the type of network governance, establishing the goal or goals, definin...
Chapter
Most network research reflects a positive bias, suggesting that organizations can accomplish more by working together than they can by working alone. However, networks can also catalyze conflict between partners. This chapter identifies the various forms of power and describes how power imbalances can increase the potential for conflict in networks...
Chapter
If a network has longevity, it will experience change. This chapter is about how networks reinvent themselves, mature, learn, grow, and dissolve. It uses a framework based on two distinctions: the goal-directedness of the network and the disruptiveness of the change. For serendipitous networks, or networks where organizations do not share goals, fi...
Chapter
Funders, communities, and network leaders all recognize the value of data. This chapter argues that effective data-use practices should be used to support the theory of change that networks employ. It prescribes program evaluation for project-based social impact and continuous quality improvement for learning-based models. It suggests public opinio...
Article
Hispanic patients receive disproportionately fewer living donor kidney transplants (LDKTs) than non‐Hispanic Whites (NHW). The Northwestern Medicine Hispanic Kidney Transplant Program (HKTP), designed to increase Hispanic LDKTs, was evaluated as a non‐randomized, implementation‐effectiveness hybrid trial of patients initiating transplant evaluation...
Chapter
This chapter examines current theorizing and research on interorganizational network change, and considers its antecedents, processes , outcomes, and management. We perform a systematic review of this literature across several disciplines, including communication , management, organization studies, public administration, and technology studies. Com...
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Collaborative governance research examines the role of individuals, organizations, and partnerships within a community to understand why particular interorganizational networks emerge. We take a different tact, arguing that communities adopt collaborative governance models based upon exposure to the models and the individual and organizational reso...
Article
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Background: Despite available evidence-based interventions that decrease health disparities, these interventions are often not implemented. Northwestern Medicine's® Hispanic Kidney Transplant Program (HKTP) is a culturally and linguistically competent intervention designed to reduce disparities in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) among H...
Article
Although nonprofit collaboration is commonplace, recent research suggests that faith-based organizations (FBOs) are less likely to collaborate than other nonprofits. This study builds on prior FBO, collaboration, and nonprofit capacity research to examine the influence of religiosity and operational capacity on FBOs’ within- and cross-sector partne...
Article
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This study examines the processes of complex innovation adoption in an interorganizational system. It distinguishes the innovation adoption mechanisms of organizational-decision-makers (ODMs), who make authority adoption decisions on behalf of an organization, from individual-decision-makers (IDMs), who make optional innovation decisions in their o...
Article
This study unpacks the complex relationship between corporate–nonprofit partnerships, corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication, and stakeholder evaluations of fit. We move beyond the fundamental question of whether partner fit matters to questions about what types of messages matter, under what conditions, and to whom. We conducted an on...
Article
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Capacity-building initiatives are popular among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) worldwide. In response to a lack of valid and reliable capacity measures for NGOs working on various social issues, Shumate and colleagues developed an 8-dimension, 45-item NGO capacities instrument, based on data from U.S. NGOs. However, the proliferation of inter...
Conference Paper
Collaborative networks in response to social problems are a common area of research, but questions of who manages these networks and how they organize cross-sector partners represent new challenges for nonprofit organizations and their partners. This study draws upon interview data from 26 community-based education coalitions across the United Stat...
Conference Paper
Cross-sector collaborative networks are an increasingly popular method to impact social change. This paper uncovers the ways in which educationally-focused cross-sector networks engage with underserved communities. Twenty-eight education-focused community networks participated in the study. Interviews, organizational surveys, and archival data are...
Conference Paper
Recently, there has been a trend towards organizations collaborating with each other to improve social outcomes. This has been met with interest from researchers and consultants interested in assessing the value of collaboration and providing ideal models for it. However, we do not yet know the impact of organizations in network governance position...
Article
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Human services nonprofits increasingly provide a social safety net through interorganizational collaboration, and the effectiveness of these partnerships has important implications for the quality and sufficiency of those services. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether partner selection is related to partnership effectiveness and, if...
Article
Scholars suggest three partnering strategies that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can use to pursue strategic relationships in civil society networks: (a) the development of overlapping ties associated with network closure, (b) adopting an intermediary role between two disconnected organizations associated with brokerage, and (c) complying wit...
Article
Interorganizational collaboration relies on the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, previous ICT research often takes place within a single organization, lacking insight into how ICTs sustain interorganizational structures. This study examined both the product categories and functional uses of ICTs for interorganizati...
Conference Paper
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“Collective impact” has gained prominence as a particular means for organizations to respond to social problems in their community, though there is some concern that the term is over-used or improperly applied. In this study, we draw from research on collective impact, collaborative initiatives and network governance to suggest that what constitute...
Conference Paper
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Nonprofits may see significant benefits for using outcome data to improve programs and managerial decisions. This paper investigates potential sources of organizational learning in regards to nonprofit professional data use. We hypothesize that greater network governance, higher data-sharing centrality, and greater nonprofit capacity can increase p...
Article
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In this article, we introduce a multidimensional network perspective as a theoretical and methodological touchstone for the study of strategic communication. The perspective embraces the various disciplinary traditions that are found under the strategic communication umbrella (e.g., advertising, corporate communication, organizational communication...
Conference Paper
Introduction Multiparty cross-sector coalitions that are inclusive of businesses, nonprofits, and government agencies are a frequently adopted form of networking to address “wicked” problems (Provan & Lemaire, 2012). Coalitions are thought to improve public services like education by combining diverse expertise, building organizational capacity, al...
Article
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Cross-sector social partnership (CSSP) case-based theory and research have long argued that nonprofits that engage in more integrative and enduring cross-sector partnerships should increase their organizational capacity. By increasing their capacity, nonprofits increase their ability to contribute to systemic change. The current research investigat...
Article
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Background: The shortage of organs for kidney transplantation for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is magnified in Hispanics/Latin Americans in the United States. Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the treatment of choice for ESRD. However, compared to their representation on the transplant waitlist, fewer Hispanics receive...
Article
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In recent years, the amount of research on digital inter-organizational networks among Chinese non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has increased greatly. However, few studies have examined the offline networks of Chinese NGOs. To fill this gap, the present study investigates the size and spread of offline Chinese NGO networks. In particular, we e...
Article
Nonprofits are guided by internal efforts and external mandates to build capacity. However, scholars and grant makers are hampered by varied definitions of the concept, competing but untested models, and the lack of a reliable and valid measure. This research defines nonprofit capacity as the processes, practices, and people that the organization h...
Conference Paper
Although research has examined nonprofit organizations' use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly social media and websites, we know little about how nonprofit organizations use ICTs in the context of interorganizational collaboration. This article reports the results of an exploratory study on how nonprofit organizatio...
Article
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Research typically focuses on one medium. But in today’s digital media environment, people use and are influenced by their experience with multiple systems. Building on media ecology research, we introduce the notion of integrated media effects. We draw on resource dependence and homophily theories to analyze the mechanisms that connect media syste...
Article
“Driving Strategic Change at the Junior League (A)” describes a troubled organizational environment. Challenges included a dissatisfied membership, declining membership numbers, a large diversity among local leagues, and limited resources to meet the organization's overall objectives. The case describes a “participatory roadmap” approach, drawing o...
Article
“Driving Strategic Change at the Junior League (A)” describes a troubled organizational environment. Challenges included a dissatisfied membership, declining membership numbers, a large diversity among local leagues, and limited resources to meet the organization's overall objectives. The case describes a “participatory roadmap” approach, drawing o...
Article
Full-text available
Nongovernmental organization (NGO) hyperlink networks are institutionalized connective public goods. They influence which actors and what aspects of social issues are made visible to the public in search engine results. To understand how contextual forces and institutional pressures influence who hyperlinks to whom online, this research examines a...
Chapter
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Interorganizational communication describes the structures, forms, and processes created by the exchange of messages and the co-creation of meaning among organizations and their stakeholders. Research in this area has its roots in the study of organizational interlocks and boundary spanners and, more recently, in the field of communication, especia...
Article
Using the symbiotic sustainability model as a framework, this research investigates how many and with which businesses top nonprofit organizations report partnerships. We examined the websites of the 122 largest, most recognizable U.S. nonprofits. These websites included information about 2,418 business–nonprofit (B2N) partnerships with 1,707 uniqu...
Article
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Development campaigns designed to scale up effective agricultural solutions often rely on media. Information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) proponents argue that increased media penetration is necessary for such campaigns to succeed. Interviews of 63 extension agents and 200 farmers in Burkina Faso about their disparities in...
Article
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This study examines a hyperlink network among non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in China. Using social media activity, indicated by the presence of a profile, length of time since social media adoption, number of accounts followed, and number of posts, we investigate NGOs' hyper linking behaviors from a holistic media ecology perspective. Drawi...
Article
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Although nonprofit organizations are expected to engage in continuous evaluation, its effectiveness is hampered by limited resources and competing and untested instruments. This paper makes the case for the creation and use of more robust measures in nonprofit evaluation. Specifically, we argue for the involvement of nonprofits in the development o...
Article
Efforts to build capacity are ubiquitous in the nonprofit sector. However, scholarly and grant maker efforts are hampered by varied definitions of the concept, competing but untested models, and the lack of a reliable and valid measure. We define nonprofit capacity as the processes, practices, and people that the organization has at its disposal th...
Article
Full-text available
Interorganizational networks are important structures for both service providers, who must navigate them as part of their organizational roles, and clients, who use them for the purposes of receiving benefits. This research develops and tests a conceptual model that explains some of the differences in the ways that these two groups perceive these n...
Article
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This research examines the antecedents that motivate and prepare social entrepreneurs to begin social ventures. Drawing from in-depth interviews with 20 social entrepreneurs, this research reveals that there are two paths to social entrepreneurship: the activist path and the business path. Both activist and business social entrepreneurs were motiva...
Article
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The importance and popularity of interorganizational collaboration among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have grown considerably in recent years. Despite these growths, however, not much is known about why NGOs network the way they do or why NGO networks are structured the way they are. Using homophily theory and exponential random graph model...
Article
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Informed by the symbiotic sustainability model, this theory-building research compares a stratified subsample (N = 66) from 695 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that have relationships with U.S. Fortune 500 companies in 11 industries (N = 155). Using network analysis and centering resonance analysis, the research compares the “about us” stateme...
Article
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Interorganizational networks within organizational fields are important structures for both internal stakeholders, who must navigate them as part of their organizational roles, and external stakeholders, who navigate them for the purposes of resource exchange. This research develops and tests a conceptual model that explains some of the differences...
Chapter
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Organizational communication as a field of study has grown tremendously over the past thirty years. This growth is characterized by the development and application of communication perspectives to research on complex organizations in rapidly changing environments. Completely re-conceptualized, The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Communication, Thir...
Article
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This research proposes a bona fide network perspective for examining interorganizational collaboration. This perspective emphasizes that (a) network boundaries are fuzzy and membership is dynamic, (b) interorganizational networks are embedded in a complex environment that enables some configurations and constrains others, (c) interorganizational ne...
Article
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Many nongovernmental organizations' (NGOs') instrumental collective action networks exist to produce tangible public goods. Moreover, these organizations' hyperlinks function to express collective identity. The extent to which both types of collective action are related is unknown. To examine this gap in the research, hyperlinks from 181 NGO websit...
Article
Hyperlink networks are dynamic systems of representational communication. In order to understand the varied influences on processes that produce these systems, this research examines the evolution of a HIV/AIDS nongovernmental organization (NGO) hyperlink network over one year. The results demonstrate that different factors influence the rate of va...
Article
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This article showcases current best practices in quantitative organizational communication research. We emphasize their value in exploring issues of the day and their relation to other research approaches. Materials are presented around four themes: systematic development and validation of measures, including the use of mixed methods; multiple leve...
Article
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This study identifies the similarities and differences in corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication at the institutional and economic industry level of analysis. Findings suggest that at the institutional level of analysis, a corporate consensus exists about the scope of CSR and is largely understood as welfare capitalism. However, at the...
Article
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Since the 1970s, communication researchers have utilized social network analysis to understand mass, health, organizational, and interpersonal communication. This article introduces communication researchers to a new class of social network analysis methods, exponential random graph (p*) models. This new method represents the latest advancement in...
Article
We introduce the Symbiotic Sustainability Model (SSM) as a macrolevel explanation of nongovernmental organization (NGO)-corporate alliances. The SSM presents NGO-corporate alliances as distinct interorganizational communication relationships, symbolized to stakeholders to influence the mobilization of capital. We contend that alliance partners comm...
Article
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Nongovernmental organization (NGO)-corporate alliances are a strategic type of institutional positioning communication. From a sample of 155 US Fortune 500 corporations and 695 NGOs drawn from corporations' websites, this research examines: (a) the number of NGOs with which corporations communicate alliances; (b) the patterns of communicated allian...
Article
This research seeks to explain the structure of the interorganizational network of international development organizations, including international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs). The study uses a multitheoretical, multilevel model to examine the endogenous and exogenous influences on the internatio...
Article
Project teams with discontinuous membership face unique knowledge management challenges. Team members in various roles create information during early project phases; however, certain of these roles may no longer be part of a project team during subsequent project phases when the knowledge needs to be applied. This research utilises instrumental ro...
Article
While many have suggested that corporate social responsibility is in part a response to stakeholders, little research has been done that gives primacy to the targeted publics’ voice, interpretations, and responses to corporate social responsibility. This research examines the meaning and attributes that Active Moms, an often targeted stakeholder gr...
Article
Nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) hyperlink networks are connective public goods, or sets of interorganizational links that enable members and nonmembers to reach like-minded organizations in order to enhance the visibility of the network’s goals. We extend collective action theory to account for both the level and structural signatures...
Article
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This study assessed the proscriptive models and evidence used in antismoking campaigns. A content analysis of 399 television advertisements cataloged in the Media Campaign Resource Center database was conducted. Findings reveal that the analyzed advertisements fail to use evidence and often reinforce proscriptive models of smoking. In advertisement...
Article
Globalization and communication scholars have argued that technology is transforming the “third sector”, the set of organizations that are not-for-profit and non-governmental (NGOs). This research examines the local and global linkages among a hyperlink network of 248 HIV/AIDS NGOs. This research examines the north/south NGO divide in the context o...
Article
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Managers have increasingly implemented knowledge databases and knowledge-sharing training to improve team effectiveness. The authors examine whether intranet-based repository use and perception of accurate team knowledge of who knows what were related to perceived team effectiveness. They found that the perception that one's team had accurate who-k...
Article
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This study examined televised anti-smoking advertisements that were designed to discourage adult and teen smoking. A content analysis of 399 television advertisements catalogued in the Media Campaign Resource Center (MCRC) database were evaluated to determine (a) whether the advertising content reflected core health communication theories used in t...
Article
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High Reliability Organizations (HROs) face constant threats but manage to operate with relatively few accidents. The current study examines the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of a new HRO Perception Scale. Results indicate the scale is reliable. The two-factor model, including self-efficacy and organizational risk response...
Article
This study examines the impact of geographic dispersion and technological mediation on the organizing processes of a virtual network organization. Listserv and conference call records from the approximately two-year existence of the Continental Direct Action Network were analyzed in order to examine how the virtualness of this organization impacted...
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The HIV–AIDS epidemic is one of the most challenging and signifi cant health crises facing the world today. In order to cope with its complexities, the United Nations and World Health Organization have increasingly relied upon the resources offered by networks of HIV–AIDS nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The research reported here uses evoluti...
Article
The HIV–AIDS epidemic is one of the most challenging and significant health crises facing the world today. In order to cope with its complexities, the United Nations and World Health Organization have increasingly relied upon the resources offered by networks of HIV–AIDS nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The research reported here uses evolutio...
Article
This research extended earlier public goods research on individual incentives to use an organizational information commons that was based in Marwell and Oliver's (1993) collective action model. A revised theoretical model that incorporated team-level social influence and technology-specific competence was proposed. The model was tested using online...
Article
This research extended earlier public goods research on individual incentives to use an organizational information commons that was based in Marwell and Oliver's (1993) collective action model. A revised theoretical model that incorporated team-level social influence and technology-specific competence was proposed. The model was tested using online...
Article
Full-text available
used in this article to demonstrate that storytelling in the mediascape can transform the terrain of an ideoscape. Storytelling is viewed to be of because it is the means by which they encourage members to identify with and act on behalf compete in storytelling with other organizations, they engage in narrative netwar. An illus-how narrative netwar...
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A basic tenet of this article is that organizations of different form, texture and size emerge and interact thus creating ‘fields’. This article explores how boundary characteristics of the various organizations in a particular field may influence developments in that field. The perspective taken here takes into consideration a multitude of interac...
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3.1 ABSTRACT Maintaining product ,feasibility and ,managing knowledge ,flows are difficult if an

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