Michel J Kaiser

Michel J Kaiser
Heriot-Watt University · The Lyell Centre - Institute of Life and Earth Sciences

BSc PhD DSc

About

297
Publications
149,675
Reads
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17,211
Citations
Introduction
Michel Kaiser is currently the Professor of Fisheries Conservation at The Lyell Centre, Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. Prior to joining Heriot-Watt University he was the Science & Standards Director at the Marine Stewardship Council and he was the Professor of Marine Conservation Ecology at Bangor University for 20 years. His PhD was on the behavioural ecology of fish (diet selection). His research interests focus on techniques to achieve sustainable use of marine resources while seeking to minimize impacts on the marine environment. He is best known for his expertise on the ecosystem of fishing on the seabed, data poor fisheries and the use of spatial management measures to achieve conservation and fisheries objectives.
Additional affiliations
February 2004 - July 2004
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Position
  • Senior Researcher
December 1991 - July 1998
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science
Position
  • Research Officer

Publications

Publications (297)
Article
Full-text available
For EU member states to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the reformed Common Fisheries Policy, it will be necessary to improve data collection related to many fisheries that are at present subject to relatively little monitoring or scientific research. This study evaluated the use of on-board camera systems to co...
Article
Full-text available
1.The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries requires that managers take account of the environmental impacts of fishing. Towed bottom-fishing gears disturb seabed habitats and cause mortality of benthic invertebrates. Measurements of recovery rates of marine habitats after fishing disturbance can provide insight into spatial variations in resilience and...
Article
Full-text available
Best-practice environmental policy often suggests co-management of marine resources as a means of achieving sustainable development. Here we consider the impacts of superimposing co-management policy, in the form of territorial user rights for fishers over an existing traditional community-based natural-resource management system in Chile. We consi...
Article
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The ‘Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measure’ (OECM) concept was first introduced in 2010, by the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP) in the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity conservation 2011–2020. The concept acknowledged that a range of spatial measures other than protected areas were appropria...
Article
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Participatory decision tools enable stakeholders to reconcile conflicting natural resources management objectives. Fisheries targeting highly productive species can have profound impacts on co-occurring bycatch species with low fecundity and other life history traits that make them vulnerable to anthropogenic sources of mortality. This study develo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Scientific report presenting description of gear innovation and projects findings.
Article
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Bottom trawling is widespread globally and impacts seabed habitats. However, risks from trawling remain unquantified at large scales in most regions. We address these issues by synthesizing evidence on the impacts of different trawl-gear types, seabed recovery rates, and spatial distributions of trawling intensity in a quantitative indicator of bio...
Article
Stock abundance can be estimated directly from multiple vessel survey catches if variations in catch efficiency are understood. Catch efficiencies and scallop densities were estimated from a depletion experiment using five commercial dredge vessels, to assess how much the catch efficiency of multiple vessels differed across a small area. Each vesse...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives The environmental effects of static gear fishing include habitat-level effects such as permanent changes to the physical environment and the structure of the benthic and epibenthic communities. Ecosystems subjected to prolonged exposure to pressure from static gear may undergo permanent changes and may never regain their p...
Article
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The pelagic fisheries beyond the continental shelves are currently managed with a range of tools largely based on regulating effort or target catch. These tools comprise both static and dynamic area‐based approaches to include gear limitations, closed areas and bycatch limits. There are increasing calls for additional area‐based interventions, part...
Article
The environmental impacts of food production are increasingly influencing consumer’s food choices. To maintain market access in this context, the fishing industry must adopt strategies and technologies that reduce their carbon emissions, environmental footprint, bycatch and seabed impact. In this study, closure of a depleted scallop fishing ground,...
Article
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Connectivity between populations is important when considering conservation or the management of exploitation of vulnerable species. We investigated how populations of a broadcast‐spawning marine species (scallop, Pecten maximus) that occur in discrete geographic locations were connected to each other. Population genetic insights were related to th...
Article
Bottom trawl fishing is a controversial activity. It yields about a quarter of the world's wild seafood, but also has impacts on the marine environment. Recent advances have quantified and improved understanding of large‐scale impacts of trawling on the seabed. However, such information needs to be coupled with distributions of benthic invertebrate...
Article
Trawl fishing constitutes an important part of the marine fisheries sector in Southeast Asia. It provides livelihoods and food for millions of people in coastal communities as well as feed for the region’s growing aquaculture sector. Trawl fisheries suffer from a multitude of problems, including overcapacity, excessive fishing effort, poor profitab...
Article
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Bottom‐trawl fisheries are the most‐widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seabed habitats. Development of fisheries‐, conservation‐ and ecosystem‐based management strategies requires the selection of indicators of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. Many indicators have been proposed, but no rigorous te...
Article
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The elimination of unwanted catch in mixed species fisheries is technically challenging given the complexity of fish behaviour within nets. Most approaches to date have employed technologies that modify the nets themselves or use physical sorting grids within the gear. There is currently increasing interest in the use of artificial light to either...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bottom trawling accounts for almost one quarter of global fish landings but may also have significant and unwanted impacts on seabed habitats and biota. Management measures and voluntary industry actions can reduce these impacts, helping to meet sustainability objectives for fisheries, conservation and environmental management. These include change...
Article
Pinna nobilis is a sensitive and vulnerable species and is hence considered a good indicator of anthropogenic pressures on marine ecosystems. This study provides novel data on the density and distribution of endangered P. nobilis on the Turkish coasts. Threats to the status of P. nobilis, including by‐catch and illegal collection, were assessed, as...
Article
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There has been a recent proliferation of large-scale marine protected areas (MPAs) containing pelagic habitats. These contribute substantially towards meeting the area-based goal of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and to managing pelagic ecosystem pressures, including fishing. We assessed theoretical and empirical evidence for the achievement of ecolo...
Article
Bottom trawling accounts for nearly a quarter of wild-capture seafood production, but it is associated with physical disturbance of the seabed leading to changes in benthic abundance, habitat structure, and biogeochemical processes. Understanding the processes of benthic depletion and recovery in relation to different types of fishing gears, and in...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as conservation tools in the marine environment. Success of MPAs depends upon sound scientific design and societal support. Studies that have assessed societal preferences for temperate MPAs have generally done it without considering the existence of discrete groups of opinion within society...
Data
Questionnaire used for data collection. Questionnaire used for the collection of data on trains during the study period. All questions are included.
Data
Choice experiment data. Raw data used for the choice experiment models.
Article
Full-text available
Videogrammetry and photogrammetry are increasingly being used in marine science for unsupervised data collection. The camera systems employed are complex, in contrast to "consumer" digital cameras and smartphones carried by potential citizen scientists. However, using consumer cameras in photogrammetry will introduce unknown length estimation error...
Article
Full-text available
Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitorin...
Article
Full-text available
1.Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of...
Article
Full-text available
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) benefits individuals and economies, but can also impact fish stocks and associated ecosystems. Fish are an important resource providing direct economic benefit through commercial and recreational exploitation, and more esoteric ecosystem services. It is important to consider recreational fishing in marine spatial p...
Conference Paper
Impacts of unregulated activities within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) may undermine the objectives for which the MPAs were instigate. UK governments have started investigating these impacts within their MPA network but gathering evidence of unregulated activities is particularly problematic when the activities have persisted prior and subsequent t...
Article
Understanding the distribution of fishing activity is fundamental to quantifying its impact on the seabed. Vessel monitoring system (VMS) data provides a means to understand the footprint (extent and intensity) of fishing activity. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data could offer a higher resolution alternative to VMS data, but differences in...
Article
Full-text available
Bottom-contact fishing gears are globally the most widespread anthropogenic sources of direct disturbance to the seabed and associated biota. Managing these fishing disturbances requires quantification of gear impacts on biota and the rate of recovery following disturbance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of 122 experiments on th...
Article
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The use of reserves as conservation tools is widespread. However, evaluating the effectiveness of reserve implementation for long-lived species has been problematic as it requires sampling programmes over long timescales that are appropriate to species' longevity and recovery rates. In the sea, towed bottom fishing gears alter the biodiversity and...
Article
Full-text available
Brown crab contributes to small-scale fisheries in the Isle of Man and landings (495 t) were worth in excess of £0.5 million in 2012. The present study sought to fill evidence gaps needed to improve the scientific understanding of this fishery. Observer data were collected to examine the spatial and temporal variations in the size distribution and...
Article
Full-text available
While the direct physical impact on seabed biota is well understood, no studies have defined thresholds to inform an ecosystem-based approach to managing fishing impacts. We addressed this knowledge gap using a large-scale experiment that created a controlled gradient of fishing intensity and assessed the immediate impacts and short-term recovery....
Article
The use of social media data is becoming increasingly widespread in ecological research and this trend is expected to continue as social media use increases globally. Fishers share details of their activity online and scientists have mined this content to help understand fisher activity, yet little information exists on the ethics of exploiting soc...
Article
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The lack of detailed life history (LH) information (e.g. age, growth, size at maturity, sex composition etc.) for many species of conservation importance limits the implementation of appropriate conservation measures. Typically, LH information is acquired using lethal sampling techniques, which undermines the goal of conservation. This is particula...
Article
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Baited trap or pot fisheries are considered to have relatively few wider ecosystem effects on the marine environment, particularly when compared with towed mobile fishing gear. However, this assumption is rarely tested in the field. This study aimed to determine the composition of non-target species that occur in crustacean pots and to assess spati...
Article
Full-text available
Trawling is the most widespread direct human disturbance on the seabed. Knowledge of the extent and consequences of this disturbance is limited because large-scale distributions of seabed fauna are not well known. We map faunal distributions in the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and quantify the proportion of their abundance that occurs i...
Article
Full-text available
Bottom trawling can change food availability for benthivorous demersal species by (i) changing benthic prey composition through physical seabed impacts and (ii) by removing overall benthic consumer biomass increasing the net availability of benthic prey for remaining individuals. Thus trawling may both negatively and positively influence the quanti...
Article
Full-text available
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after traw...
Article
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Evidence reviews are a key mechanism for incorporating extensive, complex and specialised evidence into policy and practice, and in guiding future research. However, evidence reviews vary in scope and methodological rigour, creating several risks for decision-makers: decisions may be informed by less reliable reviews; apparently conflicting interpr...
Article
Knowledge of the extent and intensity of fishing activities is critical to inform management in relation to fishing impacts on marine conservation features. Such information can also provide insight into the potential socio-economic impacts of closures (or other restrictions) of fishing grounds that could occur through the future designation of Mar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ramsey Bay is a small, but economically important, traditional fishing area for king scallops (Pecten maximus) that is located on the north-east coast of the Isle of Man. In December 2009 the bay was closed to scallop fishing following concerns raised by the local Manx Fish Producers Organisation (MFPO) about overfishing and the future of the Bay’s...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the relative growth, size–weight relationships and size at onset of maturity of the brown crab Cancer pagurus were investigated in the Isle of Man. For the analyses of relative growth and size at onset of maturity, the samples were collected seasonally between autumn 2012 and spring 2013 using several methods: pot surveys, dredge and...
Article
The implementation of an ecosystem based approach to fisheries management (EBFM) in multispecies fleets has the potential to increase fleet diversification strategies, which can reduce pressure on overexploited stocks. However, diversification may reduce the economic performance of individual vessels and lead to unforeseen outcomes. We studied the...
Article
The predictability of fisher behaviour is an area of considerable uncertainty in fisheries management models. Fisher-derived data could underpin a better understanding, and more realistic predictions of fishing behaviour. Face to face interviews and a choice-based survey were conducted with scallop fishers to collect foraging parameters that could...
Article
The biomass and composition of bycatch from king scallop dredge fisheries was assessed and compared between the English Channel, Cardigan Bay in Wales and around the Isle of Man. Bycatch composition varied significantly at localised, and broad, geographic scales. The mean proportion of scallop dredge bycatch biomass in the English Channel was 19% o...
Article
Full-text available
Impacts of bottom fishing, particularly trawling and dredging, on seabed (benthic) habitats are commonly perceived to pose serious environmental risks. Quantitative ecological risk assessment can be used to evaluate actual risks and to help guide the choice of management measures needed to meet sustainability objectives. 2. We develop and apply a q...
Article
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key strategy for mitigating the impacts of fisheries, but their designation can be controversial, and there is uncertainty surrounding when and where MPAs are most effective. Evidence synthesis that collates primary research on MPA effectiveness can provide a crucial bridge between research, policy and practice....
Article
Full-text available
One quarter of marine fish production is caught with bottom trawls and dredges on continental shelves around the world. Towed bottom-fishing gears typically kill 20–50 per cent of the benthic invertebrates in their path, depending on gear type, substrate and vulnerability of particular taxa. Particularly vulnerable are epifaunal species, which stab...
Article
Full-text available
The brown crab is an important fishery resource in northern Europe. Understanding factors that affect fecundity in this species is complicated by the fact that ovigerous females enter traps infrequently. This study aimed to understand factors that affect brown crab fecundity and egg quality for crabs sampled from the waters around the Isle of Man....
Article
In this article, we undertake the first broad-scale, cross-institutional collaboration to collect data on the size at maturity and reproductive strategy of the commercially fished decapod crab species, Cancer pagurus. Using identical methodology and temporal sampling, morphometric and physiological estimates of size at maturity were undertaken usin...