Michail Giannakos

Michail Giannakos
Norwegian University of Science and Technology | NTNU · Department of Computer and Information Science

PhD

About

300
Publications
268,806
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Introduction
Michail Giannakos is professor of interaction design and learning technologies at the Department of Computer Science of NTNU, and Head of the Learner-Computer Interaction lab (https://lci.idi.ntnu.no/). His research focuses on the design and study of emerging technologies in online and hybrid education settings, and their connections to student and instructor experiences and practices. Giannakos has co-authored more than 150 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals and conferences.

Publications

Publications (300)
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction and an overview of this edited book on Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA). The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the field of MMLA and provide a comprehensive overview of contemporary MMLA research. The contributions come from diverse contexts to support different objectives and stakeholders (e....
Article
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Child–computer interaction (CCI)¹ is a multidisciplinary field of research that concerns the phenomena surrounding the interaction between children and computational and communication technologies. During the last two decades, several endeavors and contributions have significantly furthered CCI research. The pace of children-relevant technological...
Article
Educational research has used the information extracted from facial expressions to explain learning performance in various educational settings like collaborative learning. Leveraging this, we extracted the emotions based upon two different theoretical frameworks from videos with children aged 13–16 while collaborating to create games using Scratch...
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E-learning systems are receiving ever increasing attention in academia, business and public administration. Major crises, like the pandemic, highlight the tremendous importance of the appropriate development of e-learning systems and its adoption and processes in organizations. Managers and employees who need efficient forms of training and learnin...
Article
Online learning systems should support students preparedness for professional practice, by equipping them with the necessary skills while keeping them engaged and active. In that regard, the development of online learning systems that support students’ development and engagement with programming is a challenging process. Early career computer scien...
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Background Problem-solving is a multidimensional and dynamic process that requires and interlinks cognitive, metacognitive, and affective dimensions of learning. However, current approaches practiced in computing education research (CER) are not sufficient to capture information beyond the basic programming process data (i.e., IDE-log data). Theref...
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The integration of Multimodal Data (MMD) and embodied learning systems (such as Motion Based Educational Games, MBEG), can help learning researchers to better understand the synergy between students' interactions and their learning experiences. Unfolding the dynamics behind this important synergy can lead to the design of intelligent agents which l...
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The proliferation of sensing technology and the produced sensing-based analytics (SBA) has driven several fields in the development of tools and methods that have transformed their industries. The utilization of SBA fulfills the vision of integrating many sources of information, coming from different modalities (e.g., affective, cognitive, and embo...
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In the era of digitalization of learning and teaching processes, Educational Data Literacy (EDL) is highly valued and is becoming essential. EDL is conceptualized as the ability to collect, manage, analyse, comprehend, interpret, and act upon educational data in an ethical, meaningful, and critical manner. The professionals in the field of digitall...
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Following the growing popularity of social commerce sites, there is an increased interest in understanding how consumers decide what products to purchase based on the available information. Consumers nowadays are confronted with the task of assessing marketer-generated (MGC) as well as user-generated information (UGC) in a range of different forms...
Chapter
Incentives and peer competition have so far been employed independently for increasing physical activity. In this paper, we introduce Goalkeeper, a mobile application that utilizes deposit contracts for motivating physical activity in group settings. Goalkeeper enables one to set up a physical exercise challenge with a group of peers that deposit a...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on children aged around 5-11 insofar as this is the population most able to extract value from digital content while also being intrinsically different from older children in terms of their design needs. The need for technology designers to understand their intended users is well established in the fields of human-computer inte...
Preprint
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There is a growing interest in the research and use of multimodal data in learning analytics. This paper presents a systematic literature review of multimodal learning analytics (MMLA) research to assess i) the available evidence of impact on learning outcomes in real-world contexts and ii) explore the extent to which ethical considerations are add...
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Purpose Governments and organizations worldwide are concerned over the declining number of young people choosing to study Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), especially after the age of 16. Research has foregrounded that students with positive attitudes toward science are more likely to find it relevant and aspire to a science...
Article
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Gaze interaction has become an affordable option in the development of innovative interaction methods for user input. Gaze holds great promise as an input modality, offering increased immersion and opportunities for combined interactions (e.g., gaze and mouse, touch). However, the use of gaze as an input modality to support children’s gameplay has...
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Motion-Based Learning Technologies (MBLT) offer a promising approach for integrating play and problem-solving behaviour within children’s learning. The proliferation of sensor technology has driven the field of learning technology toward the development of tools and methods that may benefit from the produced Multi-Modal Data (MMD). Such data can be...
Conference Paper
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Identifying and supporting children’s play and problem solving behaviour is important for designing educational technologies. This can inform feedback mechanisms to scaffold learning (provide hints or progress information), and assist facilitators (teachers, parents) in supporting children. Traditionally, researchers manually code video to dissect...
Conference Paper
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This paper investigates the relation between children’s joint gaze and emotions with the information flow of the screen from a causal point of view, in the context of collaborative coding. We employ Granger’s definition of causality to extend the knowledge we have about children’s collaborative activities from correlational methods. We organised a...
Conference Paper
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Sustainability awareness in young people, and especially students, is growing in importance. To this end, serious games and playful experiences are used to enable students and teachers to actively study climate change issues and respective challenges. Many approaches have been proposed, ranging from quiz-based web applications to full-blown game ex...
Article
This study presents the outcomes of a systematic literature review of empirical evidence on the capabilities of sensing technologies for child–computer interaction (CCI). This paper provides an overview of what and how sensing technologies have been used to explain, understand, and predict children’s experiences with interactive devices and technol...
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Maintaining high-quality teaching and learning in the times of a pandemic poses a huge challenge to education systems. To scaffold adequate practices in our courses during the pandemic, more advanced, and fine-grained “learning design” is needed than providing the learning objectives and learning materials of the course and defining the deliverable...
Article
With the wide expansion of distributed learning environments the way we learn became more diverse than ever. This poses an opportunity to incorporate different data sources of learning traces that can offer broader insights into learner behavior and the intricacies of the learning process. We argue that combining analytics across different e-learni...
Chapter
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Sustaining learning in the times of a global crisis is complex. It is beyond the previously employed online learning and teaching approaches: this new setting brings on the same page the challenge to support learners not to lose their motivation and interest in learning, and the opportunity for new learning and teaching formats to emerge and be dev...
Article
Video social stories are used to facilitate understanding of social situations for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored the use of eye tracking technology to understand how adolescents with and without ASD visually attend to video social story content and whether visual attention is related to content comprehension....
Article
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Programming is a complex learning activity that involves coordination of cognitive processes and affective states. These aspects are often considered individually in computing education research, demonstrating limited understanding of how and when students learn best. This issue confines researchers to contextualize evidence-driven outcomes when le...
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In this inaugural editorial as the new and the past editors-in-chief of the International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction (IJCCI), we take stock of the journal's progress in its first 8 years of existence, and we describe our views and plans to support the journal maintain its positive trajectory as the premier journal in the multidisciplinar...
Conference Paper
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Leveraging movement data to support children's learning is appealing and technically challenging. However, there is limited knowledge about exploiting the complete design potential of bodily interplay in learning games. We conducted an in-the-wild study with 8 children, with special educational needs, playing a language based educational motion-bas...
Article
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In the context of learning systems, identifying causal relationships among information presented to the user, their behavior and cognitive effort required/exerted to understand and perform a task is key to building effective learning experiences, and to maintain engagement in learning processes. An unexplored question is whether our interaction wit...
Article
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Embodied interaction describes the interplay between the brain and the body and its influence on the sharing, creation and manipulation of meaningful interactions with technology. Spatial skills entail the acquisition, organization, utilization and revision of knowledge about spatial environments. Embodied interaction is a rapidly growing topic in...
Article
The Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE) is the second oldest SIGCSE conference, celebrating its 25th anniversary in 2020. The conference has had impact beyond its immediate audience, as its organizers have pioneered conference activities that have been adopted by other SIGCSE conferences including w...
Article
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Sensing and machine learning advances have enabled the unobtrusive measurement of physiological responses and facial expressions so as to estimate one's cognitive performance. This often boils down to mapping the states of the cognitive processes underpinning human cognition: physiological responses (e.g., heart rate) and facial expressions (e.g.,...
Article
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Investigating and explaining the patterns of learners' engagement in adaptive learning conditions is a core issue towards improving the quality of personalized learning services. This study collects learner data from multiple sources during an adaptive learning activity, and employs a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach to s...
Chapter
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Digital games have gained significance as a new paradigm in education. Digital games are accessible and affordable to anyone and provide opportunities for at-scale teaching and learning. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in digital games to support computational thinking and programming in pre-college (K–12) schools. Artificial In...
Chapter
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Making has received growing interest in formal and informal learning environments. However, there is an acute need to investigate and get a deep understanding of the characteristics of making-based coding activities for children and how to appropriately design them. Over 3 years, we conducted empirical studies to investigate children’s learning exp...
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This chapter closes this edited volume on Non-Formal and Informal Science Learning in the 21st Century. Through an ecosystem perspective, we aim to understand and represent the interrelationships among the ecosystem elements that provide actors with avenues by which they may be introduced to and become knowledgeable about science and science learni...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of this edited volume on Non-formal and Informal Science Learning in the ICT Era. The goal of this volume is to introduce the reader to evidence-based non-formal and informal science learning considerations (including technological and pedagogical innovations) that have emerged in and empowered the information and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multi-Modal Data (MMD) can help educational games researchers understand the synergistic relationship between player's movement and their learning experiences, and consequently uncover insights that may lead to improved design of movement-based game technologies for learning. Predicting player performance fosters opportunities to cultivate heighten...
Article
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Social Networking Sites (SNSs) play an important role in our daily lives and the number of their users increases regularly. To understand how users can be satisfied in the complex digital environment of SNSs, this study examines how motivations and emotions combine with each other to explain high satisfaction. Users’ motivations comprise four attri...
Conference Paper
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Authors of academic papers are generally required to nominate several keywords that characterize the paper, but are rarely offered guidance on how to select those keywords. We analyzed the keywords in the past 15 years of selected computing education publications: the 1274 papers published in the proceedings of ICER and ITiCSE, including the ITiCSE...
Article
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Learning outcomes are the result of interactions between intraindividual factors, such as prior knowledge, emotions and motivation; as well as the contextual factors in which the learning takes place (Dumas, McNeish, & Greene, 2020). If any, perhaps only a few Learning Analytics (LA) researchers and practitioners would disagree with this shared und...
Conference Paper
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Popular approaches in learner modeling explore response-time as observational data supplemental to response correctness, to enrich the predictive models of learner knowledge. It has been argued that the relationship between response-time and knowledge mastery is non-linear. Determining the degree of association (dependence structure) between those...
Conference Paper
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Learning is a complex process that is associated with many aspects of interaction and cognition (e.g., hard mental operations, cognitive friction etc.) and that can take across diverse contexts (online, classrooms, labs, maker spaces, etc.). The complexity of this process and its environments means that it is likely that no single data modality can...
Article
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Most research on learning technology uses clickstreams and questionnaires as their primary source of quantitative data. This study presents the outcomes of a systematic literature review of empirical evidence on the capabilities of multimodal data (MMD) for human learning. This paper provides an overview of what and how MMD have been used to inform...
Conference Paper
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Motion-Based Touchless Games (MBTG) are being investigated as a promising interaction paradigm in children’s learning experiences. Within these games, children’s digital persona (i.e, avatar), enables them to efficiently communicate their motion-based interactivity. However, the role of children’s Avatar Self-Representation (ASR) in educational MBT...
Article
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The interaction with the various learners in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is often complex. Contemporary MOOC learning analytics relate with click-streams, keystrokes and other user-input variables. Such variables however, do not always capture users’ learning and behavior (e.g., passive video watching). In this paper, we present a study wit...
Conference Paper
This study examines how quickly we can predict users’ ratings on visual aesthetics in terms of simplicity, diversity, colorfulness, craftsmanship. To predict users’ ratings, first we capture gaze behavior while looking at high, neutral, and low visually appealing websites, followed by a survey regarding user perceptions on visual aesthetics towards...
Article
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Designing technology for and with children is the main focus of the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. The questions posed are; how can we better understand children’s needs? and how can we design for and with them? The annual Interaction Design and Children (IDC) Conference, as the premier event in CCI, offers a channel for presenting and...
Article
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Interactive displays are becoming increasingly popular in informal learning environments as an educational technology for improving students’ learning and enhancing their engagement. Interactive displays have the potential to reinforce and maintain collaboration and rich-interaction with the content in a natural and engaging manner. Despite the inc...
Conference Paper
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The EEGlass prototype is a merger between a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) and a brain-sensing platform with a set of electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes at the contact points with the skull. EEGlass measures unobtrusively the activity of the human brain facilitating the interaction with HMDs for augmenting human cognition. Among others, EEGlass is...
Conference Paper
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This study aims to identify the conceptual structure and the thematic progress in Learning Analytics (evolution) and to elaborate on backbone/emerging topics in the field (maturity) from 2011 to September 2019. To address this objective, this paper employs hierarchical clustering, strategic diagrams and network analysis to construct the intellectua...
Conference Paper
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Many factors influence learners' performance on an activity beyond the knowledge required. Learners' on-task effort has been acknowledged for strongly relating to their educational outcomes, reflecting how actively they are engaged in that activity. However, effort is not directly observable. Multimodal data can provide additional insights into the...
Article
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This paper employs hierarchical clustering, strategic diagrams, and network analysis to construct an intellectual map of the Child–Computer Interaction research field (CCI) and to visualize the thematic landscape of this field using co-word analysis. This approach assumes that an article’s keywords constitute an adequate description of its content...
Article
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Learning activities for/with children include rich interactions with peers, tutors, and learning materials (in digital or physical form). During such activities, children gain new knowledge and master their skills. Automatized and continuous monitoring of children's learning is a complex task, but, if efficient, can greatly enrich teaching and lear...
Article
The concept of Working Groups has been a unique feature since the start of the ITiCSE conference series, with CompEd adopting the Working Group practice in 2019. A Working Group comprises of typically 5 to 10 researchers who work together on a project related to computing education. Working Groups provide a wonderful opportunity to work intensively...
Book
This book introduces the reader to evidence-based non-formal and informal science learning considerations (including technological and pedagogical innovations) that have emerged in and empowered the information and communications technology (ICT) era. The contributions come from diverse countries and contexts (such as hackerspaces, museums, makersp...
Article
Full-text available
Most work in the design of learning technology uses click-streams as their primary data source for modelling & predicting learning behaviour. In this paper we set out to quantify what, if any, advantages do physiological sensing techniques provide for the design of learning technologies. We conducted a lab study with 251 game sessions and 17 users...