Michelle Gayle Newman

Michelle Gayle Newman
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Psychology

Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology

About

284
Publications
218,523
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9,450
Citations
Education
September 1984 - August 1992
Stony Brook University
Field of study
  • clinical psychology

Publications

Publications (284)
Article
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Background: The Contrast Avoidance Model (Newman & Llera, 2011) proposes that worry is reinforced by avoiding a negative contrast and increasing the likelihood of a positive contrast. Objective: To determine if reinforcement of worry occurs naturalistically via contrasts in both negative and positive emotion. Method: Using event-contingent mom...
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Introduction Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common and disabling. Different versions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been tested, but no treatment works for everyone. Therefore, researchers have attempted approaches to enhance CBT. Areas covered The current narrative review examines meta-analyses and individual trials of CBT-base...
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Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the need for mental healthcare that can be delivered remotely and at scale to college students. This study evaluated the efficacy of online self-help for stress among students during the pandemic. Method: College students with moderate or higher stress (N = 585) were recruited between November 2020 a...
Preprint
Interpersonal theory organizes social behavior along dominant (vs. submissive) and warm (vs. cold) dimensions. There is a growing interest in assessing these behaviors in naturalistic settings to maximize ecological validity and to study dynamic social processes. Studies that have assessed interpersonal behavior in daily life have primarily relied...
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Background Vulnerability theories propose that suboptimal levels of lipid markers and proinflammatory proteins predict future heightened depression. Scar models posit the reverse association. However, most studies that tested relationships between non-specific immune/endocrine markers and depression did not separate temporal inferences between peop...
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Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) reliably precede and predict one another. However, there is insufficient data on mediators through which the longitudinal GAD-MDD association unfold. Based on insomnia theories, such as the hyperarousal model of sleep, we tested the degree to which poor global sleep...
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Given its interpersonal underpinnings, relational factors may be salient in psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Supporting this point, research has indicated a positive total alliance-improvement correlation in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for GAD. However, less research has disaggregated this correlation into within- and be...
Preprint
Little is known about whether brief mindfulness ecological momentary interventions (MEMI) yield clinically beneficial effects for generalized anxiety disorder. Thus, this randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a 14-day smartphone MEMI (vs. self-monitoring placebo (SMP)). Sixty-eight MEMI participants exercised multiple core mindfulne...
Preprint
Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occur at high rates, often preceding and predicting one another over long durations. Interpersonal theories propose that relationships with others may mediate the longitudinal MDD–GAD pathway. Therefore, the current study examined the mediational effect of posit...
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Vulnerability models posit that executive functioning (EF) problems centrally impact future common (vs. rare) psychopathology symptoms. Conversely, scar theory postulates that depression/anxiety (vs. other psychopathology) symptoms centrally influence reduced EF. However, most studies so far have been cross-sectional. We used cross-lagged panel net...
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According to dynamic systems theory, initial symptom instability is necessary for long-term stable change to occur from psychotherapy. Such instability may be assessed using sudden gains (SGs), sudden losses (SLs), and reversals. The present study examined these symptom change patterns and their association with treatment outcome using intensive di...
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Background Within-person growth in life satisfaction (LS) can protect against declines in cognitive functioning, and, conversely, over time. However, most studies have been cross-sectional, thereby precluding causal inferences. Thus, we used bivariate dual latent change score modeling to test within-person change-to-future change relations between...
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Objective The need for clinical services in U.S. colleges exceeds the supply. Digital Mental health Interventions (DMHIs) are a potential solution, but successful implementation depends on stakeholder acceptance. This study investigated the relevance of DMHIs from students' perspectives. Methods In 2020–2021, an online cross-sectional survey using...
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Background Scar theory proposes that heightened depression and anxiety precede and predict worse cognitive functioning outcomes, whereas the vulnerability theory posits the opposite pathway. However, most investigations on this topic have been cross-sectional, precluding causal inferences. Thus, we used cross-lagged prospective network analyses to...
Article
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According to the Contrast Avoidance model (CAM), worry causes increased and sustained negative affect and such negative affect enables avoidance of a future sharp increase in negative emotion. However, only pathological worriers (vs. controls) view worry as a positive coping strategy to avoid a negative emotional contrast (NEC). We examined if rumi...
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Background Myriad emotion regulation and coping theories have proposed that avoidant/emotion-oriented coping is a cause and consequence of anxiety and depression. However, few studies have investigated potential mechanisms underlying the prospective anxiety-depression disorder relation. The current study examined various coping strategies (i.e., de...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic could affect college students’ mental health. We examined screening rates for psychological disorders before and during the pandemic.Methods Undergraduates were surveyed before (n = 3643) or during the pandemic (n = 4970). Logistic regression adjusting for participant demographics was conducted.ResultsFrequencies of...
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Introduction: Scar theories propose that elevated depression and anxiety can predispose people to future decreased executive function (EF) via heightened inflammation across decades. However, more longitudinal (versus cross-sectional) research on this topic is needed. Objective: We thus investigated if increased major depressive disorder (MDD),...
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Introduction: Decreased motivational tendency to seek out, engage in, and enjoy investing in complex cognitive processes in a sustained manner (need for cognition; NFC) may be a predictor and consequence of heightened anxiety and depression symptoms (ADS). However, the majority of investigations on this topic have been cross-sectional, which hinde...
Preprint
Full-text available
According to the Contrast Avoidance model (CAM), worry causes increased and sustained negative affect and such negative affect enables avoidance of a future sharp increase in negative emotion. However, only pathological worriers (vs. controls) view worry as a positive coping strategy to avoid a negative emotional contrast (NEC). We examined if rumi...
Preprint
Background: Vulnerability theories propose that higher levels of lipid and pro-inflammatory markers precede and relate to future heightened depression and anxiety. Scar models posit the reverse association. However, most studies testing biomarker-psychopathology relations have been cross-sectional, which precludes causal inferences, and did not dif...
Preprint
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) often precede and predict one another. Stress reactivity theories of psychopathology posit that patterns of heightened emotional reactions to stressors can result in increased vulnerability to the development of anxiety and depression. However, cross-sectional studie...
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The dual process model proposes that early and later bereavement involve different types of stressors and adaptation processes (Stroebe & Schut, 1999, 2010). It is thus possible that different factors facilitate adaptation during early months versus subsequent years following widowhood. Elevated depressive symptoms, though prevalent after widowhood...
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Background: The scar theory proposes that heightened depression and anxiety precede and predict worse cognitive functioning outcomes, whereas the vulnerability model posits the opposite pathway. However, most investigations on this topic have been cross-sectional, which precludes causal inferences. Thus, our study used both contemporaneous and temp...
Preprint
Reliable and valid measurements of anxiety, chronic worry, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is essential when seeking to draw cross-cultural and gender comparisons. Accordingly, the current study determined the psychometric properties of five widely used symptom measures in the United States (U.S.) and Singapore (SG) and across gender:...
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Background: The ability to effectively regulate one's emotions has been established as an important transdiagnostic mechanism in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. To date, much of the research on emotion regulation (ER) has been conducted in Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) samples. Specifically, th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vulnerability models posit that executive functioning (EF) problems centrally impact future common (vs. rare) psychopathology symptoms. Conversely, scar theory postulates that depression/anxiety (vs. other psychopathology) symptoms centrally influence reduced EF. However, most studies so far have been cross-sectional. We used cross-lagged panel net...
Article
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Background Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) has shown promising efficacy for the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and related comorbidities. However, most trials conducted to date were therapist-led, and little is known about the efficacy of self-guided VRE. Therefore, this randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to determine the ef...
Preprint
Theorists (Cacioppo, Petty, Feinstein, & Jarvis, 1996) have proposed that persons with diminished motivation to actively and systematically seek out, consider, and think about corrective information (i.e., low need for cognition; NFC) are vulnerable to encounter elevated anxiety and depression across long periods. Simultaneously, based on the scar...
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Background: Affective neuroscience and scar theories propose that increased excessive worry, the hallmark symptom of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), predicts future declines in executive functioning (EF). However, the preponderance of crosssectional designs used to examine between-person chronic worry-EF relations has blocked progress on unders...
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BACKGROUND: Cytokine theory of depression proposes that increased baseline inflammatory activity, may accumulate over time and lead to future major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most research conducted on this topic has been cross-sectional and examined between- (vs. within-) persons and symptom severity (vs. diagnosis). Therefore, we tested...
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Previous studies on parental support have consistently shown it predicts lower adolescent alcohol use, yet findings regarding the influence of parental monitoring have been mixed. The current study aims to resolve this concern while examining peer selection as a mediator of both parenting factors. The current study used structural equation modeling...
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Researchers have held a long-standing debate regarding the validity of discrete emotions versus global affect. The current manuscript tries to integrate these perspectives by explicitly examining the structures of state emotions and trait affect across time. Across three samples (sample 1: N = 176 Unites States undergraduates in a 50 day daily diar...
Article
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Background Scar and vulnerability models assert that increased psychopathology may predict subsequent executive functioning (EF) deficits (and vice versa) over protracted timescales, yet most prior work on this topic has been cross-sectional. Thus, we tested the within- and between-person relations between EF, depression, and anxiety. Methods Olde...
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BACKGROUND: Online guided self-help may be an effective and scalable intervention for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among university students in India. METHODS: Based on an online screen for GAD administered at four Indian universities, 222 students classified as having clinical (DSM-5 criteria) or subthreshold (GAD-Q-IV score ≥ 5....
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Objective In a national sample of college students, the current study aimed to: 1) examine differences in probable diagnoses of EDs (i.e., anorexia nervosa (AN), clinical/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), or binge eating disorder (BED)) and weight and shape concerns by sexual orientation and gender identity, and 2) examine differences in ED chroni...
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Background: Parenting theories propose that lack of childhood parental affection confers increased vulnerability to heightened adulthood depression. However, only a few prospective studies have examined this topic, and no studies included mediators of the childhood parental affection-adulthood depression connection. Objective: This study examine...
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Objectives: Using two intensive longitudinal data sets with different timescales (90 minutes, daily), we examined emotion network density, a metric of emotional inflexibility, as a predictor of clinical-level anxiety and depression. Design: Mobile-based intensive longitudinal assessments. Methods: 119 participants (61 anxious and depressed, 58...
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Background: General aggression and evolutionary models posit that more severe early exposure experiences to trauma (physical, emotional, sexual abuse and/or neglect) place one at risk for adulthood psychopathology through heightened trait anger expression-internal (Anger-In) and external (Anger-Out). However, there are a dearth of empirical studie...
Preprint
Background: Scar and vulnerability models assert that increased psychopathology maypredict subsequent executive functioning deficits (and vice versa) over protracted timescales, yet most prior work on this topic has been cross-sectional. Thus, we tested the within- and between- person relations between EF, depression and anxiety. Method: Older adul...
Article
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The research domain criteria (RDoC) define cognitive processes (e.g., rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity) as key elements of psychopathology (Cuthbert, 2015). However, there is currently a dearth of construct equivalence studies to advance the RDoC agenda to adopt transdiagnostic approaches. We thus aimed to validate the la...
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Objectives: Using two intensive longitudinal datasets with different timescales (90 minutes, daily), we examined emotion network density (a metric of emotional rigidity) as a predictor of clinical levels of anxiety and/or depression. Design: Mobile-based intensive longitudinal assessments. Methods: In study 1, 119 participants (61 anxious and depre...
Article
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About a third of college students struggle with anxiety, depression, or an eating disorder, and only 20-40% of college students with mental disorders receive treatment. Inadequacies in mental health care delivery result in prolonged illness, disease progression, poorer prognosis, and greater likelihood of relapse, highlighting the need for a new ap...
Article
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Background Trait negative affect (NA) is a central feature of anxiety and depression disorders. Neurocognitive and scar models propose that within‐person increase in NA across one period of time relates to a decline in cognitive functioning at a future period of time and vice versa. Yet, there has been little research on whether a within‐person cha...
Article
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Background: Scar models posit that heightened anxiety and depression can increase risk for subsequent reduced executive function (EF) through increased inflammation across months. However, the majority of past research on this subject used crosssectional designs. We therefore examined if elevated generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive...
Chapter
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a widespread and debilitating disorder. In this review, we present updated research on worry, along with the emotional, information processing, interpersonal, and biological factors underlying this disorder, through the lens of a comprehensive model of GAD: the Contrast Avoidance Model. This model sheds light o...
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Introduction Many individuals believe that worry helps solve real-life problems. Some researchers also purport that nonpathological worry can aid problem solving. However, this is in contrast to evidence that worry impairs cognitive functioning. Objective This was the first study to empirically test the effects of a laboratory-based worry inductio...
Chapter
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Cognitive‐behavioral therapy (CBT) fundamentally aims to ameliorate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, which stem from habitual, inflexible, and spiraling systems of interaction between somatic, cognitive, and emotional responses to appraised threats. This chapter describes the core components of CBT often employed in clinical trials of G...
Chapter
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Interpersonal and emotional processing therapy (I/EP) was developed in the early 1990s as an attempt to remedy the shortcomings of cognitive‐behavioral therapy. It cohesively unifies interpersonal, emotional, and cognitive problems of the therapeutic change process and human functioning. This chapter presents an overview of the process and implemen...
Preprint
Background: Scar models propose that elevated psychiatric disorder severity predisposes people to future decreased executive function (EF) through heightened inflammation. However, most prior research on this topic has been cross-sectional. We thus investigated if increased Time 1 (T1) common psychiatric disorder severity predicted Time 3 (T3) EF d...
Preprint
Background: The past 30 years have witnessed growing scientific interest regarding the impact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on cognitive functions. Several theories propose that habitually exercising mindfulness skills can improve cognitive abilities, but no comprehensive quantitative reviews of the effect of MBIs on global and unique c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The past 30 years have witnessed growing scientific interest regarding theimpact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on cognitive functions. Several theories propose that habitually exercising mindfulness skills can improve cognitive abilities, but no comprehensive quantitative reviews of the effect of MBIs on global and unique co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The past 30 years have witnessed growing scientific interest regarding the impact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on cognitive functions. Several theories propose that habitually exercising mindfulness skills can improve cognitive abilities, but no comprehensive quantitative reviews of the effect of MBIs on global and unique c...
Article
Full-text available
Positive emotions serve important functions for mental health. Susceptibility to reduced positive emotions in the context of stress may increase risk for poor mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depressive disorders and low overall levels of positive emotion. In an eight-day daily diary study within a larger panel study (N = 1,517), we te...
Article
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Theories of cognitive therapy have long suggested that those with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have inaccurate expectations. By challenging them with objective evidence, symptoms are thought to decrease. To test these premises, this study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) during the Worry Outcome Journal (WOJ) treatment to determine...
Article
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Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is prevalent among college students. Smartphone-based interventions may be a low-cost method of treatment. Method: College students with self-reported GAD were randomized to receive smartphone-based guided self-help (n = 50), or no treatment (n = 50). Post-treatment and six-month follow-up outcomes i...
Preprint
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Affect and emotion researchers have held a long-standing debate regarding the validity of discrete versus global emotions. Emphasis has been placed on factor analytic findings to suggest that affect is best characterized by two fundamental dimensions: positive affect and negative affect. In contrast, emotion researchers have long provided experimen...
Article
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Background : Research has consistently documented anxiety and depression as bidirectional risk factors for one another. However, little research investigates the sequential comorbidity of anxiety and depression over lengthy durations, and the influence of contextual variables on this relationship have not been fully empirically investigated. Metho...
Article
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) involves instability in self-concept, emotions, and behavior. However, the dynamic, longitudinal relations among BPD symptoms and between these symptoms and other problematic emotional experiences are poorly understood. It is also unclear whether these dynamics are the same across persons (including across diag...
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Experience sampling methods are widely used in clinical psychology to study affective dynamics in psychopathology. The present study examined whether affect ratings (valence and arousal) differed as a function of assessment schedule (signal- versus event-contingent) in a clinical sample and considered various approaches to modeling these ratings. A...
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Humans are arguably innately prepared to comprehend others' emotional expressions from subtle body movements. If robots or computers can be empowered with this capability, a number of robotic applications become possible. Automatically recognizing human bodily expression in unconstrained situations, however, is daunting given the incomplete underst...
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The early treatment phase appears to be critical in psychotherapy. Even when adequate fidelity has been achieved in controlled trials, the scope of rated interventions is limited and there remains a need to better understand early treatment intervention implementation. Objective: Explore and compare the delivery of diverse intervention strategies i...
Article
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Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is prevalent among college students in India, however barriers like stigma, treatment accessibility and cost prevent treatment. Web- and mobile-based, or digital, mental health interventions have been proposed as a potential solution. With the ultimate goal of developing an engaging digital mental health...
Article
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Worry, rumination, and obsessive thinking are theorized to differ on temporal orientation, positive perceived function, degree of intrusiveness, and discordance with one’s self-concept. However, prior findings with respect to such differences may be due to method variance of the measures used and/or inclusion of items confounded by diagnostic sympt...
Chapter
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Sexual minorities face unique threats to psychological well-being that are primarily social in nature. These minority stressors include negative social exchanges at both the structural and interpersonal levels. Minority stress results in psychiatric distress; however, sexual minorities display increased self-esteem and decreased anxiety and depress...
Chapter
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The integrative approach described in this chapter represents the authors’ efforts to improve the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) via a systematic and theoretically cohesive assimilation of treatment procedures typically associated with other psychotherapy orientations. The primary emphasis is on an integrative therapy for generalize...
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Integrative psychotherapies have received increased empirical attention in recent decades, and a number of these treatments have been examined and tested in treatment outcome studies. In this chapter, the authors review and summarize the current state of outcome research on integrative therapies. Such treatments are placed into broad categories bas...