Michel Viso

Michel Viso
Innovaxiom

DVM

About

92
Publications
4,228
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700
Citations

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Full-text available
Optical microscopy analyses using thin sections is one of the most standard techniques in geology. It permits identification of most rock-forming minerals and it is essential for micropaleontology since observation in transmitted light is the only way to observe individual, or colonies of, microfossils in their mineralogical and textural context. T...
Article
Full-text available
On the NASA 2020 rover mission to Jezero crater, the remote determination of the texture, mineralogy and chemistry of rocks is essential to quickly and thoroughly characterize an area and to optimize the selection of samples for return to Earth. As part of the Perseverance payload, SuperCam is a suite of five techniques that provide critical and co...
Article
Full-text available
The practical limitations inherent to human and robotic planetary exploration necessitate the development of specific protocols and methods. This non-standard approach requires testing and validation phases in order to optimize instrumental setups and improve data interpretation; this can occur prior to, during, or even after a mission. Flight inst...
Article
The exploration and use of outer space is the province of all humankind. This principle in Article I of the UN Outer Space Treaty guarantees the freedom to explore outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, without discrimination, and to carry out scientific investigations. This freedom, however, comes with a responsibility describ...
Article
To return samples from Mars is a major goal of the scientific community studying the origin of life, looking for extraterrestrial forms of life, and studying the planets and their evolution. NASA and ESA are preparing such a mission which is currently categorized by COSPAR as restricted Earth return. This will strongly constrain the management of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of the H2020-funded EURO-CARES project (grant agreement n° 640190) was to create a roadmap for the implementation of a European Extraterrestrial Sample Curation Facility (ESCF) that would be suitable for the curation of samples from all possible return missions likely over the next few decades, i.e. from the Moon, asteroids and Mars....
Conference Paper
The PPOSS project (Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System) is an initiative supported by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 programme. PPOSS focuses on planetary protection of outer solar bodies, in particular icy moons, and tackles scientific, technological and policy-making challenges raised by this topic. This intensive three yea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most astrobiological investigations have been, and will be focused on solid materials, including rocks, soil, and ices. However, natural materials can be very complex in composition and the potential traces of life and/or molecules of astrobiological interest they could contain may be very subtle and challenging to detect. Hence, the importance of...
Chapter
Article
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In order to reply to the exobiological goals of the 2018 MAX-C/ExoMars mission, the Orléans-OSUC analogue rock collection and database contains well characterised Mars analogue rocks and minerals for use in instrument testing and in situ missions.
Article
In this paper we present the findings of a COSPAR Mars Special Regions Colloquium held in Rome in 2007. We review and discuss the definition of Mars Special Regions, the physical parameters used to define Mars Special Regions, and physical features on Mars that can be interpreted as Mars Special Regions. We conclude that any region experiencing...
Article
Full-text available
73rd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society : New York, NY, July 26-30, 2010
Article
The outer solar system is an important area of investigation for exobiology, the study of life in the universe. Several moons of the outer planets involve processes and structures comparable to those thought to have played an important role in the emergence of life on Earth, such as the formation and exchange of organic materials between different...
Article
Introduction: In preparation for the upcoming International Mars Sample Return mission (MSR), returning samples containing potential biohazards, we have implemented a hyperspec-tral method of in-situ analysis of grains performed in BSL4 quarantine conditions, by combining several non-destructive imaging diagnostics. This allows sample transportatio...
Article
Full-text available
We describe three space experiments designed to expose to space conditions, and more specifically to solar UV radiation, selected samples of organic and mineral material.
Article
A method and a sample holder for analysis in quarantine conditions of Mars return samples is presented.
Article
To understand the evolution of organic molecules involved in extraterrestrial environments and with exobiological implications, many experimental programs in the laboratory are devoted to photochemical studies in the gaseous phase as well as in the solid state. The validity of such studies and their applications to extraterrestrial environments can...
Article
Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how l...
Article
The study of very ancient microfossils has recently raised contentious issues regarding interpretation of the biogenicity of the structures. In situ investigation of certain elements such as sulfur within potential microfossils is a powerful complement to other methods of investigation that can provide valuable information on biogenicity. We presen...
Article
In 2002, NASA issued a Draft Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth, This protocol was developed through an iterative process of discussion and review during the Mars sample handling workshop series gathering scientists from USA and some French. By these times, France and USA were jointly embarked in a proje...
Article
Full-text available
The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to Solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120–200 nm) has been undertaken in low-Earth orbit since the 1990s, and implemented on various space platforms. This paper describes a photochemistry experiment called AMINO, conducted during 22 months...
Article
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It is important for human life in space to study the effects of environmental factors during spaceflight on a number of physiological phenomena. Apoptosis plays important roles in development and tissue homeostasis in metazoans. In this study, we have analyzed apoptotic activity in germ cells of the nematode C. elegans, following spaceflight. Compa...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate whether an altered gravitational environment affected the phenotype of vestibular hair cells during maturation. We developed, using an automated incubator, a 3D culture of utricles from newborn rats. These cultures were subjected to weightlessness for 1 or 3 days, and then compared with control cultures deve...
Article
Full-text available
This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth: it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series. convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by...
Article
Full-text available
Using analyses of iliac crest cell and tissue, back-scattered electron imaging, and biochemical techniques, we characterized the effects of a 14-day spaceflight (Bion 11) on bone structure and bone formation in two 3- to 4-yr-old male rhesus monkeys compared with eight age-matched Earth-control monkeys. We found that postflight bone volume was 35%...
Article
The planetary protection requirements to protect targets planets from Earth microbiological contamination and biocontamination from coming from extraterrestrial samples are presented for every level of a solar system exploration project. The requirements gives to project the team specifications for probe sterilization, microbiological controls and...
Article
In preparation for missions to Mars that will involve the return of samples, it is necessary to prepare for the safe receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth. Previous groups and committees have studied selected aspects of sample return activities, but a specific protocol for handling and testing...
Article
The present COSPAR Planetary Protection policy has been established in order to conduct scientific investigations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, precursors and remnants avoiding to jeopardize such investigations. This policy has led to emit Planetary Protection recommendations in order to control, limit or avoid the biological contaminati...
Article
According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London / Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related p...
Article
We developed a force-feed method for the adults of the newt, Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibian) under microgravity conditions on board the Mir space station, because the animals cannot take food themselves under such conditions. A cosmonaut introduced a catheter through the mouth into the stomach. The catheter was connected to a syringe containi...
Article
The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of microgravity on several endogenous and microbial parameters of digestive physiology. On the occasion of two Spacelab Life Sciences missions, SLS-1 (a 9-day space flight) and SLS-2 (a 14-day space flight), Sprague-Dawley rats flown aboard the US space shuttle were compared to age-matched ground...
Article
The results from the Bion 11 mission were the most comprehensive set of data ever collected on primate physiology and behavior before, during, and after spaceflight. An international team of scientists representing neuromuscular and behavioral, neurosensory, regulatory, and bone physiology disciplines conducted a wide range of studies, which are br...
Article
A summary is provided of the major operations required to conduct the wide range of primate experiments on the Bion 11 mission, which flew for 14 days beginning December 24, 1996. Information is given on preflight preparations, including flight candidate selection and training; attachment and implantation of bioinstrumentation; flight and ground ex...
Article
To ascertain whether there was autonomic adaptation with the development of adrenoceptor hypersensitivity under microgravity, the biochemical properties of the beta-adrenoceptors were determined using (125I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding in rats flown for 18 d onboard the space shuttle. This study was performed on heart and kidneys of 3 groups of...
Article
The dosimetry of cosmic rays was performed during the first experimental flight of the IBIS facility. Different thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) have been used to measure the contribution of the low linear energy transfer component (LET < 10 keV/micrometer) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) for the high linear energy tranfer (LET) compone...
Article
Full-text available
To determine when choroidal structures were restored after readaptation to Earth gravity or orthostatic position, fine structure and protein distribution were studied in rat choroid plexus dissected either 6 h [Space Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) experiments] or 2 days [National Institutes of Health-Rodent 1 (NIH-R1) experiments] after a spaceflight, or...
Article
The incidence of an 18 day chair-restraint on the digestive physiology of male rhesus monkey was investigated for space research purposes, comparing four trained restraint subjects with two vivarium controls. Chair-restraint induced a 2.5-fold acceleration of the gastrointestinal transit time, which persisted throughout the 7 day postrestraint peri...
Article
The purpose of this study was to characterize the hormonal responses to a restraining system in four adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in preparation for a spaceflight project. After the monkeys were accustomed to food and water (Phase I), blood-volume-regulating hormones were measured during three phases: 10 days in a metabolic cage (Phas...
Article
The Cosmos 2229 unmanned biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia on December 29, 1992. This was the 10th Russia-sponsored international mission dedicated to space biology and marked the 8th mission with United States participation. The payload, which orbited the Earth for 11 days 16 h, included two rhesus monkeys;...
Article
The purposes of this work were to assess the influence of microgravity on the central and peripheral noradrenergic activity to reevaluate SLS-1 mission findings and to compare it with that of simulated microgravity in rats. The norepinephrine (NE) contents of the brainstem cell groups (A1, A2, A5, and A6) and organs (heart and kidneys) involved in...
Article
A new chronic restraining system has been designed specifically for male rhesus monkeys (8-13 kg) housed in weightlessness for scientific purposes. The restraining system consists of a coat (jacket and skirt) and a chair. The system separates the thorax from the lower part of the body, and allows large movements of the upper part of the body. The m...
Article
To compare actual spaceflight to ground-based simulation (hindlimb-suspension), we measured the norepinephrine (NE) content in A1, A2, A5 and A6 (locus coeruleus) and the vasopressin content in the neurohypophysial system. The experimental period was of 9 days' duration. The NE content in the locus coeruleus decreased significantly in rats flown fo...
Article
Specific alpha-rat 28-amino acid atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP(99-126)] (rANP) binding sites in choroid plexus and meningia of rats flown for 9 days on the mission STS-40 (SLS-1) carried on the space shuttle Columbia in June 1991 were analyzed after incubation of brain sections with 125I-rANP and autoradiography, using computer-assisted microdens...
Article
The norepinephrine (NE) content in discrete brain areas and the vasopressin content in the neurohypophysial system were assessed in rats after a 9-d spaceflight and after a recovery period (9 d). The NE content in the locus coeruleus decreased significantly in spaceflight rats (2.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 8.9 +/- 0.7 pmol.structure-1 for control rats, p < 0.00...
Article
In 1985, a letter of agreement was signed between the French space agency, CNES, and NASA, formally initiating a joint venture called the RHESUS Project. The goal of this project is to provide a facility to fly rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to support spaceflight experiments which are applicable but not practical to carry out on human subjects. B...
Article
Full-text available
Winter dysentery is a highly contagious disease of cattle seen most often during the winter months. In the course of an epidemiological study, the management, production, hygiene and previous diseases in 15 herds were characterized by 32 variables. Each herd was then visited twice a week for 8 weeks and 8 to 10 cows were clinically examined during...
Article
One-day-old chickens treated via drinking water with kitasamycin (0.7 g/l for 6 days then 0.35 g/l for 15 days) or with chloramphenicol (1 g/l for 6 days the 0.5 g/l for 15 days), were immunized at the 24th day with sheep red blood cells. Body and spleen growths were recorded and compared to control every week for 5 weeks after immunization. Humora...
Article
Hyena disease was first reported in France in 1975 and since then has been recognized in many countries. It is currently regarded as a disorder of skeletal development, mainly localised in the pelvic limbs of young cattle. Some investigators consider that it is a metabolic disease but the authors believe that it may be caused by a virus. Their hypo...
Article
The method of lung lavage under fiberoptic control allowed collection of alveolar cells in non-anaesthetized adult cows. The median section of the diaphragmatic lobe was lavaged with five consecutive aliquots of 30 ml each. Every one was analysed separately. A mean of 25.6% of instilled fluid was recovered and this is lower than amounts obtained o...