Michelle M Garrison

Michelle M Garrison
Seattle Children's Hospital · Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development

PhD, Epidemiology

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89
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Full-text available
Study objectives: To describe the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a novel Sleep Intervention for Kids and Parents (SKIP). Parent and child primary sleep outcomes were total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep efficiency (SE), and bedtime range. Methods: Children aged 6-11 years with asthma and one parent...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Parent-child interactions are critical for language development in early life. Objective To test whether a clinic-based intervention was associated with improved home language environment and language development. Design, Setting, and Participants A pre-post study of a multifaceted clinic-based intervention called Talk It Up was conduc...
Article
Introduction While multiple interventions for behavioral sleep problems in young children show short-term effectiveness, less evidence is available demonstrating long-term impact. Methods The Sleep Health in Preschoolers (SHIP) study is a randomized, active-controlled trial of a behavioral sleep intervention for preschool-aged children (30-71 mont...
Article
Youth in foster care (YFC) are at high risk of negative reproductive and other health outcomes and may be especially vulnerable to negative impacts of media due to early adversity and a lack of stable caregiver relationships. The aim of this project was to explore how access and exposure to media impacts YFC in order to inform future research in th...
Article
Current research suggests that incidence and heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms may arise through a variety of exogenous and/or endogenous factors. While subject to routine clinical practice and generally considered safe, there exists speculation, though no human data, that diagnostic ultrasound may also contribute to ASD seve...
Article
It is a classic chicken or egg conundrum: across the many cross-sectional studies in the literature reporting significant associations between childhood sleep problems and emotional/behavioral problems, some consider sleep the exposure and behavior the outcome in their statistics and tables¹,2 and some examine behavior problems as the predictor and...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Foster youth have high rates of health problems in childhood. Little work has been done to determine whether they are similarly vulnerable to increased health problems once they transition to adulthood. We sought to prospectively evaluate the risk of cardiovascular risk factors and other chronic conditions among young ad...
Conference Paper
The value of onsite interviews for the pediatric surgery match remains undefined despite substantial cost to applicants. This study assesses the impact of onsite interviews on the rank order lists submitted to the match by pediatric surgery residency training program directors (PDs). PDs were asked prospectively to evaluate pediatric surgery reside...
Article
Importance: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common diagnosis in infants and children, but no objective criteria exist to guide the diagnosis and treatment of this disease in this population. The extent to which age influences decisions about surgical treatment in childhood GERD is unknown. Objective: To identify factors associated wi...
Conference Paper
Although there has been much research in recent years examining early childhood media viewing, ethnically/racially diverse children consistently watch more TV than their non-Hispanic White peers. This study begins to explore associations between race/ethnicity and the viewing habits of young children and assesses whether and how often children are...
Article
Importance Research has shown that preschool-aged children spend considerable time with media, and risks and benefits for cognitive and behavioral outcomes exist depending on what is watched and how it is watched.Objective To examine the associations among child race/ethnicity, parental beliefs/attitudes about television (TV) and child developmen...
Article
Purpose: The volume-outcome relationship has not been well-defined in pediatric surgery. Our aim was to determine the association between hospital-volume and outcomes for common procedures in children. Methods: Retrospective population-based cohort study of patients <18 years of age hospitalized between 1989 and 2009 for common surgical procedur...
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Full-text available
Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high qu...
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol levels respond differently when infants play with blocks compared with watching a digital video disk (DVD). Study design: We conducted a randomized experiment in which 8- to 14-month-old infants either watched a DVD or played with blocks for 30 minutes. Serial salivary cortisol measurement...
Article
This study aimed to examine practice patterns in the inpatient medical treatment of newborns and infants with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, a large, multi-institutional administrative database. A retrospective examination of pediatric hospital discharge data was performed during th...
Article
Although observational studies have consistently reported an association between media use and child sleep problems, it is unclear whether the relationship is causal or if an intervention targeting healthy media use can improve sleep in preschool-aged children. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a healthy media use intervention in famili...
Article
Controllers are underprescribed for children with asthma, and when they are, adherence is suboptimal. We sought to test whether an interactive website grounded in social cognitive theory can improve the dispensing of controller medications and adherence with them where indicated. Randomized controlled trial. Parents of eligible patients were random...
Article
To describe and compare obesity prevention practices related to physical activity and beverages in home- and center-based child care programs. A telephone survey of licensed home- and center-based child care programs in Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Washington between October and December 2008. Most programs reported almost universal access...
Article
The presence of effusion/empyema in pediatric pneumonia can increase treatment complexity by possibly requiring pleural drainage. Currently, no data support the superiority of any drainage modalities in children. We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database from 2003 to 2008. A total of 14,936 chi...
Article
We evaluated the effectiveness of a virtually delivered quality improvement (QI) program designed to improve primary care management for children with asthma. Thirty-six physicians, nurses, and medical assistants from 14 primary care pediatric practices (7 matched practice pairs) participated in a cluster randomized trial from October 2007 to Septe...
Article
Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are uncommon but potentially lethal infections that are well described in adults. Little is known about pediatric patients with NSTI. We sought to examine patients' characteristics, infection characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of children with NSTIs using a large multicenter pediatric databa...
Article
The Internet is a promising tool for delivering health behavior change programs although such interventions raise questions about participant engagement in this medium. In this study we sought to determine the characteristics of parents who engage in an Internet-based health intervention for their children (with asthma) and to distinguish parents w...
Article
To examine whether exposure to the Spirometry Fundamentals™ CD-ROM results in improved quality of spirometry testing in primary care. Spirometry tests performed in 20 intervention and 19 control practices were analysed using American Thoracic Society grades A and B for 'passing' and grades C, D and F for 'failing'. Intervention effects on spirometr...
Article
To determine the effect of asthma controller medication use, choice, and adherence on sleep in children with asthma. A case-crossover analysis examining within-subject differences in controller use between time points with and without sleep problems, based on survey data from 3 time points (baseline, 6 months, and 1 year) of a randomized trial. Fam...
Article
Media use has been shown to negatively affect a child's sleep, especially in the context of evening use or with a television in the child's bedroom. However, little is known about how content choices and adult co-use affect this relationship. To describe the impact of media content, timing, and use behaviors on child sleep. These data were collecte...
Article
Use of CT in the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in children is common. Expanding the use of US would eliminate the radiation exposure associated with CT. We describe new criteria that improve US's diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis, making it more comparable to CT in terms of sensitivity and specificity. We conducted a retrospective review...
Article
The prognosis for most patients with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is thought to be excellent. However, the fatality rate in children with SVT is poorly defined and there are no large-scale, multicenter studies to support this commonly held belief. We reviewed an administrative database containing inpatient records from 41 stand-alone children...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) impacts about 7% of infants in the first year of life. Antireflux procedures (ARPs) are common in children, and given the prevalence of GERD and the reported success of ARP, it is not surprising that in some institutions it is one of the most common surgical procedures performed. Among children hospit...
Conference Paper
Variations in preoperative decision making for anti-reflux procedures in pediatric GERD: A survey of pediatric surgeons Purpose: A recently published study described the variation in numbers of pediatric antireflux procedures (ARPs) performed at free-standing children's hospitals in the United States contributing to the Pediatric Health Informati...
Article
The aim of this study was to describe patients undergoing the Kasai procedure at children's hospitals, evaluate outcomes, and analyze the association of these outcomes with systemic steroid use. Biliary atresia patients (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 751.61) who underwent Kasai procedures at freestanding children's...
Article
The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged chi...
Article
Adherence to published care guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is unknown. To evaluate the association of AGE guideline adherence with outcomes and resource use at pediatric hospitals. We studied children aged 6 months to 6 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) discharge code indicat...
Article
Characterize and compare care in children with hemangiomas, who do or do not undergo airway procedures. National retrospective cohort study of patients aged 0-18 with hemangiomas, from 33 freestanding United States pediatric hospital discharge records, 2001-2005. The main outcome measures were therapy, readmission and mortality. Of 2890 patients di...
Article
Our objectives are to report patient characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes for gastroschisis patients and analyze factors associated with mortality and sepsis. Using Pediatric Health Information System data, we examined neonates with both an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis (756.79) and procedure (54.71) code...
Article
To examine the differences and trends in pediatric antireflux procedures (ARPs) across individual pediatric hospitals over time. Retrospective cohort study. Administrative database containing inpatient records with discharge dates between January 1, 2001, and March 31, 2006. Hospitalized pediatric patients younger than 18 years with primary procedu...
Article
Full-text available
To test the hypothesis that audible television is associated with decreased parent and child interactions. Prospective, population-based observational study. Community. Three hundred twenty-nine 2- to 48-month-old children. Audible television. Children wore a digital recorder on random days for up to 24 months. A software program incorporating auto...
Article
Discharge timing following primary cleft lip repair balances the desire to return patients to their home environment with the risk of serious complications occurring outside a hospital. To derive information to help estimate these risks, the authors evaluated discharge practices, readmissions, and serious medical complications following primary cle...
Article
PURPOSE There is currently no accepted standard of care or algorithm to guide the management of pediatric vaginal trauma. Prior studies are limited to single institution case series. We evaluated a large national database to identify frequency, associated injuries, and diagnostic procedures used in the evaluation and management of children with vag...
Article
Neonatal seizures are one of the most common neurological disorders in infants. However, the optimal treatment strategy for neonatal seizures remains controversial and there is little data regarding current treatment of neonatal seizures. In this study we describe the current treatment of neonatal seizures and variation in practice among 31 pediatr...
Article
To report national variations in diagnostic approaches to apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) and resource utilization. Using the Pediatric Health Information System, we studied children who were age 3 days to 5 months at admission and were discharged with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code potentially ide...
Article
To examine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with arterial catheterization complications in a large pediatric patient population in an effort to generate hypotheses for future prospective study of arterial catheter placement. Retrospective cohort study. Patients discharged between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2005, from 33 children's...
Article
To test the hypothesis that children enrolled in Medicaid managed care health plans that provide asthma-specific communication to providers would be more likely to have adequate asthma medication filling. We conducted a historical cohort study of 4498 children (2-17 years old) with moderate-severe asthma in Washington State and Tennessee Medicaid m...
Article
Full-text available
We performed this study to determine the frequency of previous hospitalization among children hospitalized with influenza. The Pediatric Health Information System database (discharges that occurred between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006) was used to determine the proportion of children hospitalized with influenza or respiratory illness who...
Article
To test the hypotheses that block play improves language acquisition and attention. Randomized controlled trial. Pediatric clinic. Children aged 1(1/2) to 2(1/2) years. Distribution of 2 sets of building blocks. Scores on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, television viewing based on diary data, and the hyperactivity domain...
Article
This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of youth hospitalized with an eating disorder, using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine and compare PHIS inpatients (N = 1,713) with a primary discharge diagnosis of anorexia, bulimia, or eating disorde...
Article
We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the use of triple therapy versus monotherapy for children and adolescents with perforated appendicitis and to determine whether there has been a transition to monotherapy within the freestanding children's hospitals that contribute to the Pediatric Health Information System database. We used the...
Article
The dangers of accidental freezing of vaccines in the cold chain have prompted studies throughout the globe to better characterize the risk. To date, there has been no systematic review of these studies. This analysis highlights that accidental freezing is pervasive and occurs across all segments of the cold chain. Between 14% and 35% of refrigerat...
Article
In the evaluation of infants with bronchiolitis there is little evidence to support the use of diagnostic testing, particularly complete blood counts (CBCs). However, the extent to which CBCs are ordered in the evaluation of infants with bronchiolitis is unknown. (1) To determine institutional variability in ordering of initial and repeat CBCs in i...
Article
The purpose of this work was to conduct a systematic review of experimental trials for the effects of television viewing by infants and preschoolers. Searches were conducted as of January 2005 on several online bibliographic databases for the disciplines of medicine, psychology, education, and communications. Relevant bibliographies were also revie...
Article
Although the amount of television that young children watch at home is well-described, to date no study has examined how much television preschool children watch in day care settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the Profile of Child Care Settings Study, examining predictors of television viewing in center (n = 2089) and home-based...
Article
Adolescent depression has been shown to be associated with later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and obesity with progressive pubertal development. We conducted an analysis of the association between depressive symptoms and obesity using data from a cross-sectional study o...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortality. We first estimated th...
Article
To assess the safety and efficacy of various forms of analgesia and sedation for fracture reduction in pediatric patients in the emergency department, as observed in randomized controlled trials in pediatric populations. Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature), and MEDLINE. The search ter...
Article
To determine differences in case fatality rates between children with and without Down syndrome. We used the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, which includes demographic and diagnostic data from freestanding children's hospitals. Using Poisson regression, we determined the risk of mortality from sepsis for children with Down synd...
Article
Comorbid psychiatric disorders have been associated with poorer disease outcomes in diabetic youth. Less is known, however, about the relationship between psychiatric disorders and repeat hospitalizations for youth with diabetes. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Pediatric Health Information System, which included detail...
Article
Tobacco use results in 500,000 premature deaths annually. Most smokers begin using tobacco before age 21, so the greatest impact on preventing smoking-related mortality is likely to come from campaigns targeting youths. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of an anti-smoking media campaign and dollar 1 per pack increase in cigarette taxes on...
Article
Hospital-associated infections are an important cause of patient morbidity and death. Little is known about the variability of infection rates and infection control practices among pediatric hospitals. This cross-sectional study was performed with the Pediatric Health Information System database, which includes demographic and diagnostic data for 3...
Article
We know little about the variation in diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. The objectives of this study were (1) to document variations in treatment and diagnostic approaches, lengths of stay (LOSs), and readmission rates and (2) to determine which potentially modifiable process of care measures are associated with longer LOSs and antibiotic...
Article
Several systematic reviews of school-based smoking prevention trials have shown short-term decreases in smoking prevalence but have not examined long-term follow-up evaluation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of rigorously evaluated interventions for school-based smoking prevention with long-term follow-up data. We sear...
Article
Full-text available
To test the hypothesis that late adolescent drinking behavior (ages 17-20) is associated with harmful and binge drinking in early adulthood (ages 30-31). We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative longitudinal data set. We used harmful and binge drinking at ages 17 to 20 to predict harmful and binge drinki...
Article
To determine if mental health hospitalizations have increased among youth. A retrospective cross-sectional time trend study. The Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System data set was used to examine hospitalizations among youth (aged 5-19 years) from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1999. The yearly rates of youth hosp...
Article
Tobacco is the leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who smoke begin before age 18. Determine the number of smoking-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in adults that might be saved through interventions to reduce smoking prevalence among children and adolescents. Calculation of the smoking-attr...
Article
Full-text available
Although alcohol has been associated with death from a variety of causes, there are no recent data on the number of deaths in the United States attributable to harmful alcohol use. This study provides updated information on the number of deaths in the United States attributable to harmful drinking. We used the etiologic-fraction method to calculate...
Article
Background Racial disparities have previously been noted in antidepressant use among Medicaid-covered youth. Objective To determine if racial and ethnic differences are due to dissimilarity in the prevalence of diagnosed depression or disparate treatment patterns. Methods Claims were examined for 192 441 youth (5-18 years old) who had been conti...
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To conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of smoking prevention interventions for youth delivered via medical or dental providers' offices. Online bibliographic databases were searched as of July 2002, and reference lists from review articles and the selected articles were also reviewed for potential studies. The methodology an...
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Objective To conduct a systematic review of controlled trials for adolescent smoking cessation.
Article
Racial disparities have previously been noted in antidepressant use among Medicaid-covered youth. To determine if racial and ethnic differences are due to dissimilarity in the prevalence of diagnosed depression or disparate treatment patterns. Claims were examined for 192 441 youth (5-18 years old) who had been continuously enrolled in Medicaid fro...
Article
To conduct a systematic review of controlled trials for adolescent smoking cessation. Online bibliographic databases were searched as of June 2002, and reference lists from review articles and the selected articles were also reviewed for potential studies. The methodology and findings of all retrieved articles were critically evaluated. Data were e...
Article
Childhood diarrhea accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple studies in children have shown that Lactobacillus, administered orally, may have antidiarrheal properties. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled studies to assess whether treatment with Lactobacillus improves clinical outcomes in children with a...
Article
Nonpharmacological and nonsurgical measures are often recommended for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants, despite ambiguous supporting evidence. To conduct a systematic review of rigorously evaluated nonpharmacological and nonsurgical therapies for GERD in infants. We searched online bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE...
Article
Prescribing practices for otitis media are not consistent with current evidence-based recommendations. To determine whether point-of-care evidence delivery regarding the use and duration of antibiotics for otitis media decreases the duration of therapy from 10 days and decreases the frequency of prescriptions written. Randomized, controlled trial....
Article
To conduct a systematic review of rigorously evaluated treatments for infant colic. Online bibliographic databases were searched for the term "colic" in articles classified as clinical trials or randomized controlled trials and conducted in infants. Reference lists from review articles, meta-analyses, and the selected articles were also reviewed fo...
Article
Objective: To conduct a systematic review of rigorously evaluated treatments for infant colic. Methods. Online bibliographic databases were searched for the term 'colic' in articles classified as clinical trials or randomized controlled trials and conducted in infants. Reference lists from review articles, meta-analyses, and the selected articles w...