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Michel Menu
C2RMF · Research Department

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206
Publications
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4,818
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
1980 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300350
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300350
Introduction

Publications

Publications (206)
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of new research methods in the field of heritage science always raises a large number of questions related to their applicability, reproducibility of results on similar objects, complementarity with other methods, and development of new research methods. To solve such problems, it is necessary to have a test object with the required s...
Article
This article aims to reveal aspects of the visual perception of the natural colours of Matthias Grünewald's Resurrection panel, part of the Isenheim Altarpiece (1512‐1516). To identify, which colours are mostly perceived, we have performed an eye‐tracking study with 52 participants at the Unterlinden Museum, in Colmar, France, in which we recorded...
Article
Full-text available
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) is a key artistic and scientific figure of the Renaissance. He is renowned for his science of art, taking advantage of his acute observations of nature to achieve striking pictorial results. This study describes the analysis of an exceptional sample from one of Leonardo’s final masterpieces: The Virgin and Child with S...
Article
Amedeo Modigliani (1884–1920) is an artist highly valued by the public. However, his works have been little studied by natural scientists. The project “Modigliani and His Secrets” follows two closely correlated purposes: a better knowledge of the materiality of the works and a better understanding of the studio practice of the artist. The corpus (2...
Article
Full-text available
In consequence of the flooding of the Loing river in 2016, some of the storage areas for the Musée Girodet were submerged, with 3000 artworks affected. Following this, the painting Le Jeune Trioson (nineteenth century, attributed to the school of Anne-Louis Girodet De Roucy Trioson) developed severe blanching in the varnish, over the dark backgroun...
Chapter
Full-text available
La micro-fluorescence de rayons x en mode confocal (CXRF) est d’un intérêt considérable pour les sciences du patrimoine en raison de sa capacité à fournir des informations résolues spatialement sur la composition chimique du matériel analysé de manière non-invasive. Le défi consiste à déterminer la séquence stratigraphique de matériaux multicouches...
Conference Paper
This PhD thesis aims to contribute to our knowledge about how we experience paintings and more specifically, about how visual exploration, cognitive categorization and emotive evaluation contribute to the aesthetic dimension. [Schaeffer 2015; Leder et al. 2004] of our experience of paintings. [Molnar 1981; Gombrich 1960; Bandaxall 1986; Bandaxall 1...
Book
This PhD thesis aims to contribute to our knowledge about how we experience paintings and more specifically, about how visual exploration, cognitive categorization and emotive evaluation contribute to the aesthetic dimension. [Schaeffer 2015; Leder et al. 2004] of our experience of paintings. [Molnar 1981; Gombrich 1960; Bandaxall 1986; Bandaxall 1...
Article
Full-text available
Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are two techniques capable of providing 3D datasets from which depth profiles and cross-sectional images of an object can be derived. They are novel photonics technologies of particular relevance to the field of heritage science, for which the comprehe...
Article
This scientific study of color prints from chiaroscuro woodcuts is of particular interest and has not yet been carried out on Northern European prints. The aim of this work is to analyze the ink and paper chemical composition, and to define the sequence of printed layers in order to understand how the artists and their workshop achieved visual effe...
Article
Traditional “stack “manufacturing process (16–19th c.) of lead white pigment by lead corrosion is explored by exposing metal to acetic acid, carbon dioxide, dioxygen and water vapor. Global reaction scheme is revealed, along with stratification of corrosion products with CO2 gradient, leading to flakiness of corrosion layer. Kinetic and epitaxial f...
Article
Full-text available
Micro-samples collected on 28 major paintings by Old European Masters dating from the Middle Ages to the late 19th c. were analyzed using Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. Two complementary analytical configurations were used at beamlines ID22 (high-angle resolution) and ID21 (high lateral resolution), in order to highlight markers of the differ...
Article
Full-text available
Blanching of easel oil paintings is a recurring alteration that can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer itself, and strongly alter the visual appearance. Our examinations by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) of altered and unaltered samples revealed the presence of spherical pores in the altered layers, with a...
Article
Full-text available
The lead white pigment, composed of two main mineral phases cerussite PbCO3 and hydrocerussite 2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2, has been used in paintings since the Antiquity. The study of historical sources revealed that a large variety of lead white qualities were proposed, depending on the degree of sophistication of the pigment synthesis. Investigation of photo...
Article
Full-text available
South African rock art provides a window into the Bushman worldview. For a better understanding of Bushman history and beliefs and the conservation of rock art sites, a better knowledge of the materials making up the paints, the mineral accretions and their alterations is required. A conjunction of imaging techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, R...
Article
Full-text available
To study degradation processes occurring on painting materials, the use of high-resolution micro-analytical techniques is highly requested since it provides a detailed identification and localisation of both the original and deteriorated ingredients. Among the various pigments recently studied, the characterisation of verdigris has received a major...
Article
Full-text available
Fifteen lead white-containing painting samples, about 1-3μg in weight, from a selection of easel painting masterpieces of the Louvre and other French museums, dating from the Renaissance to the late 19th century, were investigated using synchrotron diffraction on the ESRF high resolution XRD beamline ID22. The Rietveld analysis revealed the nature...
Article
Full-text available
Pigments characterization on paintings is usually made with X-ray fluorescence, traditional false color photography and optical microscopy. The use of optical techniques based on reflectance spectra, like reflectance spectrophotometry or hyperspectral imaging, is limited today to some case studies. We would like to improve these optical techniques...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperspectral imaging has been used for pigment characterization on paintings for the last 10 years. It is a noninvasive technique, which mixes the power of spectrophotometry and that of imaging technologies. We have access to a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral camera, ranging from 400 to 1000 nm in 80–160 spectral bands. In order to treat t...
Article
Full-text available
The blanching of easel paintings can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer with a blurring effect. The understanding of the physicochemical and optical phenomena involved in the whitening process remains an important challenge for the painting conservation. A set of ca. 50 microsamples from French, Flemish, and Italian blanched oil pain...
Article
Full-text available
La Garma cave is part of the most exceptional Palaeolithic sites discovered at the end of the 20th century in the North of the Spain and was included by UNESCO in the World Heritage List in 2008. This cave contains exceptional Palaeolithic graphical units, over 500, some of them linked to the Magdalenian floors. Never opened to the public, La Garma...
Article
South African rock art provides a window into Bushman worldview. For a better understanding of Bushman history and beliefs and the conservation of rock art sites, a better knowledge of the materials making up the paints, the mineral accretions and their alterations is required. A conjunction of imaging techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, Raman...
Chapter
Full-text available
Per quanto riguarda gli ambienti interni, in particolar modo nei soffitti lignei, è riscontra-bile un disegno caratterizzato da linee generalmente sottili, dal tratto discontinuo, che de-finiscono i contorni. In alcuni casi, il disegno sommario delle linee principali della compo-sizione è stato ripreso, probabilmente grazie all'ausilio di una riga,...
Article
Full-text available
We examined flow rock-covered Paleoloithic cave art using time-domain terahertz reflectometry.
Article
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An Eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery stored at the Museum of Aquitaine (Bordeaux, France) has been investigated using terahertz radiation, X-rays and neutrons. THz computed tomography revealed nondestructively the presence of content, whereas X-rays and neutrons analyzed more precisely the fabrication process and conservation of the potter...
Article
Full-text available
The work presented in this article was performed at the Oriental Institute at the University of 7 Chicago, on objects from their permanent collection: an ancient Egyptian bird mummy and three ancient 8 Sumerian corroded copper-alloy objects. We used a portable, fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain 9 spectroscopic imaging system, which allowed us to...
Article
Full-text available
The darkening of lead chromate yellow pigments, caused by a reduction of the chromate ions to Cr(III)-compounds, is known to affect the appearance of several paintings by Vincent van Gogh. In previous papers of this series, we demonstrated that the darkening is activated by light and depends on the chemical composition and crystalline structure of...
Poster
Full-text available
The state of preservation of an artwork is strongly correlated to the composite mechanical behavior of its constituent materials. How art materials change in the museum environment becoming brittle, less elastic or prone to creep is fundamental to assessing the condition of a work of art. Attempts to explore the mechanical properties of art materia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Résumé : Les développements récents des méthodes d’analyse non destructives portables ou de laboratoire offrent de nouvelles possibilités pour l’étude de l’art préhistorique. Elles permettent maintenant de travailler sur les objets entiers, sans préparation ni prise de microéchantillon. Elles permettent aussi de réaliser des analyses dans les grott...
Article
Full-text available
Verdigris is a green copper organometallic pigment, widely used in paintings during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. With ageing, chromatic modifications like browning or darkening can be observed on those green painted layers. An original but crucial approach has been developed based on the characterization of a reference neutral verdigris p...
Article
Full-text available
We use terahertz time-domain imaging and time-of-flight tomography to examine subsurface defects in an early-19th-century Russian icon painting. In the transmission geometry, we distinguish between native wood and higher-absorption knotted wood. In reflection, we identify a void in the wood filled with foreign filler material. By using time-of-flig...
Article
Iron oxide pigments found in archaeological context constitute an important source of infor-mation for the understanding of cultural and subsistence activities of ancient human cul-tures. In order to complete archaeological con-textual information, many analytical methods have been applied to characterise pigments and to provide further information...
Article
Full-text available
In order to complete archaeological contextual information, many analytical methods have been applied to characterise pigments and to provide further information on this material (e.g. supplies, selections, mechanical or physical transformations of raw material, use and application processes). Several studies have demonstrated that the elemental co...
Conference Paper
Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La aplicación y el desarrollo de técnicas no invasivas van aumentando constantemente en los estudios sobre el patrimonio histórico y cultural. Entre estas técnicas, la micro-fluorescencia de rayos X confocal (CXRF) va ganando un interés considerable ya que procura informaciones composicionales y espaciales, informaciones normalmente obtenidas a tra...
Article
Date de l'opération : 1990 - 1991 (RE) Inventeur(s) : Menu Michel ; Clottes Jean Peu de temps avant la disparition de A. Clot, M. Menu, Ph. Walter et G. Querre (LRMF, Paris) ont effectué, dans le cadre de leurs recherches sur la peinture préhistorique des Pyrénées, et en sa compagnie, une première campagne assortie de treize microprélèvements parié...
Article
Date de l'operation : 1990 - 1991 (RE) Inventeur(s) : Menu Michel Sous la conduite d’A. Clot, M. Menu, P. Walter et G. Querre (LRMF, Paris) s’est effectuee en mars 1990 une premiere mission a Tibiran, seance assortie de six microprelevements parietaux (cf. supra Niaux). Une seconde reconnaissance eu lieu en novembre 1991 (un prelevement), parallele...
Article
Date de l'operation : 1988 - 1991 (RE) Inventeur(s) : Menu Michel ; Plenier Aleth Une nouvelle lecture de quelques figures parietales a permis d'affiner le corpus iconographique de la cavite en transcrivant plus fidelement les gravures relevees par le meme auteur dans le cadre de sa these et publiees en 1971. C'est le cas de cinq representations an...
Conference Paper
Techniques to retrieve reliable images from complicated objects are described, overcoming problems introduced by uneven surfaces, giving enhanced depth resolution and improving image contrast. The techniques are illustrated with application to THz imaging of concealed wall paintings.
Article
Full-text available
Terahertz (THz) radiation is being developed as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage, and due to recent advances in technology is now available commercially in systems which can be deployed for field analysis. The radiation is capable of penetrating up to one centimetre of wall plaster and is delivered in ultrafast pulses which are reflecte...
Article
Full-text available
Pulsed terahertz imaging is being developed as a technique to image obscured mural paintings. Due to significant advances in terahertz technology, portable systems are now capable of operating in unregulated environments and this has prompted their use on archaeological excavations. August 2011 saw the first use of pulsed terahertz imaging at the a...
Article
Full-text available
The painter Vincent van Gogh and some of his contemporaries frequently made use of the pigment chrome yellow that is known to show a tendency towards darkening. This pigment may correspond to various chemical compounds such as PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4), that each may be present in various crystallographic forms, with different tendencies towar...
Article
The painter Vincent van Gogh and some of his contemporaries frequently made use of the pigment chrome yellow that is known to show a tendency towards darkening. This pigment may correspond to various chemical compounds such as PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4), that each may be present in various crystallographic forms, with different tendencies towar...
Article
Full-text available
Lower Congo rock art is concentrated in a region that stretches from Kinshasa to the Atlantic coast and from Northern Angola to Southern Congo-Brazzaville. Although Lower Congo rock art was identified as far back as the nineteenth century, it had never been a subject of thorough investigation. Presently inhabited by the Ndibu, one of the Kongo sub-...
Article
Direct dating of prehistoric paintings is playing a major role in Paleolithic art studies. Very few figures can be directly dated since the necessary condition is that they contain organic carbon-based material. Thus, it is very important to check the presence of organic carbon-based material in situ before sampling in order to protect the visual i...
Article
Full-text available
Direct dating of prehistoric paintings is playing a major role in Paleolithic art studies. Very few figures can be directly dated since the necessary condition is that they contain organic carbon-based material. Thus, it is very important to check the presence of organic carbon-based material in situ before sampling in order to protect the visual i...
Article
Full-text available
Lower Congo rock art is concentrated in a region that stretches from Kinshasa to the Atlantic coast and from northern Angola to southern Congo-Brazzaville. Although Lower Congo rock art was identified as early as the 19th century, it had never been a subject of thorough investigation. Presently inhabited by the Ndibu, one of the Kongo subgroups, th...