Michelangelo Pascale

Michelangelo Pascale
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Sciences of Food Production ISPA

Chemistry

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139
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Publications (139)
Article
Full-text available
The sampling protocols for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs are very costly and time-consuming. More efforts are needed to implement alternative sampling plans able to support official control, or to adapt the current ones. The aim of the research carried out within the European Horizon 2020 MycoKey project was to eval...
Article
Full-text available
Natural toxins include a wide range of toxic metabolites also occurring in food and products, thus representing a risk for consumer health. In the last few decades, several robust and sensitive analytical methods able to determine their occurrence in food have been developed. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is the most powerful tool for the...
Article
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with mass spectrometry-based electronic nose (MS-eNose), in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was used as untargeted method for the rapid authentication of 100% Italian durum wheat pasta. Among the tested classification models, i.e. PCA-LDA, PLS-DA and SVMc, SVMc provided the...
Article
Full-text available
Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides selected by SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment) able to discriminate target molecules with high affinity and specificity, even in the case of very closely related structures. Aptamers have been produced for several targets including small molecules like mycotoxins; however,...
Article
Full-text available
An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trichothecenes—namely, nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3- and 15-acetyl-DON), T-2 and HT-2 toxins—and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat, wheat flour, and wheat crackers was validated through a collaborative study involving 15 participants from 10 countries. Th...
Article
Full-text available
An assessment of the natural ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure of seven Martina Franca jennies was carried out by analyzing blood and milk samples collected close to and after delivery. A total of 41 and 34 blood samples were collected from jennies and foals, respectively, and analyzed by ELISA. A total of 33 milk samples were collected from jennies and...
Article
Full-text available
Italy is the country with the largest durum wheat pasta production and consumption. The mandatory labelling for pasta indicating the country of origin of wheat has made consumers more aware about the consumed pasta products and is influencing their choice towards 100% Italian wheat pasta. This aspect highlights the need to promote the use of domest...
Article
Full-text available
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins are very common in food crops, with noticeable differences in their host specificity in terms of pathogenicity and toxin contamination. In addition, such crops may be infected with mixtures of mycotoxigenic fungi, resulting in multi-mycotoxin contamination. Climate represents the key factor in driving the fungal commu...
Article
Full-text available
Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) represents the most powerful metabolomics platform to investigate biological systems. Reproducible and standardized workflows allow obtaining a meaningful biological interpretation. The purpose of this study was to set up and apply an open-source workflow for LC-HRMS pla...
Article
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Different batches of biomass/feed quality maize contaminated by aflatoxins were processed at the industrial scale (a continuous process and separate discontinuous steps) to evaluate the effect of different cleaning solutions on toxin reduction. The investigated cleaning solutions included: (i) mechanical size separation of coarse, small and broken...
Article
Full-text available
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by some Aspergillus spp. fungi affecting many crops and feed materials. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFB1, is the main AFB1-related compound present in milk, and it is categorized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a “group 1 human carcinogen”....
Article
Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy, in combination with Partial-Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), was used to discriminate commercial durum wheat pasta from Italy and Argentina for common wheat adulteration. Samples were analyzed by both near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, FT-MIR...
Article
Natural dietary exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) has been previously reported for horses and their foals, but no data are currently available for donkeys. The present study was aimed to assess the natural OTA exposure of seven Martina Franca jennies by analyzing feed samples and blood and milk collected every 15 days from jennies during late pregnanc...
Article
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a worldwide occurring mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi especially during unfavorable storage of cereals, with nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic and reprotoxic activity. Although it has been shown that monogastric animals have high sensitivity to OTA, no data are available on natural exposure of Marti...
Article
A flow injection - mass spectrometry method for rapid glyphosate detection in food commodities was developed and validated. The sample preparation protocol included a simple and rapid extract purification step through polymeric solid phase extraction cartridges followed by addition of isotopically labeled glyphosate to the final test sample. The op...
Article
The co-occurrence of regulated mycotoxins in foods and feeds, together with modified (“masked”) and emerging mycotoxins, has been increasingly reported worldwide in recent years. Therefore, sensitive, accurate, and validated methods for the simultaneous determination of these hazardous contaminants in different matrices are highly demanded to fulfi...
Article
Full-text available
Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with principal component-linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA), was used for tracing the geographical origin of durum wheat samples. The classification model PC-LDA was applied to discriminate durum wheat samples originating from Northern, Central, and Southern Italy (n = 181), a...
Article
Full-text available
T-2 and HT-2 toxins and their main modified forms (T-2 glucoside and HT-2 glucoside) may co-occur in cereals and cereal-based products. A fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was developed for the simultaneous determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and relevant glucosides, expressed as sum. The developed FPIA, using a HT-2-specific antibody...
Article
The use of infrared spectroscopy for the screening of 229 unprocessed durum wheat samples naturally contaminated with OTA has been investigated. Samples were analysed by both Fourier Transform near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, FT-MIR). Partial-Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analys...
Article
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species contaminating maize. At present, fumonisin determination is performed using costly and demanding chromatography techniques or immunoassays. Recently, a molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) - based assay (MINA) has been developed for FB1 detection. Herein,...
Article
The co-occurrence of regulated mycotoxins in foods and feeds, together with modified ("masked") and emerging mycotoxins, has been increasingly reported worldwide in recent years. Therefore, sensitive, accurate, and validated methods for the simultaneous determination of these hazardous contaminants in different matrices are highly demanded to fulfi...
Article
Full-text available
(AFB1) in maize and wheat using LFD and LC-HRMS, respectively. The results of analyses were used to calculate intermediate precision (RSDip, covering the inter-analyst variability in preparing the analytical samples and the precision under repeatability conditions) cut-off values and false suspect rates. RSDip ranged from 6.5% to 30% for DON, and f...
Chapter
This chapter describes different aptamer immobilization chemistries used in the production of aptasensors, providing key examples of the most applied technologies. Aptamer‐based biosensors, assays, and diagnostics hold great potential for applications in medical, food safety, and environmental analyses. Typically, the requirements of the desired an...
Article
An untargeted method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to electronic nose based on mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/MS-eNose) in combination with chemometrics was developed for the discrimination of oranges of three geographical origins (Italy, South Africa and Spain). Three multivariate statistical models, i.e. PCA/LDA, SELECT/LDA and...
Article
BACKGROUND Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common Fusarium mycotoxin occurring in wheat and derived products with several adverse and toxic effects in animals and humans. Although bran fractions produced by milling of wheat have numerous health benefits, cereal bran is the part of the grain with the highest concentration of DON thus representing a...
Article
A strong trend toward using highly selective mass spectrometry technologies for screening of multiple mycotoxins has been observed in recent years. In the present study, the process of validation of a multi‐mycotoxin screening method based on liquid chromatography high‐resolution mass spectrometry method is presented. The method was intended for th...
Article
As determined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warming of the climate system is unequivocal and has been associated with rising sea levels, diminished amounts of ice and snow and increasing oceanic and atmospheric temperatures. Such climate changes have a significant impact on stages and rates of toxigenic fungi development and can...
Article
Analytical performances of a lateral flow immunoassay (AFLA-V AQUATM, Vicam a Waters Business) for the determination of aflatoxins in maize, were evaluated according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 519/2014. This case study showed how a critical evaluation of validation results can provide a quite informative picture of kit performances for its us...
Article
BACKGROUND Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the mycotoxin, mainly produced by Fusarium species, most frequently occurring in cereals and cereal‐based products. Wheat bran is the outer layers of the kernel with a high risk of chemical hazards, including mycotoxins. Rapid methods for DON detection in wheat bran are highly demanded. RESULTS A rapid screening...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was optimized and validated for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in rye and rye crispbread. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (60:40, v/v) and purified by SPE-aminopropyl column clean-up before performing the FPIA. Overall mean recoveries were 86 and 95% for spike...
Chapter
This protocol specifies an accurate and sensitive method for the determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins content in oats and oat-based foods using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. T-2 and HT-2 toxins are extracted from the test material with a mixture of acetonitrile and water. The filtered extract is dried, reconstituted...
Article
Full-text available
A fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized and validated for rapid quantification of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in both unprocessed cereals, including oats, barley and rye, and cereal-based products for direct human consumption, such as oat flakes, oats crispbread and pasta. Samples were extracted with 90 % methanol, and the extract w...
Article
Full-text available
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced as a secondary metabolite by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and frequently found as a natural contaminant in a wide range of food commodities. Novel and robust biorecognition agents for detecting this molecule are required. Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands able to bind with high...
Article
Two Proficiency Testings (PTs) involving eighteen laboratory participants from 10 Countries have been conducted in 2014 for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B1 and B2, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in maize and of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and ochra...
Article
The natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried split ginger purchased from different local markets in Lagos, South West Nigeria has been investigated. A total of 120 ginger samples, 31 collected during the rainy season and 89 during the dry season, were analyzed. Mycotoxins were determined accord...
Article
T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% t...
Conference Paper
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spect...
Article
Full-text available
!--[if gte mso 9]> In the present investigation, an LC-MS/MS method for sensitive multiplex detection of five allergenic ingredients in a processed food matrix is presented. Cookie was chosen as complex food model and was incurred with egg, milk, soy, hazelnuts and peanuts before baking. Extraction, purification and pre-concentration protocols were...
Article
Aptamers are synthetic single-stranded DNA or RNA sequences that can fold into tertiary structures allowing them to interact with and bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. This paper describes the first selection and identification of DNA aptamers able to recognize the biogenic amine tyramine. To successfully isolate aptamers to this...
Book
Full-text available
An estimated 500 million of the poorest people in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia are exposed to mycotoxins at levels that substantially increase mortality and morbidity (Pitt et al., 2012). The problem is not newly recognized. Shortly after the discovery of aflatoxins, the impact on child health was brought into immediate focus. After...
Article
The availability of rapid diagnostic methods for monitoring ochratoxigenic species during the seasoning processes for dry-cured meats is crucial and constitutes a key stage in order to prevent the risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. A rapid, easy-to-perform and non-invasive method using an electronic nose (e-nose) based on metal oxide semicon...
Article
Nucleic acid aptamers are versatile molecular recognition agents that bind to their targets with high selectivity and affinity. The past few years have seen a dramatic increase in aptamer development and interest for diagnostic and therapeutic ap-plications. As the applications for aptamers expand, the need for a more standardized, stringent, and i...
Article
This paper reports a new method for the determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and their glucosylated derivatives in cereals, and some survey data aimed at obtaining more comprehensive information on the co-occurrence of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and their glucosylated derivatives in naturally contaminated cereal samples. For these purposes, barley samples...
Article
Surveys on the occurrence of type A trichothecenes in wheat, and particularly for the T-2 and HT-2 toxins, and information on the biology and epidemiology of the causative Fusarium species (i.e. F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides) are scarce in Italy, as compared to the more common type B trichothecene, deoxynivalenol and its producers. This 4-yea...
Article
Full-text available
Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50-16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large r...
Chapter
This chapter reviews state-of-the-art analytical methods for the determination of major mycotoxins occurring in wheat and wheat-based products. A brief overview is given of emerging technologies, including tandem mass spectrometry, fluorescence polarization immunoassays, immunochromatographic tests, infrared spectroscopy, and biosensors based on su...
Article
The interaction of ochratoxin A (OTA) with heptakis-2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) in aqueous solutions at two different pHs (3.5 and 9.5) was studied by means of spectroscopic, calorimetric and electrochemical techniques. DIMEB affected the physico-chemical properties of OTA. A stronger interaction was observed at pH = 3.5 where the neutra...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat bran and whole-wheat flour. A preliminary treatment with activated charcoal was used to eliminate the strong matrix effect due to highly colored interfering compounds present in raw wheat bran extracts. In partic...
Article
The synthesis of partially hydrolyzed fumonisins (PHFB1 and PHFB2) and hydrolyzed fumonisins (HFB1 and HFB2) by chemical hydrolysis of pure fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) is reported together with the isolation and characterization by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS). Two structural isomers of partially hydrolyzed forms o...
Article
Fungal volatile metabolites can be used as an indicator of mycotoxins occurrence in cereals. A rapid, easy-to-perform and non-invasive method using an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors was developed to distinguish the quality of durum wheat samples in three classes based on the content of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON): class A ([DON...
Article
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC®) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in wheat. Ground sample was extracted with water and the filtered extract was cleaned up through an immunoaffinity column containing a monoclonal antibody specific for DON and NIV. Toxins were s...
Article
A sensitive and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been developed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in naturally contaminated wheat samples. A fluorescein-labeled OTA tracer was synthesized, and its binding response with three monoclonal antibodies was tested. The most sensitive competitive FP immunoassay showed an IC...
Poster
The presence of mycotoxins in animal feed can affect not only animal health but also quality and safety of animal products such as milk, eggs and meat. The aim of the research was to investigate the co-occurrence of mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2), nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 and HT-2 toxin...
Article
Fusarium langsethiae, formally described as a new species over a decade ago, has been identified as the main producer of HT-2 (HT2) and T-2 (T2) toxins in Europe in small cereal grains. Mycotoxin contamination caused by this Fusarium species can represent a food safety hazard that deserves further attention. In the present work, the mycotoxin profi...
Article
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based DNA biosensors have been shown to be rapid, label-free, and selective tools for the detection of PCR products. Here, we describe an SPR sensor based on DNA hybridization for the detection of Fusarium culmorum, a fungal pathogen of wheat. A 0.57 kb DNA fragment of F. culmorum was amplified by specific primers, a...
Article
Full-text available
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...
Poster
High temperatures and excessive humidity are favourable conditions for fungal growth and mycotoxin production in tropical Countries, including Indonesia. Previous surveys carried out in Indonesia on foodstuffs and feedstuffs indicated a high frequency of contamination by aflatoxins. In January 2013 we have carried out a survey on the occurrence of...
Article
Deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins are mycotoxins frequently occurring in cereals and cereal-based products along with their conjugated forms. In this paper, we provide insights into the fate of deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and their glucoside derivatives during bread making, using naturally contaminated wheat flour. High-resolution mass sp...
Article
A new analytical method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in red wine has been developed by using a double-extract cleanup and a fluorometric measurement after spectral deconvolution. Wine samples were diluted with a solution containing 1% polyethylene glycol and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate, filtered, and purified by immunoaffinity and am...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum represent the most abundant species in the Fusarium complex isolated from flowers, soybean pods and seeds in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to assess the production of major type A and type B trichothecenes (diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol) a...
Article
Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of wheat grains depend on multiple factors, above all climatic conditions, but also agronomic factors such as crop rotation, debris management, variety susceptibility and fungicide applications. Although it is generally believed that multiple strategies are more successful th...
Article
The significance of laboratory sample preparation for the determination of two important mycotoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat was investigated by comparing water-slurry mixing and dry-milling procedures. The distribution of OTA and DON in 10 kg samples of naturally contaminated wheat was established by analyzing one hun...
Article
The presence of glucoside derivatives of T-2 and HT-2 toxins (type A trichothecene mycotoxins) in naturally contaminated wheat and oats is reported for the first time. The use of advanced high-resolution mass spectrometry based on Orbitrap technology allowed to obtain molecular structure details by measuring exact masses of main characteristic frag...