Michel Cabanac de Lafregeyre

Michel Cabanac de Lafregeyre
Laval University | ULAVAL · Faculty of Medicine

Doctor of Medicine

About

325
Publications
148,346
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10,633
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
January 2004 - present
Complutense University of Madrid
Position
  • Professor
January 1998 - December 2008
Laval University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1954 - July 1961

Publications

Publications (325)
Book
Full-text available
Ce petit recueil est un recensement des évocations zoologiques dans le vocabulaire du français courant. L''entrée pour chaque animal se termine par le nom de son cri en raison de la fréquente similitude avec la vocalisation humaine
Chapter
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Since the origin of life, animals have behaved so as to seek environments favorable for their physiology and survival. All basic physiological needs are met by behaviors, and, of course, the fi rst stage of sexual reproduction is also behavioral. Behavior is therefore the fi rst and most powerful response by an animal to achieve its physiological a...
Chapter
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Evolution of music ability has been considered a mystery from Aristotle to Darwin and as no adaptive purpose has been identified yet, making music is still a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. This chapter considers a new theory of music origin and evolution, identifying a cognitive function of music which helps overcoming cognitive dissonance bas...
Book
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Jean-Pierre Chabrol nous enseigne qu'une sornette, mot vraisemblablement dérivé de l'occitan sornut (obscur), est une récitation le plus souvent scandée dont la chute réamorce l'entrée ; ce qui la rend indéfi niment répétable. Il en est de même avec la ritournelle, mot d'étymologie évidente, à la diff érence que celle-ci est chantée. André Chamson...
Book
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The Fifth influence or, The Dialectics of Pleasure describes how human behavior is determined. It is based on experiments not only in humans, but also with animals, starting with physiological responses, followed by behavioral then purely psychological. Several chapters are then devoted to the inevitable applications to philosophy and even theology...
Article
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In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform b...
Conference Paper
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Cognitive dissonance, CD, leads to discarding of contradictory knowledge. The presentation discusses that all knowledge is contradictory and according to CD theory should have been discarded in evolution before its usefulness would have been established. Therefore a powerful ability should have emerged along with language and diverse knowledge to o...
Data
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Cognitive dissonance is the stress that comes from holding two conflicting thoughts simultaneously in the mind, usually arising when people are asked to choose between two detrimental or two beneficial options. In view of the well-established role of emotions in decision making, here we investigate whether the conventional structural models used to...
Article
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h i g h l i g h t s Music helps overcoming cognitive dissonance and hold contradictory knowledge. This might be fundamental for human evolution and ability to think. The 'Mozart effect' might be caused by overcoming cognitive dissonance. Students reduce thinking time during stressful tests, but music reverses this. A 'mystery of music' might be due...
Chapter
Full-text available
maximization of sensory pleasure optimizes behavior, in terms of maintaining physiological integrity and anticipating future need. Such a mechanism Pleasure aroused from sensory inputs allows one to select the optimal stimuli from a range of environmental conditions and the best compromise in the event that motivations enter into conflict with each...
Article
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What may have killed the famous runner from Marathon ? Several historians think that the legendär)' runner who brought the news of the Greek victory over the Persian army landed at Marathon, and who died after delivering his message, was only a legend because Herodotus did not mention the runner in his relation of the battle. However, other histori...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive dissonance is the stress that comes from holding two conflicting thoughts simultaneously in the mind, usually arising when people are asked to choose between two detrimental or two beneficial options. In view of the well-established role of emotions in decision making, here we investigate whether the conventional structural models used to...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes experiments conducted by one of the authors of the article from the point of view of the hedonistic model of desire proposed by another author. We show that these independently conducted experiments and a number of the classical definitions of desire support the proposed model of desire. The model claims that terms "desire", "...
Article
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Many psychologists think that there are few basic emotions, and most emotions are combinations of these few. Here we advance a hypothesis that the number of principally different emotions is near infinite. We consider emotions as mental states with hedonic content, indicating satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Basic emotions correspond to bodily sig...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity of human observers to remember incidentally learned olfactory sensations as a function of their perceived pleasure/ displeasure was investigated. In the encoding phase of the experiment, the participants rated a sequence of 24 stimuli for (i) sensory intensity, and (ii) degree of pleasure or displeasure. They were then given two succes...
Article
Full-text available
Control theory is concerned mainly with the treatment of signals. This article takes into account that living beings not only treat information, but they are open systems traversed by flows of energy and mass. A new block diagram of the regulation process is proposed, taking into account this fundamental difference between engineered and living sys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Basic emotions correspond to bodily signals. Many psychologists think that there are only a few basic emotions, and that most emotions are combinations of these few. Here we advance a hypothesis that the number of principally different emotions is near infinite. We consider emotions as mental states with hedonic content, indicating satisfaction and...
Chapter
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The sections in this article are:
Article
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This article is a theoretical consideration on the role of sensory pleasure and mental joy as optimizers of behavior. It ends with an axiomatic proposal. When they compare the human body to its environment, Philosophers recognise the cosmos as the Large Infinite, and the atomic particles as the Small Infinite. The human brain reaches such a degree...
Article
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Heuristic decision making received wide attention due to the work of Tversky and Kahneman (1981) and inspired multiple studies of irrationality of the human mind and a fundamental disregard for knowledge. But what is the source of all human knowledge, including heuristics? We discuss the hypothesis that acquisition of knowledge is a deeply rooted p...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the relative weighting of rationality and pleasure in decisions by individuals from all three branches of government. Judges, government executives, and members of parliament rated their pleasure/displeasure after reading item-sentences describing political and social problems followed by different decisions (Questionnaire One). Que...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We discuss the hypothesis that acquisition of knowledge is a deeply rooted psychological need. But so is the desire for fast decisions and for minimizing cognitive efforts. There is a controversy between maximizing knowledge rationally for decision making or using Tversky and Kahneman heuristic mechanisms. Here we explore a basic aspect of learning...
Book
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Michel Cabanac est un convaincu : l’étude du comportement mérite à nouveau sa place dans les livres de physiologie. Sur les traces de Pavlov et Darwin, ce docteur de l’université Laval nous retrace l’histoire de ces sciences. Car avant de constituer des disciplines distinctes, psychologie, éthologie et physiologie ne faisaient qu’une et aucun des g...
Article
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Chapter
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The hedonic dimension of consciousness is what renders decisions simple. To minimize displeasure and to maximizepleasure is both the result and the aim of behavior. Thus, pleasure dialectics is a dynamic phenomenon that serves to optimize behavior.
Article
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This work investigates whether pleasure influences political and gambling decisions. Participants received two questionnaires. On Questionnaire 1, they rated the pleasure/displeasure of a series of items: social and political issues in Experiment 1, winning bets in Experiment 2, and losing bets in Experiment 3. On Questionnaire 2, they indicated th...
Article
Full-text available
Maximization of pleasure (hedonicity) is a major mechanism in human decision-making by optimizing behavior, as previous research has shown on both sensory pleasure and purely mental pleasure (such as playing video- games or solving mathematical problems). Our group also documented that pleasure is a major factor in decision-making in social situati...
Article
Full-text available
The brains of animals show chemical, anatomical, and functional differences, such as dopamine production and structure of sleep, between Amniota and older groups. In addition, play behavior, capacity to acquire taste aversion, sensory pleasure in decision making, and expression of emotional tachycardia and fever started also to be displayed by Amni...
Article
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To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus) named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look...
Article
Full-text available
To a large degree, humans use pleasure (hedonicity) maximization to guide decision making, thereby optimizing their behaviour, as shown by research on either sensory or purely mental pleasure (e.g., pleasure from video-game playing or mathematical problem-solving). Our group has now found that pleasure determines decision making in situations of in...
Article
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La rationalité acquise par Adam et Ève leur fait quitter le jardin, autre image de l'incompatibilité de foi et raison. Mais ils partent en quelque sorte de leur plein gré. Ici encore la Serpent ne leur a pas menti. En effet ils vivent désormais en véritables dieux dans le monde que Dieu leur a donné mais,
Article
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Rationality gives us a good reason to return to faith
Chapter
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The Threshold of ConsciousnessEmotional FeverEmotional TachycardiaAcquired Taste Aversion: The Garcia EffectHow to Study Sensory Pleasure in AnimalsGustatory Pleasure in RatsThermal Pleasure in RatsKinesthesic Pleasure in the RatConflicts of Motivations in the RatReptilesConclusion References
Article
Full-text available
As obesity becomes increasingly prevalent, many people are trying to control their body weight through dieting, with mitigated results. We analyzed the impact of weight loss on food choice by recording the grocery basket composition of 100 participants, using their grocery receipts. Participants also anonymously completed a questionnaire about age,...
Article
Full-text available
Violence and aggressiveness are social concerns. Also, at a time of rising prevalence of obesity, many people tend to control their body weight through dieting. We analyzed the impact of weight loss on aggressiveness: 150 participants completed anonymously two questionnaires assessing their aggressiveness, age, sex, diet, recent body weight change,...
Data
Questionnaire 2. This questionnaire presents 10 items describing each five solutions to the social or political problem involved. Under each theme, indicate your choice on the attached 'response page.'
Article
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Alliesthesia' describes the fact that sensory stimuli can arouse pleasant or unpleasant sensations according to the internal state of a person. In the present work, the hedonicity aroused by stimuli from the environment in visual and auditory sensations was evaluated in 5 situations: 1) daytime without sensory stimulations (no videotape); 2) daytim...
Article
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The authors investigated body weight, satiation, and gustative pleasure of obese patients 2 years after a bariatric operation: the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS). 9 operated patients, 10 unoperated non-obese and 10 unoperated obese persons participated in the "alliesthesia (food distaste) test". This test is a psychometric asse...
Article
Full-text available
Body weight regulation is known to achieve energy balance through several responses: appetite, satiety, thermogenesis, feeding behavior. Absorption efficiency might be, also, another response. In this paper, we hypothesized that the intestinal absorption efficiency of the rat might be lowered in response to a high energy content of the diet. Thirty...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments studied the hedonicity of decision making. Participants rated their pleasure/displeasure while reading item-sentences describing political and social problems followed by different decisions (Questionnaire 1). Questionnaire 2 was multiple-choice, grouping the items from Questionnaire 1. In Experiment 1, participants answered Quest...
Book
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Après une définition de bonheur on examine si les commandements des grandes religions permettent un accès au bonheur.
Article
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Mean preferred temperature and light were determined in groups of 20 Lymea auricularia (several hundreds of them altogether) placed in gradients of temperature and of light. The preferred temperature, 19.4°C and light, 300lx, were independent of the steepness of the gradients.The snails were placed in situations where a light of 300lx was located o...
Article
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To determine how an individual optimizes muscular work. Several previous investigations by the author that explored the hedonicity of various sensations aroused during work and compared the results with the subjects' performances. When a subject is given the task to climb 300 m elevation on a treadmill, at various combinations of speed and slope, i...
Article
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The value of a regulated variable in the absence of external perturbation stabilizes at the set point of the system. This set point is an information input that may be determined by an external signal to which the regulated variable is compared or may be determined by the structural characteristics of the system itself. In the case of temperature r...
Article
Full-text available
La maximización del placer (hedonismo) es un mecanismo importante en la toma de decisiones humanas, tal y como se ha demostrado tanto para el placer sensitivo como para el placer puramente mental. Esta ligazón también se ha demostrado en situaciones sociales relacionadas con la agresión interpersonal y que los seres humanos tienden a tomar decision...
Article
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Among other dietary laws, the Torah and later the Koran forbade the eating of pork. Boar meat has a strong odor that is generally considered to be repulsive. There is no smell if the animal has been castrated, but castration other than for punitive reasons was forbidden in the ancient Middle East, at least by the Semitic peoples among whom this tab...
Article
Full-text available
Unpredictable stressors have been used to assess the effect of stress on energy metabolism in obesity-prone (C57BL6J) and obesity-resistant (AJ) mice. Mice were exposed for 25 days to a stress protocol. Both strains of mice were divided into groups of control and stressed mice, which had access to either a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate diet. Twen...
Article
Full-text available
This is to introduce a new test "negative alliesthesia" for measuring satiation after bariatric surgery. It is a test that is well known by physiologists but has never been used clinically. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of satiation. We measured the time it took for a...
Article
Full-text available
If intake of a required nutrient--here calcium--affects body weight, the effect must be mediated by a change in the body weight set-point. Thus, the controversial 'anti-obesity' influence of high calcium intake should decrease the body weight set-point. Diets differing in calcium content were assigned to three groups of rats. The effects of the die...
Article
Full-text available
The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session) and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by phys...
Article
Full-text available
Living organisms are not closed systems but are open to the environment. At each instant they receive energy and matter from the environment, and lose to the environment an equal flow of the same. The very process of life entails this exchange with the environment. Without these in-and-out energy and matter flows, life is not possible. The water ta...
Chapter
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When gently handled, mammals, birds, and reptiles, but not amphibians and fish, show signs of emotion: fever and tachycardia. Rats respond to tastes with gestual and facial reflexes that superimpose with what humans describe as sensory pleasure, displeasure, and alliesthesia. The absence of emotional tachycardia in frogs and its presence in reptile...
Chapter
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Des arguments experimentaux montrent que plaisir sensoriel et conscience ont émergé avec les reptiles. On propose un postulat selon lequel la conscience a conservé la structure 4D de son origine, la sensation. Ces 4 dimensions sont: qualité, intensité, hédonicité et durée. Le postulat explique par la phylogénèse le fait que le plaisir soit devenu l...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the pleasurability of aggressive behavioral decisions. Four questionnaires (on hedonicity, decisión making, justification of aggression, and impulsiveness) were given to 50 participants of both sexes, ranging from 16 to 80 years old. Most participants avoided unpleasant behaviors as part of a trend to maximize pleasure and to minimi...
Article
Full-text available
Four Bufo marinus toads and one Bombina bombina toad were placed individually along a temperature gradient where they could regulate their body temperature through behavioral means. When injected intraperitoneally with killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, the toads sought heat and raised their body core temperature. Gentle handling by the experi...
Article
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The body weight threshold for hoarding behavior of rats is routinely used as a means to discern an animal's body weight regulation. We explored whether the size of food pellets would modify hoarding and the hoarding threshold. In Experiment 1, we offered the rats either large (ca. 5 g) or small (ca. 2 g) food pellets on alternate days while keeping...
Article
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There are two sorts of scientists: Dionysians, who rely on intuition, and Apollonians, who are more systematic. Self-experimentation is a Dionysian approach that is likely to open new lines of research. Unfortunately, the Dionysian approach does not allow one to predict the results of experiments. That is one reason why self-experimentation is not...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the pleasurability of aggressive behavioral decisions. Four questionnaires (on hedonicity, decision making, justification of aggression, and impulsiveness) were given to 50 participants of both sexes, ranging from 16 to 80 years old. Most participants avoided unpleasant behaviors as part of a trend to maximize pleasure and to minimi...
Book
Full-text available
Regulatory processes, Decision making
Article
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Set-point of body weight was assessed by the behavioral method of the weight threshold to hoard food. Intra-peritoneal injection of nicotine (0.02-0.05 mg/kg) significantly lowered the rats' body weight set-point by 8.5+/-2.7 and 19.2+/-2.6 g (p< or =0.05). These results suggest that the administration of low-dose nicotine lowers the body-weight se...
Article
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In this article, we report findings from behavioral and neuroendocrine experiments in rats under pharmacologically induced antipyretic conditions. Endpoints included emotional fever, body weight setpoint, and in situ corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA (CRHmRNA) expression. Nine male Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 0.04 g/...
Article
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There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of emotion. The term is taken for granted in itself and, most often, emotion is defined with reference to a list: anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise. This article expands on a thesis that motivational states can be compared to each other by means of a common currency (Philos. Tra...
Article
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Smokers usually gain weight when they quit smoking. The present work explores the hypothesis according to which such a rise is a behavioral response to a raised body weight set point taking place when nicotine is eliminated from the body. The human body weight set point was assessed with classical behavioral and psychophysical methods, from the del...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested...
Data
Examples from the various Questionnaires, of the questions asked in Experiments 1, 2, and 3.
Article
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The present study was conducted to explore the influence of slight postural differences on temperature regulation in humans. The subjects were exposed to a hot environment for 50 min in two different postures (semi-supine and supine). Core body temperature fell consistently in spite of the very high atmosphere temperature in both postural condition...
Article
Full-text available
Control theory is concerned mainly with the treatment of signals. This article takes into account that living beings not only treat information, but they are open systems traversed by flows of energy and mass. A block diagram of the regulation process is proposed, taking into account this fundamental difference between engineered and living systems...