Michel Failing

Michel Failing
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin | Charité · Department of Psychiatry

PhD

About

22
Publications
6,713
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799
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (22)
Article
Full-text available
Visual attention enables us to selectively prioritize or suppress information in the environment. Prominent models concerned with the control of visual attention differentiate between goal-directed, top-down and stimulus-driven, bottom-up control, with the former determined by current selection goals and the latter determined by physical salience....
Book
Full-text available
Cambridge Core - Biological Psychology - Attentional Selection - by Jan Theeuwes
Article
Full-text available
Salient yet irrelevant objects often interfere with daily tasks by capturing attention against our best interests and intentions. Recent research has shown that through implicit learning, distraction by a salient object can be reduced by suppressing the location where this distractor is likely to appear. Here, we investigated whether suppression of...
Article
We are constantly extracting regularities from the visual environment to optimize attentional orienting. Here we examine the phenomenon that recurrent presentation of distractors in a specific location leads to its attentional suppression. Specifically, we address the question whether suppression is specific to the spatial regularities of distracto...
Preprint
Where and what we attend to is not only determined by what we are currently looking for but also by what we have encountered in the past. Recent studies suggest that biasing the probability by which distractors appear at locations in visual space may lead to attentional suppression of high probability distractor locations which effectively reduces...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally assumed that, in order to save storage space, features are stored as integrated objects in visual working memory (VWM). Although such an object-based account does not always hold because features can be processed in parallel, a previous study has shown that different features can be automatically bound with their locations (task-irr...
Article
Full-text available
We are constantly extracting regularities from the visual environment to optimize attentional orienting. Here we examine the phenomenon that recurrent presentation of distractors in a specific location leads to its attentional suppression. Specifically, we address the question whether suppression is specific to the spatial regularities of distracto...
Article
Where and what we attend to is not only determined by what we are currently looking for but also by what we have encountered in the past. Recent studies suggest that biasing the probability by which distractors appear at locations in visual space may lead to attentional suppression of high-probability distractor locations, which effectively reduces...
Preprint
Full-text available
We are constantly extracting regularities from the visual environment to optimize attentional orienting. Here we examine the phenomenon that recurrent presentation of distractors in a specific location leads to its attentional suppression. Specifically, we address the question whether suppression is specific to the spatial regularities of distracto...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that attentional selection is affected by reward contingencies: previously selected and rewarded stimuli continue to capture attention even if the reward contingencies are no longer in place. In the current study, we investigated whether attentional selection also is affected by stimuli that merely signal the magnitude o...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that people covertly attend to threatening stimuli even when it is not beneficial for the task. In the current study we examined whether overt selection is affected by the presence of an object that signals threat. We demonstrate that stimuli that signal the possibility of receiving an electric shock capture the eyes more often than sti...
Article
Recent studies have shown that reward contingencies affect attentional selection. Stimuli that were selected and previously rewarded continue to capture attention even if the reward contingencies are no longer in place. In the current series of experiments, we investigated whether task-irrelevant and non-salient stimuli that merely signal the magni...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that reward learning can modulate oculomotor and attentional capture by physically salient and task-irrelevant distractor stimuli, even when directing gaze to those stimuli is directly counterproductive to receiving reward. This value-modulated oculomotor capture effect may reflect biased competition in the oculomotor syst...
Article
Recent findings indicate that monetary rewards have a powerful effect on cognitive performance. In order to maximize overall gain, the prospect of earning reward biases visual attention to specific locations or stimulus features improving perceptual sensitivity and processing. The question we addressed in this study is whether the prospect of rewar...
Conference Paper
Classic studies have demonstrated an important role of attention in perception of time. Which stimuli enjoy attentional priority has also been shown to be affected by reward. For instance, recent studies showed that stimuli associated with relatively high reward are attentionally prioritized over stimuli associated with low or no reward. The questi...
Conference Paper
It is well known that attentional selection is influenced by our previous experience of rewards. Stimuli whose selection was previously rewarded continue to capture attention in a subsequent test session when these rewards are no longer available. In this study we provide evidence of both attentional and oculomotor capture by stimuli that merely si...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that eye movement patterns are influenced by both goal- and salience-driven factors. Recent studies however have demonstrated that objects that are non-salient and task-irrelevant can still capture our eyes if moving our eyes to those objects has previously produced reward. Here we demonstrate that training such an association betw...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that reward influences visual perception and cognition in a way that is distinct from the well-documented goal-directed mechanisms. In the current study we explored how task-irrelevant stimulus-reward associations affect processing of stimuli when attention is constrained and reward no longer delivered. During a training p...
Article
Full-text available
Classic spatial cueing experiments have demonstrated that salient cues have the ability to summon attention as evidenced by performance benefits when the cue validly indicates the target location and costs when the cue is invalid. Here we show that nonsalient cues that are associated with reward also have the ability to capture attention. We demons...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory processing is strongly influenced by prior expectations. Valid expectations have been shown to lead to improvements in perception as well as in the quality of sensory representations in primary visual cortex. However, very little is known about the neural correlates of the expectations themselves. Previous studies have demonstrated increase...