Michelle K Duffy

Michelle K Duffy
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Work and Organizations

PhD

About

73
Publications
141,452
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Publications

Publications (73)
Article
We examine the effects of the balance between positive and negative affect experienced at work on well‐being outcomes. An extensive literature on affect balance suggests that it is not only positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) alone that affect well‐being; rather it is the balance between them that matters. We use experience sampling metho...
Article
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Although gender has been identified as an important antecedent in workplace mistreatment research, empirical research has shown mixed results. Drawing on role congruity theory, we propose an interactive effect of gender and bottom-line mentality on being the target of mistreatment. Across two field studies, our results showed that whereas women exp...
Article
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Gratitude plays an integral role in promoting helping behavior at work. Thus, cultivating employees' experiences of gratitude represents an important imperative in modern organizations that rely on teamwork and collaboration to achieve organizational goals. Yet, today's workplace presents a complex array of demands that make it difficult for employ...
Article
In the past 20 years, there has been a growing interest in the phenomenon of workplace envy. This article provides an overarching review and analysis of the workplace envy literature. We first consider conceptual and measurement challenges facing envy researchers. We then review the current knowledge base in the research with a focus on synthesizin...
Article
Although extant research shows a clear link between abusive supervision and detrimental consequences for organizations and their members, the popular press and media are replete with suggestions that abusive supervision can be positive and motivating. Drawing from the social functional view of emotions and emerging research on attributed motives of...
Presentation
Our paper examines a motivational pathway through which mindfulness is linked to employees' helping behavior. In a sample of university employees participating in a six-week mindfulness training program, we conduct multilevel structural equation modeling and find that daily mindfulness is positively related to daily prosocial motivation, which, in...
Article
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Who responds most strongly to supervisor social undermining? Building on self‐verification theory (Swann, 1983, 1987), we theorize that employees with positive views of the self (i.e., higher core self‐evaluations [CSEs]) who also maintain higher trust in workplace management are more likely to experience heightened stress and turnover intentions w...
Article
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Resume fraud is pervasive and has detrimental consequences, but researchers lack a way to study it. We develop and validate a measure for empirically investigating resume misrepresentations purposely designed to mislead recruiters. In study 1, an initial set of items designed to measure three theorized resume fraud dimensions (fabrication, embellis...
Presentation
In this study, we examine whether weekly reflection interventions improve the experiences of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) undergraduates. Research has seen a rise in the popularity and examination of reflection exercises as interventions. Lauded as simple, cost-effective ways to improve health and well-being, these intervention...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This symposium covers recent empirical and theoretical work on discrete emotions in the workplace, with a focus on their social antecedents and interpersonal ramifications. We showcase five papers that illustrate how emotions (a) are influenced by various forces in one's social environment (e.g., peers, organizational practices, culture) and (b) pr...
Article
We invoke theory and research on the social functional view of envy to propose a novel theoretical framework of supervisory leader envy of direct reports. Findings from two multi-source, multi-wave studies of supervisor–subordinate dyads provide support for the theses that (1) downward envy of subordinates threatens supervisors’ self-esteem and tri...
Article
We develop and test a theoretical framework delineating the dual affective and motivational experiences arising from perceptions of being envied in the workplace. We theorize that being envied can be pleasantly or unpleasantly experienced with opposite downstream effects on motivation and job performance. We test our model in two field studies usin...
Presentation
In this study, we extend past research by examining the benefits of gratitude for the larger group. First, we investigate the role of gratitude in evoking courtesy behaviors directed at one’s coworkers as opposed to a specific dyadic individual. Second, answering calls to understand how gratitude can be cultivated, we investigate whether gratitude...
Article
We develop and test an integrative model explaining why victims of workplace social undermining become perpetrators of undermining. Conceptualizing social undermining as a norm-violating and a resource-depleting experience, we theorize that undermining victimization lowers interpersonal justice perceptions and depletes self-regulatory resources, an...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness research activity is surging within organizational science. Emerging evidence across multiple fields suggests that mindfulness is fundamentally connected to many aspects of workplace functioning, but this knowledge base has not been systematically integrated to date. This review coalesces the burgeoning body of mindfulness scholarship i...
Article
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We propose a novel temporal-based theory of how a painful social comparative emotion-job search envy-transmutes as deviant or normative job search behaviors (resume fraud or search effort). We theorize that as job searches progress across time or discrete events, temporal-based pressure increases via perceptions that situations are less changeable...
Article
We explore the antecedents of workplace ostracism and delineate possible organizational interventions to deter ostracism. Under the lens of evolutionary psychology we argue that individuals deemed capable of contributing to social and organizational goals become valued group members while those who threaten group stability and viability risk being...
Article
We propose a dynamic reciprocal relationship between abusive supervision and subordinate performance (i.e., task performance, citizenship behaviors, and deviance) in which subordinate performance promotes changes in abusive supervision and the altered abusive supervision, in turn, fuels further changes in subordinate performance. Drawing from theor...
Article
We examine the relationship between friendship contact status and coworker undermining in the workplace to determine whether employees who have high-status friends enjoy protection from coworker undermining or experience greater undermining instead. We also examine the moderating effects of core self-evaluations and personal friendship network dens...
Article
In this symposium, we aim to enrich theoretical understanding of the mindfulness literature by offering new developments in research on mindfulness at work. The set of papers in this symposium covers a broad spectrum of key outcomes in the workplace, including resilience, psychological well-being, social relationships, and leadership. Collectively,...
Conference Paper
Workplace envy, defined as the negative feelings and thoughts aroused when employees lack or desire coworkers’ superior qualities, achievements, or possessions, has captured the interest of organizational researchers and practitioners. A small but growing body of literature examines the consequences of workplace envy but more theoretical and empiri...
Article
Full-text available
We integrate moral disengagement, social identification, and social norms theories to develop, test, and replicate a model that explains how and when envy is associated with social undermining. In Study 1, a two-wave study of hospital employees, results support the prediction that the mediated effect of envy on social undermining behavior through m...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we argue that state and trait mindfulness and mindfulness-based practices in the workplace should enhance employee outcomes. First, we review the existing literature on mindfulness, provide a brief history and definition of the construct, and discuss its beneficial effects on physical and psychological health. Second, we delineate...
Article
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The moral exclusion literature identifies three previously unexamined predictors of abusive supervision: supervisor perceptions of deep-level dissimilarity, relationship conflict, and subordinate performance. Invoking theory and research on workplace diversity, relationship conflict, and victim precipitation, we model the three predictors as associ...
Article
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The authors selectively review the literature on newcomer socialization in organizational settings and develop a social capital model of the organizational socialization process. The model highlights the roles of (1) socialization factors (i.e., organizational socialization tactics and newcomer proactivity) in facilitating newcomer accessibility to...
Article
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The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance relationship....
Article
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We extend emotional-labor research by developing a time-based theory of the effects of emotion regulation in emotional-labor performance. Drawing on Gross's (1998a) process model, we argue that antecedent- and response-focused regulatory styles can be used to make differential predictions about outcomes such as performance, health, and antisocial b...
Article
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Two studies tested the relationship between three facets of personality—conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience—as well as moral identity, on individuals’ ethical ideology. Study 1 showed that moral personality and the centrality of moral identity to the self were associated with a more principled (versus expedient) ethical ide...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews recent studies examining the link between employee envy and a host of organizational outcomes at the individual and group level, from poorer leadermember exchange, lower job satisfaction, less liking for co-workers, lower organizationbased self-esteem, lower group performance, higher turnover, higher absence rates, higher socia...
Article
We developed and tested a theory of the relationship between merit pay raises and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. We predicted that the positive relationship between merit pay raise size and OBSE would be stronger when pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were high and predicted further that thi...
Article
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The authors developed an integrated model of the relationships among abusive supervision, affective organizational commitment, norms toward organization deviance, and organization deviance and tested the framework in 2 studies: a 2-wave investigation of 243 supervised employees and a cross-sectional study of 247 employees organized into 68 work gro...
Article
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The authors developed a model of how raise expectations influence the relationship between merit pay raises and employee reactions and tested it using a sample of hospital employees. Pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were consistently related to personal reactions (e.g., pay raise happiness, pay-level satisfaction, and turnover intentions). Mer...
Article
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The authors developed a multilevel interactive model for predicting social loafing behavior in groups and tested this model in a study of 367 individuals working in 102 groups during a 4-month period. Study results revealed the importance of integrating both person (preference for group work and winning orientation) and situation (task interdepende...
Article
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We develop an integrative theory regarding the effects of mean levels and dispersion of satisfaction predicting absenteeism. Differential interactive predictions are derived for two satisfaction foci and tested in two distinct samples. Among student teams, absenteeism from team meetings was highest when team (internally focused) satisfaction mean a...
Article
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The authors developed and tested a multilevel interactive model of the relationship between group undermining and individual undermining behavior in 2 multiwave studies of group members. Integrating the literature on group influences on individual behavior with the individual difference literature, the authors predicted a 3-way Group Undermining x...
Article
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We used data collected from a field survey of 334 supervisor–subordinate dyads to test a model of the antecedents of abusive supervision. Path analytic tests of moderated mediation provided support for our prediction that supervisors' depression mediates the relationship between supervisors' procedural justice and subordinates' perceptions of their...
Article
We developed a fairness theory perspective to explain the experience of being “singled out” for social undermining from supervisors and coworkers, and tested our predictions across four distinct social contexts. We argued and predicted that attitudinal and behavioral reactions to undermining (from supervisors and coworkers) would be strongest when...
Article
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A theory of turnover, social capital losses, and store performance was developed and tested in 38 locations of a restaurant chain. We assessed the ability of social capital losses to predict variance in store-level performance above and beyond that predicted by overall turnover rate and in-role performance losses from turnover. We further predicted...
Article
Purpose - To propose new commitment construct-policy commitment, and to examine the influence of attitude, role clarity, and role conflict on policy commitment, as well as the influence of policy commitment on citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach - Using a self-report questionnaire and a sample of 148 workers in a rural manufacturing p...
Article
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The authors developed and tested the prediction that the relationship hetween coworkers' organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and fellow employees' attitudes depends on the supervisors' abusiveness. Results of a longitudinal study using data collected from 173 supervised employees at 2 points in time (separated by 7 months) suggested that co...
Article
The impact of workplace violence on occupational stress and well being is garnering increasing attention. Despite the fact that workplace violence has been identified as a critical organizational safety and health issue, there has been limited scholarly focus on the problem of domestic or intimate partner violence in the workplace. This paper exami...
Article
Full-text available
The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and rea...
Article
This study explored the moderating role of subordinate-supervisor demographic dissimilarity on the relationship between supervisor behaviors and employee outcomes among a sample of middle- and upper-level managers working in Japanese-owned firms in the United States. As predicted, demographic dissimilarity moderated the relationship between supervi...
Conference Paper
This study explored the moderating role of subordinate-supervisor demographic dissimilarity on the relationship between supervisor behaviors and employee outcomes among a sample of middle- and upper-level managers working in Japanese-owned firms in the United States. As predicted, demographic dissimilarity moderated the relationship between supervi...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and supervisors' evaluations of subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) was explored among a sample of 373 Air National Guard members and their military supervisors. As predicted, the relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' OCB was stronger...
Article
Full-text available
An interactive model of social undermining and social support in the workplace was developed and tested among police officers in the Republic of Slovenia. As predicted, social undermining was significantly associated with employee outcomes, in most cases more strongly than was social support. High levels of undermining and support from the same sou...
Article
Full-text available
An interactive model of social undermining and social support in the workplace was developed and tested among police officers in the Republic of Slovenia. As predicted, social undermining was significantly associated with employee outcomes, in most cases more strongly than was social support. High levels of undermining and support from the same sou...
Article
This paper reports the development of a team reward attitude construct and intial validation of a measure in a longitudinal study of team members (initial n = 566). Confirmatory factor analysis results provide support for a revised 9-item scale in two different time periods separated by four months. The measure was positively related to other team-...
Article
Full-text available
Results of a study using data collected at 2 points in time, separated by 6 months, suggested that subordinates resisted their supervisors' downward influence tactics with greater frequency when their supervisors were more abusive and that subordinates' personality moderated the effects of abusive supervision. The relationship between abusive super...
Article
This study examined the direct and interactive relationships of interdependence (task and reward) and preference for group work on the satisfaction and performance of group members. Hypotheses were tested among a sample of task-performing group members over a four-month period (N’s = 328–432). Consistent with a “community of fate” perspective, hier...
Article
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Drawing upon behavioral plasticity argimients, we posited that self-esteem is an important factor explaining the effects of two group characteristics, relationship conflict and task interdependence, on group memhers' performance and satisfaction. Results hased on data from a sample of individuals working in classroom groups over a four-month period...
Article
In this study, we proposed and tested an interaction between positive affectivity (PA) and job satisfaction in predicting two organizationally relevant job attitudes, frustration and intention to quit. Specifically, we predicted that job satisfaction would be strongly and negatively related to frustration and intention to quit among high-PA, but no...
Article
Full-text available
A model of the impact of envy in groups is proposed and tested in a longitudinal study of 143 groups. Envy was directly and negatively related to group performance. Moreover, envy indirectly influenced group performance, absenteeism, and group satisfaction by increasing social loafing and reducing both group potency and cohesion. This study provide...
Article
This study examines the relationship of two dispositional factors, positive and negative affect (PA and NA), with multi-dimensional pay satisfaction. Among a sample of 194 full- and part-time employees in two southern states, PA explained significant variance in pay satisfaction after controlling for actual salary levels, overall job satisfaction,...
Article
This study examines the relationship of two dispositional factors, positive and negative affect (PA and NA), with multi-dimensional pay satisfaction. Among a sample of 194 full- and part-time employees in two southern states, PA explained significant variance in pay satisfaction after controlling for actual salary levels, overall job satisfaction,...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the authors proposed and tested a 3-way interaction among positive affectivity (PA), job satisfaction, and tenure in predicting negative employee outcomes. Specifically, the authors predicted that the relationship between job satisfaction and negative outcomes would be stronger for high PAs and that this relationship would be more pr...
Article
In this study, the authors proposed and tested a 3-way interaction among positive affectivity (PA),job satisfaction, and tenure in predicting negative employee outcomes. Specifically, the authors predicted that the relationship between job satisfaction and negative outcomes would be stronger for high PAs and that this relationship would be more pro...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 1998. "May 1998." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 126-140).