Michela Negro

Michela Negro
CRESST-NASA GSFC and University of Maryland Baltimore County · Astrophysics

Doctor of Philosophy

About

91
Publications
73,893
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Introduction
The unresolved gamma-ray background (UGRB) represent the ~20% of the total gamma-ray emission seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board of the Fermi satellite. The number and variety of studies that can be done exploiting this emission is astonishing. We can approach cosmology, large scale structure formation and voids, infere about dark matter and astrophysical neutrinos. The latter are my main interest at the moment: I'm investigating the correlation between TeV neutrinos and the UGRB.
Additional affiliations
October 2015 - October 2018
Università degli Studi di Torino
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • Thesis title:“Unveiling the unresolved gamma-ray background through its angular power spectrum”. Also worked on: - Optical spectroscopy followup of Fermi gamma-ray sources counterparts, which includes (1) in loco observations and data taking (@ NOAO centers in Tucson (USA) and La Serena (Chile)); (2) optical spectra reduction (using PyRAF tools). - Development of the IXPE-Simulation and analysis tool in collaboration with the IXPE team;
Education
September 2009 - July 2014
Università degli Studi di Torino
Field of study
  • Nuclear and sub-nuclear Physics

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
AMEGO-X, the All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory eXplorer, is a proposed instrument designed to bridge the so-called “MeV gap” by surveying the sky with unprecedented sensitivity from ∼100 keV to about 1 GeV. This energy band is of key importance for multimessenger and multiwavelength studies but it is nevertheless currently underexplored....
Preprint
Full-text available
In a black hole X-ray binary (XRB) system, gas accreted from a normal star onto a black hole glows brightly in X-rays. We report on an observation of the XRB Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer IXPE) yielding the first highly significant detection of X-ray polarization from an accreting black hole. The electric vector pol...
Article
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We present an incremental version (4FGL-DR3, for Data Release 3) of the fourth Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of γ -ray sources. Based on the first 12 years of science data in the energy range from 50 MeV to 1 TeV, it contains 6658 sources. The analysis improves on that used for the 4FGL catalog over eight years of data: more sources are...
Preprint
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We report on the first detection of linearly polarized x-ray emission from an ultra-magnetized neutron star with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). The IXPE 35 observations of the anomalous x-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 reveal a linear polarization degree of $(12\pm 1)\%$ throughout the IXPE 2--8 keV band. We detect a substantial variation of...
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After large galaxies merge, their central supermassive black holes are expected to form binary systems whose orbital motion generates a gravitational wave background (GWB) at nanohertz frequencies. Searches for this background utilize pulsar timing arrays, which perform long-term monitoring of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) at radio wavelengths. We use...
Article
After large galaxies merge, their central supermassive black holes are expected to form binary systems. Their orbital motion should generate a gravitational wave background (GWB) at nanohertz frequencies. Searches for this background utilize pulsar timing arrays, which perform long-term monitoring of millisecond pulsars at radio wavelengths. We use...
Preprint
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The last decade has brought about a profound transformation in multimessenger science. Ten years ago, facilities had been built or were under construction that would eventually discover the nature of objects in our universe could be detected through multiple messengers. Nonetheless, multimessenger science was hardly more than a dream. The rewards f...
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Gamma-rays, the most energetic photons, carry information from the far reaches of extragalactic space with minimal interaction or loss of information. They bring messages about particle acceleration in environments so extreme they cannot be reproduced on earth for a closer look. Gamma-ray astrophysics is so complementary with collider work that par...
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We analyze the angular power spectrum (APS) of the unresolved gamma-ray background (UGRB) emission and combine it with the measured properties of the resolved gamma-ray sources of the \Fermi-LAT 4FGL catalog. Our goals are to dissect the composition of the gamma-ray sky and to establish the relevance of different classes of source populations of ac...
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The sky at MeV energies is currently poorly explored. Here we present an innovative mission concept and we outline the scientific motivation for combining a coded mask and a Compton telescope. The Galactic Explorer with a Coded Aperture Mask Compton Telescope (GECCO) is a novel concept for a next-generation telescope covering hard X-ray and soft ga...
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Scheduled to launch in late 2021, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a NASA Small Explorer Mission in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The mission will open a new window of investigation - imaging X-ray polarimetry. The observatory features 3 identical telescopes each consisting of a mirror module assembly with a pol...
Preprint
The Fermi Bubbles (FB) are a pair of large-scale ellipsoidal structures extending above and below the Galactic plane almost symmetrically aligned with the Galactic Center. After more than 10 years since their discovery, their nature and origin remain unclear. Unveiling the primary emission mechanisms, whether hadronic or leptonic, is considered the...
Preprint
Full-text available
AMEGO-X, the All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-Ray Observatory eXplorer, is a proposed instrument designed to bridge the so-called "MeV gap" by surveying the sky with unprecedented sensitivity from ~100 keV to about one GeV. This energy band is of key importance for multi-messenger and multi-wavelength studies but it is nevertheless currently under-explo...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous extended sources around Galactic pulsars have shown significant γ-ray emission from GeV to TeV energies, revealing hundreds of TeV energy electrons scattering off of the underlying photon fields through inverse Compton scattering (ICS). HAWC TeV gamma-ray observations of few-degree extended emission around the pulsars Geminga and Monogem,...
Preprint
This paper explores the potential of AstroPix, a project to develop Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) pixels for the next generation of space-based high-energy astrophysics experiments. Multimessenger astrophysics is a rapidly developing field whose upcoming missions need support from new detector technology such as AstroPix. ATLASPix,...
Article
This paper explores the potential of AstroPix, a project to develop Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) pixels for the next generation of space-based high-energy astrophysics experiments. Multimessenger astrophysics is a rapidly developing field whose upcoming missions need support from new detector technology such as AstroPix. ATLASPix,...
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Full-text available
The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary instrument for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 30 MeV to more than 300 GeV. We describe the performance of the instrument at the 10-year milestone. LAT performance remains well within th...
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We present the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of long-term $\gamma$-ray transient sources (1FLT). This comprises sources that were detected on monthly time intervals during the first decade of Fermi-LAT operations. The monthly time scale allows us to identify transient and variable sources that were not yet reported in other Fermi-L...
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Magnetars are the most highly magnetized neutron stars in the cosmos (with magnetic field 1013–1015 G). Giant flares from magnetars are rare, short-duration (about 0.1 s) bursts of hard X-rays and soft γ rays1,2. Owing to the limited sensitivity and energy coverage of previous telescopes, no magnetar giant flare has been detected at gigaelectronvol...
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Cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known to arise from distinct progenitor channels: short GRBs mostly from neutron star mergers and long GRBs from a rare type of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) called collapsars. Highly magnetized neutron stars called magnetars also generate energetic, short-duration gamma-ray transients called magnetar giant...
Preprint
We present the first Fermi - Large Area Telescope (LAT) solar flare catalog covering the 24 th solar cycle. This catalog contains 45 Fermi -LAT solar flares (FLSFs) with emission in the gamma-ray energy band (30 MeV - 10 GeV) detected with a significance greater than 5 sigma over the years 2010-2018. A subsample containing 37 of these flares exhibi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are known to arise from distinct progenitor channels: short GRBs mostly from neutron star mergers and long GRBs from a rare type of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) called collapsars. Highly magnetized neutron stars called magnetars also generate energetic, short-duration gamma-ray transients called Magnetar Giant...
Preprint
This paper details preliminary photon measurements with the monolithic silicon detector ATLASPix, a pixeldetector built and optimized for the CERN experiment ATLAS. The goal of this paper is to determine thepromise of pixelated silicon in future space-based gamma-ray experiments. With this goal in mind, radioactivephoton sources were used to determ...
Preprint
Numerous extended sources around Galactic pulsars have shown significant $\gamma$-ray emission from GeV to TeV energies, revealing hundreds of TeV energy electrons scattering off of the underlying photon fields through inverse Compton scattering (ICS). HAWC TeV gamma-ray observations of few-degree extended emission around the pulsars Geminga and Mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate the use of deep learning in the context of X-ray polarization detection from astrophysical sources as will be observed by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE), a future NASA selected space-based mission expected to be operative in 2021. In particular, we propose two models that can be used to estimate the impact point as wel...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 190114C by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory . The prompt gamma-ray emission was detected by the Fermi GRB Monitor (GBM), the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the long-lived afterglow emission was subsequent...
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GRB 131108A is a bright long Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) detected by the Large Area Telescope and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on board the \textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. Dedicated temporal and spectral analyses reveal three $\gamma$-ray flares dominating above 100 MeV, which are not directly related to the prompt emission in the GBM band (10 k...
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We report on the observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 190114C by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. The early-time observations reveal multiple emission components that evolve independently, with a delayed power-law component that exhibits significant spectral attenuation above 40 MeV in the first few secon...
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The HAWC Collaboration released the 2HWC catalog of TeV sources, in which 19 show no association with any known high-energy (HE; E > 10 GeV) or very-high-energy (VHE; E > 300 GeV) sources. This catalog motivated follow-up studies by both the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observatories with the aim of investigating gamma-ray emission over a broad energy band....
Article
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The third Fermi source catalog lists 3033 γ-ray sources above 4σ significance. More than 30% are classified as either unidentified/unassociated Gamma-ray sources (UGSs), with about 20% classified as Blazar candidates of uncertain types (BCUs). To confirm the blazar-like nature of candidate counterparts of UGSs and BCUs, we started in 2012 an optica...
Article
Full-text available
The gamma-ray sky has been observed with unprecedented accuracy in the last decade by the Fermi -large area telescope (LAT), allowing us to resolve and understand the high-energy Universe. The nature of the remaining unresolved emission [unresolved gamma-ray background (UGRB)] below the LAT source detection threshold can be uncovered by characteriz...
Preprint
Full-text available
The gamma-ray sky has been observed with unprecedented accuracy in the last decade by the Fermi large area telescope (LAT), allowing us to resolve and understand the high-energy Universe. The nature of the remaining unresolved emission (unresolved gamma-ray background, UGRB) below the LAT source detection threshold can be uncovered by characterizin...
Presentation
This invited contribution was meant to give an overview of auto- and cross-correlation studies involving the unresolved gamma-ray background, and future prospects.
Article
Full-text available
The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) collaboration recently published their 2HWC catalog, listing 39 very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-ray sources based on 507 days of observation. Among these, 19 sources are not associated with previously known teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-ray sources. We have studied 14 of these sources without known cou...
Presentation
The Barolo astroparticle meeting 2018 was devoted to our anisotropic Universe. In this contest I presente my autocorrelation analysis of the unresolved gamma-ray background.
Article
Full-text available
We use joint observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows to investigate the nature of the long-lived high-energy emission observed by Fermi LAT. Joint broadband spectral modeling of XRT and LAT data reveals that LAT nondetections of bright X-ray afterglows are consiste...
Article
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We present a search for spatial extension in high-latitude (|b| > 5°) sources in recent Fermi point source catalogs. The result is the Fermi High-Latitude Extended Sources Catalog, which provides source extensions (or upper limits thereof) and likelihood profiles for a suite of tested source morphologies. We find 24 extended sources, 19 of which we...
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Previous detections of individual astrophysical sources of neutrinos are limited to the Sun and the supernova 1987A, whereas the origins of the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos remain unidentified. On 22 September 2017, we detected a high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, with an energy of e290 tera–electronvolts. Its arrival direction...
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We present the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the binary neutron star merger event GW170817 and the associated short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) GRB 170817A detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. The LAT was entering the South Atlantic Anomaly at the time of the LIGO/Virgo trigger (t GW) and therefore cannot place constraints o...
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Black holes with masses below approximately 10¹⁵ g are expected to emit gamma-rays with energies above a few tens of MeV, which can be detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Although black holes with these masses cannot be formed as a result of stellar evolution, they may have formed in the early universe and are therefore called primord...
Article
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Black holes with masses below approximately 10 15 g are expected to emit gamma rays with energies above a few tens of MeV, which can be detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Although black holes with these masses cannot be formed as a result of stellar evolution, they may have formed in the early Universe and are therefore called Primor...
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On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of with respect to the merger t...
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We present a catalog of sources detected above 10 GeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the first 7 years of data using the Pass 8 event-level analysis. This is the Third Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources (3FHL), containing 1556 objects characterized in the 10 GeV–2 TeV energy range. The sensitivity and angular resolution are improved by f...
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We present the second catalog of flaring gamma-ray sources (2FAV) detected with the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool that blindly searches for transients over the entire sky observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the \textit{Fermi} Gamma-ray Space Telescope. With respect to the first FAVA catalog, this catalog benefits...