Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray

Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray
Northern Illinois University · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

95
Publications
198,188
Reads
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5,893
Citations
Citations since 2016
35 Research Items
3506 Citations
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Introduction
I am a Professor of School Psychology in the Psychology Department at Northern Illinois University. I am interested in the measurement of social support and how social support is related to outcomes for youth. I am also interested in bullying and victimization in schools, including cyber-bullying and bystander behavior.
Education
August 1992 - May 1998
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Field of study
  • School Psychology

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
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The current study examined the role of moral disengagement in cyberbullying participant role behavior among college-aged individuals. Participants included 434 students who completed surveys measuring their participation in cyberbullying, including online bystander role behaviors, as well as their moral disengagement. Regression analysis results in...
Article
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Nearly 4 million adolescents in the United States experience clinical depression, and this alarming rate has increased in recent years. Adolescents' perceptions of their school's climate may moderate the association between victimization and depressive symptoms, including suicidality; however, it is unclear whether perceived school climate would ac...
Article
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Bullying-related behaviors have been a problem in schools for decades. Unfortunately, engagement in such behavior is associated with a variety of poor outcomes, and thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon as well as associated variables, such as perceived teacher support and classmate support. Importantly, research...
Chapter
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Abstract Bullying has been associated with many negative outcomes including academic, social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties. The extent of the negative impact on bullying, coupled with the attention directed towards bullying by the media and schools, has led to the development of bullying laws in all fifty U.S. states. These laws focus on...
Article
Defending in bullying is a complex, yet important behavior that is likely associated with individual characteristics and group factors that operate simultaneously in the classroom microsystem. However, little research has longitudinally analyzed the role of multiple promoting factors at both the individual and classroom level. Drawing on the social...
Article
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It is important to understand the mechanisms behind student academic engagement, as engagement in school is associated with a host of positive outcomes. As children mature, their peers become more important compared to adults in regard to their emotional engagement in school. Thus, this study sought to examine an aspect of peer relations, bullying‐...
Article
Students with mental health difficulties are at increased risk for victimization, and this risk may be exacerbated during the transition to middle school, when there is an increase in bullying behaviors. Through a social-ecological lens, the present study investigated how internalizing and externalizing problems in the fall of fifth grade were asso...
Article
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Students often hear their peers use biased language regarding race, religion, sexual orientation, or disability status in the school setting. Prior research has indicated that biased language is related to school climate, and specifically to school-based relationships between peers and between students and their teachers. This study investigated th...
Article
Students at risk of suicide can be identified effectively through school-based prevention programs such as Signs of Suicide (SOS), which incorporate both psychoeducation and screening components. Prior research has focused on high school students; however, there is limited research in middle schools, and even less is known of school staff’s respons...
Article
Bullying behavior is understood as a complex social phenomenon that includes many, and sometimes overlapping, bullying participant behaviors. The current study utilized latent profile analysis (LPA) at two time points approximately one year apart and examined what bullying participant behavior groups emerged based on students' reported levels of bu...
Article
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Although some research has evidenced a negative association between involvement in bullying and academic performance, more work is needed to understand the associations between academic performance and involvement in a more comprehensive range of bully role behaviors. The goals of the current study were to determine (a) the associations among a bro...
Article
The current study examined (a) the associations of COVID-19 stress with anxiety and depression and whether those associations differed by gender or grade level, and (b) how different coping strategies mitigated the associations of COVID-19 stress with anxiety and depression. During remote learning due to COVID-19, data were collected from 2,738 stu...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting stay-at-home orders created a need for assessing elementary, middle, and high school students’ experienced stressors associated with the coronavirus situation. In collaboration with a school district wanting information about their students’ well-being during the pandemic school shut-down, the current study inves...
Chapter
Decades of research have shown the range of negative outcomes associated with bullying and cyberbullying, and it is a topic that has received national attention from media, educators, parents, researchers, and legislators. Today, many youth have experienced some type of involvement in cyberbullying whether through perpetration, being victimized, an...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether student perceptions of school climate were associated with traditional and cyber bullying participant behaviors over the course of a school year. Additionally, gender was explored as a moderator in the associations between school climate perceptions and bullying participant behaviors. Data...
Article
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Background Resource control theory posits that individuals may utilize prosocial and/or coercive strategies to access social resources. Resource control theory has utility for understanding adolescents’ engagement in bullying role behaviors. Objective The current study examined direct associations between bullying role behaviors (i.e., bullying, v...
Article
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Conoley et al. (2020) called for an increased emphasis on models of psychological service delivery that are primarily indirect, adult-focused, and geared toward systems-level change in the schools. They asserted that research in school psychology should not focus on the problems of individual children and youth but address the “powerful ecosystems”...
Article
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Using a stigma-based bullying framework, the current study investigated how (a) disability status was related to bullying-related behaviors when controlling for gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status; (b) gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status moderated the associations of disability status with bullying-related behavi...
Article
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Grit has been defined as passionate perseverance toward long‐term challenging goals and it is associated with various positive outcomes for youth, including academic achievement. However, less is known about these associations for the two facets of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interest) and few studies have examined the link b...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to identify how defending behaviors in bullying overlap with bullying behaviors and victimization experiences using an empirical approach. Furthermore, an additional goal was to examine internalizing problems associated with these bullying role behaviors. Data on students' defending and bullying behaviors, victi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Decades of research have shown the range of negative outcomes associated with bullying and cyberbullying, and it is a topic that has received national attention from media, educators, parents, researchers, and legislators. The goal of this chapter is to describe current laws related to bullying and cyberbullying, examine existing research about the...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to explore the association between peer victimization and school engagement and the indirect effects of rumination and depressive symptoms in this association. Data on middle school students’ victimization experiences, school engagement, rumination, and depressive symptoms were collected from 887 sixth- through...
Article
The purpose of the current study is to investigate social support (from parents, classmates, teachers, and close friends) as a protective factor in the association between depression and suicidal ideation. Data on students’ levels of social support, depression, and suicidal ideation were collected from 399 9th‐grade students using the Child and Ado...
Article
The current study investigated the relations among traditional and cyber victimization, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and gender in a school-based sample of 403 9th grade (13 to 16-year-old) adolescents. Path analyses indicated that both traditional victimization and cyber victimization were associated with suicidal ideation indirectly th...
Article
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Bullying is a process of direct (i.e., youth who bully and are victimized) and indirect (i.e., bystanders) social exchanges. Though researchers often examine social and emotional correlates of bullying role behaviors, it is important to also consider the underlying cognitive processes associated with different bullying roles such as socially orient...
Article
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Background Peer bullying is associated with internalizing problems for children and adolescents. However, less is known about how these same behaviors are related to student well-being when they occur within the context of the sibling relationship and how supportive behavior may benefit those experiencing bullying. Objective The purpose of this st...
Article
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Cyber victimization is a contemporary problem facing youth and adolescents (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Kowalski & Limber, 2007). It is imperative for researchers and school personnel to understand the associations between cyber victimization and student social-emotional outcomes. This article explores (a) gender differences in rates of cy...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to understand the association between bullying experiences (i.e., bullying, victimization, and defending) and social, emotional, and cognitive factors. The social factor was social skills (i.e., empathy, assertion, cooperation, responsibility); the emotional factor was emotional difficulties (i.e., personal adju...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to understand the association between bullying experiences (i.e., bullying, victimization, and defending) and social, emotional, and cognitive factors. The social factor was social skills (i.e., empathy, assertion, cooperation, responsibility); the emotional factor was emotional difficulties (i.e., personal adju...
Article
Adolescent stressors coupled with environmental demands, such as pressures to achieve, might lead to negative outcomes for some students. Students who worry about their ability to meet high standards might be more at risk of internalizing problems. The current study investigated the relations among perfectionism, social support, and internalizing p...
Article
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Some evidence suggests that teachers may have a negative bias against and be less accurate in academic judgments of students with behavioral characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, examining the accuracy of their judgments is an important area of investigation. The current study examined the accuracy of teachers’ j...
Article
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The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-, fourth-...
Article
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Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and the Beh...
Article
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The goal of the current study was to further establish the reliability and validity of the Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire (BPBQ), a self-report survey that allows for an examination of participation in various bullying participant role behaviors including bully, assistant to the bully, victim, defender of the victim, and outsider. The...
Article
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This study explored the relations among self-reported bully participant role behaviors (i.e., bullying, assisting, experiencing victimization, defending, and outsider behavior) and self-reported social skills (i.e., cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self-control) among boys and girls. The sample consisted of 636 middle school students (52% boys,...
Article
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The search for a brief, economical, but psychometrically sound universal screening tool for social and emotional behavior problems that meets the unique needs of a particular school can be very difficult. The goal of this paper is to critically review and evaluate five common social-emotional and behavioral screeners: Behavioral and Emotional Scree...
Article
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Cyber or electronic bullying is a growing problem among school-aged children and research on cyberbullying is still relatively young. The primary purposes of the current study were: (a) to investigate gender and grade level differences among cyber victims (b) to investigate the overlap between traditional victimization and cyber victimization and (...
Article
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Background: Bullying behavior is related to higher levels of internalizing distress and can be defined as including three aspects: frequency, intentionality, and power differential. However, bullying behavior is most often measured using only one aspect: frequency. Objective The current study investigated the relative importance of several importan...
Chapter
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OVERVIEW Social support is a crucial construct in the lives of youth. Social support refers to general and specific supportive behaviors from people that enhance a youth's functioning and/or may buffer him or her from negative outcomes (Malecki & Demaray, 2002). Thus, social support may be a sense of feeling loved or cared for by parents or teacher...
Article
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Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of a total of 140 middle school studen...
Article
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Bullying is a growing problem in many schools today, and accurate perceptions of bullying and victimization in schools are necessary in order for programs aimed at intervention for bullying behaviors to be effective. The current study examined agreement among students', teachers', and parents' perceptions of victimization across gender and grade le...
Article
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Understanding the relationship among weight status, body dissatisfaction, and social support is essential to addressing childhood obesity. To address the lack of reliable and valid measurement tools to assess social support specifically for healthy behaviors pertaining to childhood obesity, a new measure was developed, the Child and Adolescent Soci...
Article
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Peer victimization is an enduring problem in schools (Wang, Iannotti, & Nansel, 200945. Wang , J. , Iannotti , R. and Nansel , T. 2009 . School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber . Journal of Adolescent Health , 45 : 368 – 375 . doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.021 View all references). The cur...
Chapter
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Many chapters in this book and many years' worth of research are devoted to preventing crisis situations from happening in schools; but unfortunately, crisis events of many kinds will happen. Thus, the task for educators is to find ways to build resilient school communities that might prevent certain types of crises and to be prepared for those cri...
Article
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The current study investigated the stability of peer victimization and the impact of the timing and duration of victimization on psychological and academic outcomes for boys and girls on a sample of 863 middle school students. Results demonstrated strong support for the onset hypothesis and concurrent effects of maladjustment in anxiety, depression...
Chapter
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Engaging in bullying and other violent behavior is influenced by characteristics of the individual, family, peers, school, and community; thus, researchers have focused on understanding the many ecological and contextual variables surrounding bullying and school violence. This chapter focuses on one such contextual factor: perceptions of social sup...
Article
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This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH Gr...
Chapter
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Even for people not well-versed in research, intuitively social support seems essential for a pos-itive, healthy life for people throughout the lifespan. Focusing on childhood and adolescence, it is easy to see how having a loving, caring parent; a supportive, honest, and sharing friend; or an information-sharing, accessible teacher would be buildi...
Article
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The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psycho...
Article
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The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived frequency and perceived importance of social support with youth's self-concept. Data from a large representative sample of 921 children and adolescents in grades 3 through 12 were analyzed. Results indicated that the relationships between the frequency of social suppor...
Article
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The current study is an investigation of early adolescents' perceptions of social support from parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends, and how that support is related to measures of students' adjustment on a range of behavioral indices. Data were collected on a sample of 246 students in Grades 6 through 8 using the Child and Adolescent So...
Article
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The present study is a preliminary investigation of the potential mediating role in the relationship between levels of victimization and students' adjustment for a sample of urban, predominantly Latino middle school students. A sample of 142 sixth through eighth grade students completed self-report measures including: (a) the Child and Adolescent S...
Article
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The purpose of the current preliminary study was to examine the levels of perceived social support by adolescents in the US and Finland. American research has demonstrated that high perceived levels of social support can buffer adolescents against many negative psychosocial symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and low self-esteem and is a necessar...
Article
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Although it is important to study the negative outcomes experienced by victims of bullying, it is equally important to study the factors that may buffer victims from distress. Thus, the relationship among social support, victimization, and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying was investigated. Participants were 355 middle school stude...
Chapter
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This chapter presents information on assessment strategies for social behaviors in schools that may be used in a problem-solving approach that incorporates response to intervention (RTI). As a point of communication, although many associate RTI solely as a method for identifying and qualifying students for special education services, this chapter d...
Article
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The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of social support on academic performance for students living in poverty. Data were collected in one urban middle school from 164 primarily Hispanic students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000) and students' course gr...
Article
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Bullying is a significant problem in schools across America. Educators are dealing with the problem of bullying through the implementation of various anti-bullying programs. Additionally, researchers are studying the problem and have begun to focus on the importance of contextual factors surrounding bullying such as social support (Beran & Tutty, 2...