Michel Lucas

Michel Lucas
Laval University | ULAVAL · Department of Social and Preventive Medicine

PhD

About

76
Publications
17,382
Reads
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3,063
Citations
Introduction
BSc (Nutrition/Dietetics), MSc (Public Health), & PhD (Epidemiology) from Laval University, Postdoctorate in Nutritional Epidemiology from the Harvard School of Public Health under the supervision of Dr. Alberto Ascherio and Dr. Walter Willett. His expertise & research themes are: nutritional epidemiology, nutrition transition, food insecurity, coffee/soft drinks, fish/fatty acids/omega-3, berries, depression/suicide, obesity/diabetes, dietary pattern, indigenous, population health intervention.
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - present
Université du Québec
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
April 2012 - present
Harvard University
Position
  • Visitin Scientist
Education
April 2009 - March 2012
Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition Harvard University
Field of study
  • Nutritional Epidemiology
September 2003 - April 2008
Laval University
Field of study
  • Epidemiology

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to most Indigenous people in Canada, Inuit appeared until recently to have been protected from type 2 diabetes (T2D) related to obesity. We assessed the associations of metabolites (amino acids, acylcarnitines) with adiposity and biomarkers of T2D in school-aged Inuit children of Nunavik (Canada). Concentrations of metabolite were measu...
Article
Background The body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is particularly high in populations that rely on fish and other marine species for sustenance. This exposure has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but results remain contrasted. Objective We studied this association in two Indigenous populations...
Article
The atoll of Hao, part of the Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia, hosted an air base which was used by France Air Force and Naval Aviation during the nuclear tests. Following the publication of a report in 2012 indicating widespread contamination of the atoll, we conducted a biomonitoring survey to assess the exposure to toxic metals and polyc...
Chapter
Définition de la méthode Le cadre évaluatif de la fidélité d’implantation développé par Carroll et ses collègues (2007) met en lumière l’écart entre les intentions initiales des concepteurs et conceptrices de projets d’intervention et les moyens par lesquels ceux-ci sont mis en œuvre. Plus cet écart est large, moins la « fidélité d’implantation » e...
Article
Full-text available
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and...
Article
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To describe exposure to methylmercury among Cree, focusing on women of childbearing age, we used data from 2 studies. Multiple regression was employed to examine associations between blood and hair mercury concentrations and consumption of locally harvested fish. Approximately 9.9% of non-pregnant women aged 15–44 y and 3.9% of pregnant women requi...
Article
Aims: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects between 5 to 10 % of all pregnancies in Canada and can lead to adverse health outcomes in both the mother and fetus. Amino acids (AA) and acylcarnitines (AC) have been identified as early biomarkers of type 2 diabetes but their usefulness in screening for GDM has yet to be demonstrated. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification systems for Indigenous youth. We estimated overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three BMI classification systems, assessed the level of agreement between them, and evaluated their accuracy through...
Article
Background and aims: Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in...
Article
Objective To assess associations between three diet quality indices and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec, Canada, as well as to evaluate their pertinence in this Indigenous context. Design The alternative-Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), the Food Quality Score (FQS) and the contribution of ultra-processed pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Globally, food insecurity is a major public health concern. In North America, it is particularly prevalent in certain sub-groups, including Indigenous communities. Although many Indigenous and remote communities harvest and share food, most food security assessment tools focus on economic access. This study describes the psychometric eva...
Article
BACKGROUND Obesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.METHODS We analyzed data on 181 children...
Article
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Background: In September 2011, the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services began supporting the Arctic Char Distribution Project (AC/DP) for pregnant women. This initiative promoted consumption of the fish Arctic char—a traditional Inuit food—by pregnant women living in villages of Nunavik, an area in northern Quebec (Canada) inhabited...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. Objective: To determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional game and bird meats hu...
Article
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Background: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To examine fatty acids (FAs) status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829) conducted...
Data
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch) of Northern Québec
Article
Full-text available
Awareness of conflicts of interest (COI) in medicine began in the 1980s. More recently, the problem has gained notoriety in nutritional sciences. COI with industry could bias study conclusions in the context of research activities and scientific publications on nutritional sciences. The issue of COI in nutritional sciences deserves more attention a...
Article
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Suicide is one of the top 10 leading causes of mortality among middle-aged women. Most work in the field emphasizes the psychiatric, psychological, or biological determinants of suicide. To estimate the association between social integration and suicide. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study of n...
Article
Recently, 2 articles1,2 in your journal raised a fundamental question about polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios. For decades, the literature has recounted that humans have evolved on a PUFA diet containing a ratio of n-6 to n-3 of 1:1 and that an increase in this ratio is a major contributor to chronic diseases. Linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), th...
Article
Purpose Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and W...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis predominantly affects socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. The extent to which specific dietary and lifestyle factors contribute to tuberculosis susceptibility has not been established. 200 residents of a village in Northern Quebec, were investigated during a tuberculosis outbreak and identified to have active tuberculosis, lat...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To ascertain the relationship between cannabis use, obesity, and insulin resistance.Methods Data on 786 Inuit adults from the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (2004) were analyzed. Information on cannabis use was obtained from a self-completed, confidential questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of in...
Article
The prevalence of overweight/obesity among French Polynesian adolescents is alarming. This study aims to prevent rises in obesity by modifying school food and the physical environment of French Polynesian adolescents.Methods During the 5-month study, 240 adolescents from a Tubuai island college (in French Polynesia) received a balanced diet based a...
Conference Paper
Background: Compared to traditional behavioral and clinical risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the role of social determinants on the incidence of CVD among the circumpolar Inuit has received less attention. Objective: Analyze, using prospective data, the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and risk of CVD am...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES: Inuit in Canada experience alarming levels of food insecurity, but nutritional and physiological consequences are poorly documented, especially in school-age children. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of food insecurity to iron deficiency and stature in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Quebec). MET...
Article
Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A...
Article
Background and Aims Indigenous people worldwide have a greater disease burden than their non-aboriginal counterparts with health challenges that include increased obesity and higher prevalence of diabetes. We investigate the relationships of dietary patterns with nutritional biomarkers, selected environmental contaminants and measures of insulin re...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: We examined the prevalence of elevated plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations and associations with red blood cell (RBC) long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) in the James Bay Cree population from the province of Quebec (Canada). Subjects/methods: A total of 744 Cree adults (18-...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Suicide is a major public health problem. Current thinking about suicide emphasizes the study of psychiatric, psychological, or biological determinants. Previous work in this area has largely relied on surrogate outcomes or samples enriched for psychiatric morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between social integration and...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Estimation of relative contribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on health outcomes requires a regression model that includes both obesity metrics. But, multicollinearity could yield biased estimates. METHODS: To address the multicollinearity issue between BMI and WC, we used the residual model approach. The sta...
Article
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Intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. We sought to estimate the association between intake of fish and n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and suicide mortality over the course of long-term follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, biennial questionnaires were administered to 42,290 men en...
Article
Full-text available
Household crowding is an important problem in some aboriginal communities that is reaching particularly high levels among the circumpolar Inuit. Living in overcrowded conditions may endanger health via stress pathophysiology. This study examines whether higher household crowding is associated with stress-related physiological dysregulations among t...
Article
Inflammation is considered as a mechanism leading to depression, but the association between inflammatory dietary pattern and depression risk is unknown. Using reduced-rank regression, we identified a dietary pattern that was related to plasma levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor receptor 2), and...
Article
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Although individual nutrients have been investigated in relation to depression risk, little is known about the overall role of diet in depression. We examined whether long-term dietary patterns derived from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) predict the development of depression in middle-aged and older women. We conducted a prospective study in...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the association between coffee and caffeine consumption and suicide risk in three large-scale cohorts of US men and women. Methods: We accessed data of 43,599 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1988-2008), 73,820 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1992-2008), and 91,005 women in the NHS II...
Article
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The isotemporal substitution model (ISM) was previously developed as a methodology to study the time-substitution effects of 1 type of activity for another in a data setting with continuous outcomes. To demonstrate the application of ISM with a dichotomous outcome, we prospectively examined the associations of different activities with various acti...
Data
Stratified analysis by selected characteristicsa
Data
Study flow of the three cohorts
Article
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Although physical activity (PA) has been inversely associated with depressive symptoms, it is not clear whether regular PA and television watching are associated with clinical depression risk. The authors conducted a prospective analysis involving 49,821 US women from the Nurses' Health Study who were free from depressive symptoms at baseline (1996...
Article
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Caffeine is the world's most widely used central nervous system stimulant, with approximately 80% consumed in the form of coffee. However, studies that analyze prospectively the relationship between coffee or caffeine consumption and depression risk are scarce. A total of 50,739 US women (mean age, 63 years) free of depressive symptoms at baseline...
Article
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The results of several studies have suggested a potential positive association between use of antidepressant medication (ADM) and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined this association in three cohorts of US adults. We followed 29,776 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1990-2006), 61,791 women in the Nurses' Health Stud...
Article
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A relative decrease intake of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. However, the associations between different sources of dietary n-3, n-6, and their ratio, and the risk of depression have not been prospectively studied. We prospectively studied 54,632 women who were 50 to 77 years of age and free from depre...
Article
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Although it has been hypothesized that the depression-obesity relation is bidirectional, few studies have addressed this hypothesis in a prospective setting. We aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship in middle-aged and elderly women. A total of 65 955 women aged 54-79 years in the Nurses' Health Study were prospectively followed from 1996...
Article
Full-text available
The associations between different sources of dietary n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) fatty acids and the risk of depression have not been prospectively studied. The objective was to examine the relation between different n-3 and n-6 types with clinical depression incidence. We prospectively studied 54,632 US women from the Nurses' Health Study who...
Article
Full-text available
Very preterm infants are vulnerable to deficiency in DHA. In a longitudinal study, 10 mothers who delivered ≤29 wk gestation and planned to breast-feed received DHA (1200 mg/d) until 36 wk after conception. The plasma DHA status was assessed in their 12 infants (including 2 pairs of twins) from birth to d 49. Fatty acid profiles were measured weekl...
Article
Full-text available
Depression and diabetes mellitus have been associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, data evaluating the joint effects of these 2 conditions on mortality are sparse. To evaluate the individual and joint effects of depression and diabetes on all-cause and CVD mortality rate. Prospective cohor...
Article
Full-text available
Although it has been hypothesized that the diabetes-depression relation is bidirectional, few studies have addressed this hypothesis in a prospective setting. A total of 65 381 women aged 50 to 75 years in 1996 were observed until 2006. Clinical depression was defined as having diagnosed depression or using antidepressants, and depressed mood was d...
Article
Here we determined the relationship between red blood cell (RBC) omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and usual dietary marine food product intake among 630 Nunavik Inuit adults. Marine food product intake was determined by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and fatty acids were quantified in RBC membranes. Multiple lin...
Article
The Inuit are commonly portrayed to be somehow protected from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through their traditional lifestyle and diet. However, actual sociocultural transition and related major, modifiable risk factors have scarcely been quantified in the Inuit population. Such knowledge is extremely valuable in terms of public health intervent...
Article
Full-text available
A decrease in omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and an increase in omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid in the diet have been suggested as contributing factors in the pathogenesis of depression. The present study examined the relationship between red blood cell (RBC) n-3 and n-6 and serious psychological distress (SPD). The aut...
Article
Menopausal transition and early postmenopause are marked by intense hormonal changes (hot flashes, psychological disorders, mood disturbance and sleep problems). Although depression is a treatable illness that is twice as common among women than men, many people do not respond to or receive treatment. However, no treatment guidelines are available...
Article
Full-text available
Menopausal transition and early postmenopause are marked by intense hormonal changes (hot flashes, psychological disorders, mood disturbance and sleep problems Although depression is a treatable illness that is twice as common among women than men, many people do not respond to or receive treatment. However, no treatment guidelines are available fo...
Article
Marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have been associated with beneficial effects in mental health. Cultural and social changes have been related to a decline in mental health of the Inuit, but the role of diet has received scant attention. We examined the relationship between psychological distress...
Article
Full-text available
To quantify marine food product consumption and EPA + DHA intake among Quebecers, and to compare the results with the most recent recommendations. Data were obtained from a representative cross-sectional telephone survey (June 2006). Intakes of marine food product species and EPA + DHA were estimated from a validated FFQ on the consumption of marin...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the relationship between psychological distress (PD) and plasma n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA, i.e. EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3) and DHA. Population-based, cross-sectional Santé-Québec Health Survey (1991). Participants were categorized as high-level PD if they scored over the 80th percentile of the PD Index in the Santé-Québec Survey;...