Michelle McLean

Michelle McLean
Bond University · Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine

PhD, M.Ed
Planetary health education

About

125
Publications
49,449
Reads
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2,784
Citations
Citations since 2017
34 Research Items
1298 Citations
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Introduction
My current work focuses on planetary health (education) as the overarching discipline which includes climate change, Ecohealth, One Health and sustainable healthcare.
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - December 2015
Bond University
Position
  • Associate Dean: External Engagement & International (Health Sciences & Medicine)
December 2011 - present
Bond University
Position
  • Academic Lead: PBL
June 2007 - December 2011
United Arab Emirates University
Position
  • Medical Educator

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
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Climate change and the declining state of the planet’s ecosystems, due mainly to a global resource-driven economy and the consumptive lifestyles of the wealthy, are impacting the health and well-being of all Earth’s inhabitants. Although ‘planetary health’ was coined in 1980, it was only in the early 2000s that a call came for a paradigm shift in m...
Article
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A Code Red has been declared for the planet and human health. Climate change (e.g., increasing temperatures, adverse weather events, rising sea levels) threatens the planet's already declining ecosystems. Without urgent action, all of Earth's inhabitants face an existential threat. Health professions education should therefore prepare learners to n...
Article
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Purpose There are increasing calls for planetary health (which includes sustainable healthcare) to be included in tertiary health professions education. With already busy curricula, particularly in medicine, educators need to find innovative ways of integrating these important concepts without adding to learners’ workload. This study investigated w...
Article
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Clinical supervision is critical for preparing podiatry students for clinical practice. However, little is known about clinical supervisors’ preparedness to supervise podiatry students in clinical practice. This exploratory qualitative study explored clinical supervisors’ perceptions of their preparedness to supervise podiatry students in Australia...
Article
Climate change is one of the greatest threats to human health. It is not surprising that following one of the hottest years on record (2019) and wildfires on almost all continents that the 2021 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the 2021 Lancet Countdown on Climate Change identified a Code Red for humanity and for a healthy future. In ad...
Conference Paper
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No funding was provided. All authors contributed their own time. One member of the author group is President of AMEE. Two authors are affiliates of the Centre for Sustainable Healthcare which offers ESH courses.Healthcare contributes significantly to nature degradation. We must transform health systems to protect planetary health, on which human he...
Article
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Introduction: Little is known about Australian podiatry students’ preparedness for clinical placement and graduates’ preparedness for clinical practice. This qualitative study explored clinical supervisors’ perceptions of podiatry students’ and graduates’ preparedness-related challenges and their recommendations for improvement.Methods: Eleven regi...
Poster
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This poster was presented at the Planetary Health Alliance annual meeting - https://www.planetaryhealthannualmeeting.com/abstracts. You can register for free to also view the 3minute video created (Poster session 1 section)
Article
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The purpose of this Consensus Statement is to provide a global, collaborative, representative and inclusive vision for educating an interprofessional healthcare workforce that can deliver sustainable healthcare and promote planetary health. It is intended to inform national and global accreditation standards, planning and action at the institutiona...
Article
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India is home to the world’s second largest Indigenous population, comprising 8.6% of the national population. They are constitutionally recognised as ‘Scheduled Tribes’ to aid their development after centuries of oppression and socio-cultural marginalisation through the caste system. Limited disaggregated data exist on India’s Scheduled Tribe popu...
Article
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Background Increasingly, professional bodies expect doctors to not only provide patient care but also educate students, trainees and patients. Few medical students, however, receive formal tuition in terms of the theory and practice of medical education. A curriculum restructure from an MBBS to a Doctor of Medicine (MD) program provided an opportun...
Article
Background In 2019 the WHO identified climate change and air pollution as the top global threat to health. This was illustrated by the health consequences of the catastrophic 2019-20 Australian bushfire season. Health-care systems also contribute to climate change and environmental degradation. For Australia, health care contributes 7% of total car...
Article
Global Environmental Changes are dynamic and complex, crossing disciplines, sectors, regions, and populations and shaping the health of current and future generations. GECs present an unprecedented challenge demanding a response of equal scale and complexity involving unfettered collaboration beyond disciplines with implications for global health....
Article
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Currently, health professionals are inadequately prepared to meet the challenges that climate change and environmental degradation pose to health systems. Health professions’ education (HPE) has an ethical responsibility to address this and must include the health effects of climate change and environmental sustainability across all curricula. As t...
Article
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In this commentary, we discuss health professions’ education (HPE) leadership in relation to planetary health emergencies, suggesting that an ‘eco-ethical leadership’ approach is highly relevant. Building on both traditional and more contemporary leadership approaches and the need for HPE to be socially and environmentally accountable, we define th...
Article
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Becoming a doctor involves a series of transitions that require medical students to be equipped with the appropriate knowledge, skills, confidence and professional approach at each step. This pilot cross-sectional study canvassed five cohorts immediately after completing Years 1-5 in a five-year undergraduate medical program (Gold Coast, Australia)...
Article
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Background: Global economic forces, political decisions, and natural disasters are only some of the factors that affect contemporary healthcare education. Given the centrality of health in all settings, the future of healthcare education depends on how we overcome these difficult circumstances. Methods: Through a series of collaborative activities...
Article
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With increasing use of digital technology in education, this monograph describes the evolution of the Histology (study of human tissues) component in the first year of an integrated, undergraduate problem-based learning medical programme from didactic and guided to a flipped, blended learning approach. Voice-over PowerPoints (VOPPs) freed face-to-f...
Article
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Purpose: Propose a framework for planning and undertaking an international elective. Methods: On returning from conducting maternal health and well-being research in several remote communities in India, two undergraduate medical students have reflected on and documented their experiences with the view to assisting other students (and their supervis...
Article
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In large cities around the world, the effects of air pollution on human health present a growing problem. In this commentary, we assert that governments alone are not responsible for addressing such issues and health care professionals (HCPs) need to consider whether their duty of care should extend beyond normal clinical boundaries. When consideri...
Article
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Background: Medicine has undergone profound changes in terms of the number of women entering the profession with postulated implications of this ‘feminization’ for the profession. The present phenomenological study sought to gain insight into the experiences of final year male and female Emirati medical students (clerks) in terms of the impact of g...
Article
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Using interpretative phenomenological analysis to make meaning of the experiences of three highly qualified registered nurses who had enrolled in an undergraduate medical programme, this study provides insight into their personal journeys of wanting to become ‘different’ doctors. In so doing, they conceptualised their future selves as adding clinic...
Article
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This study sought to gain insight into blended learning-naive sports science students' understanding and perceptions of the potential benefits and limitations of blended (hybrid) learning, which has been defined as the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online instructional approaches. Five focus groups, each comprising 3-4 students from ei...
Article
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We live in difficult times. As three medical educators with many years of experience in medical education in different contexts and in a range of countries, we recognise that many educators and students face 'difficult circumstances'. Over the 18 months or so, including a theme at the 2016 AMEE Conference in Barcelona, we have collaborated with col...
Article
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In their journey to becoming doctors, students engage with a range of teachers and trainers. Among these are simulated patients (SPs), who, through role-playing, assist students to develop their communication and physical examination skills, in contexts of formative and summative assessments. This paper explores the teaching and learning relationsh...
Article
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Although originally designed as a pedagogical approach in graduate-entry medicine, problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely implemented in undergraduate medical, science and social sciences programmes. Although it is generally acknowledged that support is required for learners new to PBL, this has not been well-described for undergraduate progr...
Article
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This article was migrated. The article was marked as recommended. Not indicated.
Chapter
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Core ethical principles should uphold the practice of medicine, a profession in which society places considerable trust in its members. During the Second World War, however, these principles were deliberately ignored by Nazi physicians but, in the ghettos and concentration camps, they were also compromised by many Jewish doctors as they desperately...
Article
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Medical and health professions' education is becoming increasingly standardized across the world in terms of core standards and competencies. Yet, the context in which education and training occurs is far from even. Many educators face challenges in providing health professions' education, ranging from individual challenges and organizational strug...
Chapter
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Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learner-centred approach that was conceptualised for graduate-entry medicine to prepare students for patient encounters in clinical practice. In PBL, under the guidance of a skilled “tutor”, small groups of students engage with “ill-structured” problems to identify gaps in their knowledge and understanding which th...
Article
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Higher education is now a global industry. As students and staff travel across the globe to study and teach, both the student population and the academic staff profile is becoming increasingly international. While there is a reasonable literature documenting the experiences and challenges of international students, little is, however, known about e...
Article
While problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely implemented in medical education, it has been acknowledged to be resource-intensive, particularly in terms of academics' time. In some institutions, such as Bond University (Australia), casual facilitators have been employed (paid hourly) to oversee the PBL tutorials. Apart from considerable experi...
Article
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Today's medical students (tomorrow's doctors) will be entering a world of conflict, war and regular outbreaks of infectious diseases. Despite numerous international declarations and treaties protecting human rights, the last few decades has been fraught with reports of "lapses" in medical professionalism involving torture and force-feeding of detai...
Article
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Background On their journey to “becoming” doctors, medical students encounter a range of health professionals who contribute to their socialisation into clinical practice. Amongst these individuals are registered nurses (RNs) in clinical practice who are often employed by medical schools as clinical tutors. These RNs will encounter medical students...
Article
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Much has been written about medical students' professional identity formation, the process of "becoming" a doctor. During their training, medical students interact with a range of teachers and trainers. Among these are simulated patients (SPs) who role-play patients, assisting students with their communication, procedural, and physical examination...
Conference Paper
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AIMS While there is a reasonable body of literature on medical students’ professional identity formation, the focus has been largely from their perspective. On their journey to “becoming” doctors, medical students interact with teachers and trainers from varying professions, all of whom will perceive their professional development from different st...
Article
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Background: Medical education is an international activity. As students and educators travel across the globe to study and teach, both medical student populations and academic staff profiles are becoming increasingly multinational. Little is, however, known about medical educators who chose to work and live abroad. Methods: Following a pilot study...
Article
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Objectives: Student evaluation of individual teachers is important in the quality improvement cycle. The aim of this study was to explore medical student and faculty perceptions of teacher evaluation in the light of dwindling participation in online evaluations. Methods: This study was conducted at the United Arab Emirates University College of...
Article
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Background: The recognition of medical professionalism as a complex social construct makes context, geographical location and culture important considerations in any discussion of professional behaviour. Medical students, medical educators and practitioners are now much more on the move globally, exposing them to cultural and social attitudes, val...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: Critical thinking skills are important outcomes of many curricula as they are graduate attributes which are highly valued by employers. This is particularly important within health science programmes. Teaching critical thinking does not provide students with an obvious product to take when they leave the learning activity. Instead, it...
Article
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Abstract Medical education is now a global enterprise, with many medical educators working internationally, either for short or longer periods or even permanently. In parallel, many medical schools are now involved in collaborations and partnerships with schools in other countries. With this in mind, we set out to explore what motivates, supports a...
Article
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Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely adopted in medical education. Learners become bored with paper-based cases as they progress through their studies. Aim: To breathe life (i.e. develop virtual patients) into paper-based PBL cases. Methods: The "patients" in paper-based PBL cases in one Year 2 were transformed into virtual...
Article
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Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) as an educational approach has been adopted by medical and health sciences faculties worldwide. Successful implementation of these curricula may, however, end a few years later with several problems reflecting cracks in curriculum maintenance. Aims: The aim of this article is to discuss these problems, th...
Article
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Communications skills (CS) training for medical interviewing is increasingly being conducted in English at medical schools worldwide. In this study, we sought to identify whether Arabic-speaking medical students experienced difficulty with the different components of the CS training that were conducted in English. Individual third-year preclinical...
Conference Paper
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Key words: medical student professional identity, interprofessional collaboration Ineffective interprofessional collaboration and devaluing junior members of the health care team can create barriers to patient care and ultimately result in adverse patient outcomes. Education providers need to ensure that teaching strategies aimed at promoting effec...
Article
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Background Student evaluation of faculty members’ ability to provide quality learning experiences is required for both formative and summative purposes. The aim was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty towards and teaching evaluations. Methods A 21-item questionnaire, adapted from the Schmelkin et al. (1997) inventory, evaluat...
Article
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When Emirati (Muslim) women (n = 218) were asked about their preferred physician (in terms of gender, religion, and nationality) for three personal clinical scenarios, a female was almost exclusively preferred for the gynecological (96.8%) and "stomach" (94.5%) scenarios, while ±46% of the women also preferred a female physician for the facial alle...
Article
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Faculty development is an imperative if institutions are to develop professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders. Planning of faculty development currently focuses on meeting the perceived needs of staff and their interests. We would like to propose the Compass Model as a concep-tual framework to plan faculty development,...
Article
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Faculty development is an imperative if institutions are to develop professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders. Planning of faculty development currently focuses on meeting the perceived needs of staff and their interests. We would like to propose the Compass Model as a conceptual framework to plan faculty development,...
Article
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A number of generic skills have been identified as outcomes of higher education, largely to prepare graduates for the unpredictability of their professional practice. Generic skills include – but are not limited to – information-handling, managing learning, communication and presentation, computer literacy, critical thinking and problem-solving. Af...
Article
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As new developments in medical education move inexorably forward, medical schools are being encouraged to revisit their curricula to ensure quality graduates and match their outcomes against defined standards. These standards may eventually be transferred into global accreditation standards, which allow 'safe passage' of graduates from one country...
Article
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Although many health issues transcend national boundaries and require international co-operation, global health is rarely an integral part of the medical curriculum. While medical schools have a social responsibility to train healthcare professionals to serve local communities, the internationalisation of medical education (e.g. international medic...
Article
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Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores) on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk. An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school p...
Article
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Introduction to the special issue Over the past 20 years or so, there has been a growing demand for Higher Education to more closely meet economic needs and employer requirements. HE in the UK and Australia, for example, has responded by identifying generic skills (UK) or generic graduate attributes (Australia) that are considered to improve studen...
Article
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Increasingly, male medical students report being refused by female patients, particularly in obstetrics and gynaecology, which is impacting on recruitment into the discipline. However, little has been documented in terms of Muslim patients and medical students in the clinical consultation. Female Emirati nationals (n = 218) attending out-patient cl...
Article
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Change in medical education has brought with it new perspectives on content, process, assessment and evaluation. With this change has emerged a new discourse. New words and phrases, used by many but not always fully understood, have infiltrated every aspect of our academic lives. One such term which we believe is used relatively freely but which is...
Article
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In a recent AMEE Guide in Medical Education (McGaghie 2009), the author provides aspiring health professions educators with a valuable insight into educational scholarship as well as offering practical advice in terms of the road to publication and career advancement as an educator. The tone of the guide is one of mentorship, with the author provid...
Article
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Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate...
Article
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While undergraduate research has been part of the learning culture in some disciplines for many years, it is only more recently that it is being included into mainstream medical curricula. Undergraduate medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, have several opportunities to undertake research...
Article
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Medical education has evolved to become a discipline in its own right. With demands on medical faculties to be socially responsible and accountable, there is now increasing pressure for the professionalisation of teaching practice. Developing a cadre of professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders for their new roles and...
Article
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This study set out to determine the incidence of ankle injuries amongst provincial female field hockey players in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, during the 2004 field hockey season and relate this to their injury and playing profile, proprioceptive ability and peak isokinetic torque of the ankle plantar and dorsiflexor muscles. Players particip...
Article
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There is a debate regarding the use of the white coat, a traditional symbol of the medical profession, by students. In a study evaluating final-year South African medical students' perceptions, the white coat was associated with traditional symbolic values (e.g., trust) and had practical uses (e.g., identification). The coat was generally perceived...
Article
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Recruiting and retaining facilitators in problem-based learning requires considerable staff development. Providing meaningful feedback to individual facilitators should contribute to improved management of the tutorial group. To ascertain the value ascribed by facilitators to feedback they received (based on student input) regarding their performan...
Article
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In South Africa, until recently, veterinary waste has not been included in definitions of health care waste, and so has been neglected as a contributor to the hazardous waste stream. Despite the application of, for example, the "Polluter Pays" principle in South African environmental legislation, to generators of waste, which would include veterina...
Article
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Successful curriculum reform requires considerable staff development. It is imperative for management to ensure that its academic staff members are committed to the change. This requires planning and negotiation. As facilitators form the 'teaching' backbone of a problem-based learning programme, faculty management must ensure mechanisms are in plac...
Article
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Background The ever-increasing prevalence of chronic lifestyle-associated diseases has resulted in greater awareness of the importance of preventative medicine and its incorporation as an integral component of modern undergraduate medical curricula. As excessive dietary intake and physical inactivity are widely acknowledged as leading risk factors...
Article
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In problem-based learning (PBL) curricula, first-year students need to adapt to a new learning environment and an unfamiliar new pedagogy. The small-group tutorial potentially offers a learning environment where students can become self-directed learners, collaborating with other group members to achieve individual and group learning goals. At the...
Article
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Following a comprehensive study of the role models identified by the first five years of students in a traditional medical programme, it was hypothesized that with curriculum reform clinical role models would assume greater importance earlier in the undergraduate medical programme. Indeed, when compared with their first- and second-year traditional...
Article
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The HIV and AIDS epidemic will continue to impact medically, socially and financially on sub-Saharan Africa. Opsomming Die MIV/VIGS-epidemie sal voortduur om ‘n mediese, sosiale en finansiële impak op Afrika, suid van die Sahara, te maak. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Article
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With curriculum reform, whether we admit it or not, the first cohort of students will be 'test-driving' the new programme. Not only are they the pioneers of a new curriculum, but as they progress through their studies, they experience each year of the innovation for the first time. As curriculum designers, we learn from their experiences and their...
Article
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