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Michel Toussaint

Michel Toussaint

Ph D

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115
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (115)
Chapter
Full-text available
Prehistory in the karst of "central Calestienne" in Belgium. Publication in "Atlas du karst wallon"
Article
Elucidating when Neanderthal populations disappeared from Eurasia is a key question in paleoanthropology, and Belgium is one of the key regions for studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Previous radiocarbon dating placed the Spy Neanderthals among the latest surviving Neanderthals in Northwest Europe with reported dates as young as 2...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of the nearly complete Plio-Pleistocene skeleton StW 573 Australopithecus prometheus from Sterkfontein Member 2, South Africa, has intensified debates as to whether Sterkfontein Member 4 contains a hominin species other than Australopithecus africanus. For example, it has recently been suggested that the partial skeleton StW 431 shoul...
Article
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Excavated in 1991 and 1992 by the Cedarc, the terrace of the Ambre cave, in Matagne-la-Grande, delivered a small series of human bones mixed with heterogeneous archaeological material, of Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Protohistoric and Roman appearance. Traces of glue seem to have more or less rejuvenated a first C14 dating of human bones. During the ye...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract - Since 1997, new archaeological research on the Neolithic mining area of Spiennes led to the discovery of two human skeletons in shaft ST11 and one in shaft ST6. Radiocarbon dating confirms their Neolithic age. This preliminary contribution shortly reviews the state of knowledge about human remains found at Spiennes, focusing particularl...
Preprint
Full-text available
In : Burke A. L. (éd.), «L’archéométrie dans tous ses états. Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur une discipline en constante évolution / Archaeometry in all of its states: interdisciplinary perspectives for a discipline in constant evolution», XXIIe colloque du Groupe des Méthodes Pluridisciplinaires Contribuant à l'Archéologie, Université de Mont...
Preprint
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Summary : Associated with local adzes, composed of flint and sandstone or imported basalt or “greenstone” alpine rocks, there is a lesser known substitute comprised of black rocks accompanying the neolithization of Belgium. These black adzes originate from settlements (Linear Pottery Culture) and workshops. This research allows the characterization...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the population history of Neandertals over the hundreds of thousands of years of their existence. We retrieved nuclear genomic sequences from two Neandertals, one from Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave in Germany and the other from Scladina Cave in Belgium, who lived around 120,000 years ago. Despite the deeply divergent mitochondrial l...
Chapter
Full-text available
Following a brief presentation of some geologic and geomorphologic specificities of Belgium in connection with Neandertals (e.g. caves, flint), we briefly focus on the changing environment in Neandertal times. Some historiographic aspects are then developed, recalling that in the nineteenth century, several Belgian sites played a key role in the em...
Article
Objectives: We describe a hominin permanent lower left third premolar unearthed in 1997 at Walou Cave (Belgium), found in direct association with a Mousterian lithic industry, in a layer directly dated to 40-38,000 years BP. Materials and methods: The taxonomical attribution of the tooth is addressed through comparative morphometric analyses, an...
Article
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datation of human skeleton of shaft 6 in Petit-Spiennes, excavation of Service public de Wallonie and Société de Recherche préhistorique en Hainaut
Article
Fossil remains are the only physical evidence of past forms of life which researchers can use to study the evolutionary biology of a species, especially regarding the human lineage. We review and consider the way in which the conditions surrounding a fossil's discovery and its use for scientific research impacts its long-term preservation. The dete...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Final Palaeolithic is considered to date between ca. 12.5 and 9.6 ky calBC, and it is defined by significant climate fluctuations. The Mesolithic extends between ca. 9.6 and 5.5 ky calBC, and it is characterized by a temperate environment similar to the current one. For some researchers, Mesolithic populations share continuity with Final Palaeo...
Article
Full-text available
The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic in Belgium are represented in 442 find-sites dispersed across a small territory with contrasting geographical and geological characteristics. The close proximity of caves and open-air sites, as well as the variable access to good sources of flint between regions are of special in- terest. The dataset is composed pr...
Article
The study of enamel thickness has received considerable attention in regard to the taxonomic, phylogenetic and dietary assessment of human and non-human primates. Recent developments based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital techniques have facilitated accurate analyses, preserving the original object from invasive procedures...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a general review of the lithostratigraphy associated with the various excavations carried out at Spy cave since the end of the 19th century, incorporating what little information is available concerning sedimentogenesis. In addition to reviewing the types and possible causes underlying the mixed nature of the Spy archaeologica...
Article
Despite the general increase in digital techniques for dental morphometric analyses, only a few methods are available to study worn teeth. Moreover, permanent dentitions are studied much more frequently than deciduous teeth. In this study, we address both issues by providing a taxonomic classification of Neanderthal and modern human (MH) lower seco...
Article
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The chronological and palaeoenvironmental context for the industries identified in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition (MUPT) is not accurately known. This situation is mainly due to insufficient knowledge of the context of the archaeological data, much of which comes from old excavations. Any major progress in the understandi...
Article
Carbon and nitrogen isotopic abundances of fossil bone collagen reflect those of the average diet, and they can be preserved for tens of thousands of years under favourable conditions. Spy Neandertals offer a favourable case for the use of the isotopic approach to reconstruct their diet and ecology. The collagen preservation in Late Pleistocene Bel...
Article
Spy cave, also known as the Betche aux Rotches cave, is one of the most famous Palaeolithic sites in Belgium. Excavated on numerous occasions beginning in 1879, the remains of two adult Neandertals were discovered in 1886. For the first time in the history of paleoanthropology, human fossils were found in a stratigraphic context associated with ric...
Article
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The Neandertal skeletal material from Spy cave has finally been directly dated by AMS 14C one hundred twenty-five years following their discovery. Fifteen human bones and teeth were dated in order to verify new morphological analyses and determine the age of the Spy Neandertals. Collagen from 14 faunal remains and three bone or ivory artefacts were...
Article
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Datation of human bone found int shafts excavated by the Société de Recherche préhistorique en Hainaut in Petit-Spiennes
Data
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La qualité de sa séquence stratigraphique et paléontologique, la variété des industries archéologiques qu'elle a livrée et le caractère récent de sa découverte, la grotte Walou s'avère être un des sites karstiques majeurs de la préhistoire paléolithique de Belgique. Deux programmes de recherches interdisciplinaires ont pu y être menés, respectiveme...
Book
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La grotte Walou, un site exceptionnel du Paléolithique Christelle DRAILY (dir.) Située à environ 10 km au sud-est de Liège, la grotte Walou surplombe de 25 m la Magne, affluent de la Vesdre. De nombreuses occupations préhistoriques s'y sont suc-cédé. Son épaisse séquence stratigraphique est la mieux documentée pour le Pléistocène supérieur du karst...
Article
Margaux Cave (Belgium) yielded a Pre-Boreal Early Mesolithic burial covered by what resembled a burial mound. The hundreds of human bones excavated belonged to 7 to 10 adult females. Among these bones, the CR3 cranium presents numerous cutmarks on both zygomatic processes, on the frontal squama and along the two coronal sutures, as well as on the l...
Article
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Humans have an unusual life history, with an early weaning age, long childhood, late first reproduction, short interbirth intervals, and long lifespan. In contrast, great apes wean later, reproduce earlier, and have longer intervals between births. Despite 80 y of speculation, the origins of these developmental patterns in Homo sapiens remain unkno...
Article
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Molar crown morphology varies among primates from relatively simple in some taxa to more complex in others, with such variability having both functional and taxonomic significance. In addition to the primary cusps, crown surface complexity derives from the presence of crests, cuspules, and crenulations. Developmentally, this complexity results from...
Article
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Toussaint M., Collet H. & Jadin I., 2010. Datations radiocarbones d’ossements humains du site minier néolithique de Spiennes (Mons, Hainaut). Première approche. Notae Praehistoricae, 30/2010 : 73-80.
Article
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Résumé : une deuxième molaire déciduale inférieure droite a été découverte en 1984 à l'entrée du Trou de l'abîme, à couvin (Belgique). Dans les années qui ont suivi la fouille, l'interprétation du fossile était restée délicate pour différentes raisons : (1) l'absence d'éléments de diagnose taxinomique qui auraient permis d'attribuer la dent à H. (s...
Article
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Les progrès réalisés ces dernières années dans diverses disciplines permettent de réinterpréter la séquence pléistocène du Trou de l’Abîme à Couvin et les vestiges qui y ont été exhumés. La dent humaine découverte en 1984 peut ainsi être attribuée à l’Homme de Néandertal sur base de l’analyse de sa morphologie et de l’épaisseur de son émail. Le rée...
Article
A human lower right deciduous second molar was discovered in 1984 at the entrance of Trou de l'Abîme at Couvin (Belgium). In subsequent years the interpretation of this fossil remained difficult for various reasons: (1) the lack of taxonomically diagnostic elements which would support its attribution to either Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis or H....
Article
Full-text available
We report here the first results of a method to extract and sequence mature enamel proteins from modern human and Neanderthal tooth enamel. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and a combination of direct sequencing and peptide mass mapping we have sequenced a peptide from the tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) of the X isoform of the ameloge...
Article
In Eurasia, the period between 40,000 and 30,000 BP saw the replacement of Neandertals by anatomically modern humans (AMH) during and after the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. The human fossil record for this period is very poorly defined with no overlap between Neandertals and AMH on the basis of direct dates. Four new (14)C dates were obt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The rediscovery in the storerooms of the Musées de l'Etat de Luxembourg of a cremation exhumed in 1935 at the Loschbour shelter sheds new light on the burial practices of Mesolithic peoples. After cremation, the human remains, probably of an adult female, appear to have been deposited in a small pit. Some of the cranial bones bear obvious pre-crema...
Article
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Découverte de restes de Néandertaliens dans la troisième caverne de Goyet
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The thickness of dental enamel is often discussed in paleoanthropological literature, particularly with regard to differences in growth, health, and diet between Neandertals and modern humans. Paleoanthropologists employ enamel thickness in paleodietary and taxonomic studies regarding earlier hominins, but variation in enamel thickness within the g...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of life history (pace of growth and reproduction) was crucial to ancient hominin adaptations. The study of dental development facilitates assessment of growth and development in fossil hominins with greater precision than other skeletal analyses. During tooth formation, biological rhythms manifest in enamel and dentine, creating a per...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aperçu historique des recherches concernant l'homme préhistorique dans le karst belge aux XIX e et XX e siècles : archéologie, géologie, paléoanthropologie, paléontologie, datations Résumé Depuis les débuts de la recherche en préhistoire, les grottes et abris-sous-roche de Belgique font l'objet d'investigations intenses. Cet article propose une syn...
Article
Full-text available
The human diet was investigated using the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of 93 Mesolithic and Neolithic specimens (∼10,000–2000 BC) from the Meuse Basin (Belgium). During the Ancient Mesolithic period (∼9300–8000 BC), the environment was generally open and the main dietary protein was provided by hunted terrestrial mammals, with the possib...
Article
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1) et Stéphane PIRSON (2) R é s u m é : Lors de fouilles récentes à la caverne de La Naulette, dans le sud de la Belgique, un intéressant témoignage relatif à une pratique méconnue et insolite à laquelle les fouilleurs en grottes de la fin du XIXème siècle ont eu recours à diverses reprises a été mis au jour. Il s'agissait, pour des raisons de faci...