Research Item (35)
- Nov 2017
There is a need for a practical objective measure to detect mild changes in cognitive performance as early signs of concussion in youth or other special populations. In this paper, we propose a novel correlation model that establishes the relationship between oculometrics extracted from raw eye movements during a mental workload task and cognitive performance. We assessed differences in cognitive performance in terms of age for youth athletes based on oculometrics pertaining to fixations and saccades. In this cross-sectional study, oculometrics were measured on 440 healthy youth athletes aged 7 to 15 years. Oculometrics pertaining to fixations (fixation time, fixation size, and surface area of fixation) and saccades (total saccadic amplitude, average saccadic amplitude, and saccadic velocity) were measured and compiled into a multivariate oculometric database by age. We discovered that the combined power of fixations and saccades provided the strongest correlation with cognitive performance—a finding that is evident across all ages as well as all levels of mental workload difficulty. Specifically, the combined observations of fixation time, saccadic velocities, and saccadic amplitudes provided us an understanding of cognitive performance during different levels of mental workload difficulty across all age groups. This study is the first step towards establishing normative, multi-dimensional oculometrics for fixations and saccades in young athletes (7 to 15 years) who are at risk for concussion in sports and recreational activities.
- Apr 2016
Objective: Labyrinthine concussion due to a postauricular gunshot wound has not been well reported. Design: Retrospective chart review. Study sample: We describe an otherwise healthy 22-year-old male who received a gunshot wound to the left mastoid and subsequently reported hearing loss and rotational vertigo. Results: Audiometric testing demonstrated significant inverted scoop shaped sensorineural hearing loss. Vestibular diagnostic testing indicated a significant uncompensated left peripheral vestibulopathy. Imaging demonstrated no structural changes to the middle ear or labyrinth, suggesting that the auditory and vestibular losses noted on diagnostic examination were likely due to labyrinthine concussion. Conclusions: Labyrinthine concussion may lead to reduced vestibular reflex pathway following gunshot wounds to the temporal bone. Clinical presentation is likely to vary significantly among cases.
- Nov 2014
Literature investigating otolith reflexes in patients with vestibular migraine (VM) is variable and primarily describes the descending saccular pathway. This research aimed to study ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) prevalence and response characteristics in patients with suspected VM and in control patients. The purpose is to assess vulnerabilities within the ascending utricular and descending saccular pathways in the VM population. Retrospective study SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center PATIENTS: 39 adults with VM, 29 control patients MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Air conducted oVEMPs and cVEMPs measured with 500 Hz tone burst stimuli RESULTS: Age of headache onset was most often in childhood or adolescence, with dizziness onset occurring later. The rate of bilaterally absent oVEMPs was significantly higher (28%, p < 0.01) in the VM group compared with the control group (0%). oVEMP amplitude asymmetry ratios were significantly higher for the definite VM (p < 0.01) and probable VM (p = 0.023) groups than the control group. Eleven patients also had history of concussion; they were significantly more likely to demonstrate bilaterally absent oVEMPs (p < 0.01) in comparison to the control patients. When VM patients with a history of concussion were omitted from analysis, differences in oVEMP amplitude asymmetry (p < 0.01) and bilateral oVEMP absence remained significant (p = 0.015). There were no differences in the rate of bilateral cVEMP presence or response parameters between VM and control groups. VEMP presentation differs for some patients diagnosed with VM. The higher rates of abnormal oVEMPs may suggest greater vulnerability within the ascending utricular-ocular pathway in patients with VM.
- Jul 2014
Introduction: Visual performance impairment after hypoxia is well recognized in military and civilian aviation. The aims of this study were: 1) to assess oculometric features such as blink metrics, pupillary dynamics, fixations, and saccades as cognitive indicators of early signs of hypoxia; and 2) to analyze the impact of different hypoxic conditions ["hypoxic hypoxia" (HH) and "isocapnic hypoxia" (IH)] on specified oculometrics during mental workloads. Methods: Oculometric data were collected on 25 subjects under 3 conditions: normoxia, HH (8% O2 + balance N2), and IH (7% O2 + 5% CO2 + balance N2). The mental workload task consisted of reading aloud linear arrays of numbers after exposure to gas mixtures. Results: Blink rates were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions (by +100.7% in HH and by +92.8% in IH compared to normoxia). A faster recovery of blink rate was observed in transitioning from IH (23.6% vs. 76.3%) to normoxia. The percentage change in pupil size fluctuation was increased under HH more than under IH (29% vs. 4.4%). Under HH average fixation time and target area size were significantly higher than under IH. Total saccadic times under hypoxic conditions were significantly increased compared with normoxia. Conclusions: These results suggest that oculometric changes are indicators of hypoxia, which can be monitored using compact, portable, noninvasive eye-tracking devices in a cockpit analogous environment to detect hypoxia-induced physiological changes in aircrew. Comparative results between HH and IH support the potential role of carbon dioxide in augmenting cerebral perfusion and hence improved tissue oxygen delivery.
The present invention relates to systems and techniques for stimulating a user. For example, materials and methods for manipulating nystagmus and the related vestibular system with coupling of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) and visual cueing are provided herein. Use of GVS within the present invention may be applied to simulation, alleviating motion sickness, and directional cueing of a user to a precise target location.
- Jan 2014
Simulator sickness causes vestibulo-autonomic responses that increase sympathetic activity and decrease parasympathetic activity. The purpose of the study was to quantify these responses through electrogastrography and cardiac interbeat intervals during flight simulation. There were 29 subjects that were randomly assigned to 2 parallel arms: (1) oculovestibular recoupling, where galvanic vestibular stimulation was synchronous with the visual field; and (2) control. Electrogastrography and interbeat interval data were collected during baseline, simulation, and post-simulation periods. A simulator sickness questionnaire was administered. Statistically significant differences were observed in percentage of recording time with the dominant frequency of electrogastrography in normogastric and bradygastric domains between the oculovestibular recoupling and control groups. Normogastria was dominant during simulation in the oculovestibular recoupling group. In the control group, the percentage of recording time with the dominant frequency decreased by 22% in normogastria and increased by 20% in bradygastria. The percentage change of the dominant power instability coefficient from baseline to simulation was 26% in the oculovestibular recoupling group vs. 108% in the control group. The power of high-frequency components for interbeat intervals did not change significantly in the oculovestibular recoupling group and was decreased during simulation in the control group. Electrogastrography and interbeat intervals are sensitive indices of autonomic changes in subjects undergoing flight simulation. These data demonstrate the potential of oculovestibular recoupling to stabilize gastric activity and cardiac autonomic changes altered during simulator and motion sickness.
- Oct 2013
Hypoxic incapacitation continues to be a significant threat to safety and operations at high altitude. Noninvasive neurocognitive performance testing is desirable to identify presymptomatic cognitive impairment, affording operators at altitude a tool to quantify their performance and safety. There were 25 subjects enrolled in this study. Cognitive performance was assessed by using the King-Devick (K-D) test. The performance of the subjects on the K-D test was measured in normoxia followed by hypoxia (8% 02 equivalent to 7101 m) and then again in normoxia. K-D test completion time in hypoxia for 3 min was significantly longer than the Baseline Test (54.5 +/- 12.4 s hypoxic vs. 46.3 +/- 10.4 s baseline). Upon returning to normoxia the completion time was significantly shorter than in hypoxia (47.6 +/- 10.6 s post test vs. 54.5 +/- 12.4 s hypoxic). There was no statistically significant difference between baseline test and post test times, indicating that all subjects returned to their normoxic baseline levels. SpO2 decreased from 98 +/- 0.9% to 80 +/- 7.8% after 3 min on hypoxic gas. During the hypoxic K-D test, SpO2 decreased further to 75.8 +/- 8.3%. In this study the K-D test has been shown to be an effective neurocognitive test to detect hypoxic impairment at early presymptomatic stages. The K-D test may also be used to afford a reassessment of traditional measures used to determine hypoxic reserve time.
Asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) can be an early sign of vestibular schwannoma (VS). However, recognizing VS-induced AHL is challenging. There is no universally accepted definition of a "medically significant pure-tone hearing asymmetry," in part because AHL is a common feature of medically benign forms of hearing loss (e.g., age- or firearm-related hearing loss). In most cases, the determination that an observed AHL does not come from a benign cause involves subjective clinical judgment. Our purpose was threefold: (1) to quantify hearing asymmetry distributions in a large group of patients with medically benign forms of hearing loss, stratifying for age, sex, and noise exposure history; (2) to assess how previously proposed hearing asymmetry calculations segregate tumor from nontumor cases; and (3) to present the results of a logistic regression method for defining hearing asymmetry that incorporates age, sex, and noise information. Retrospective chart review. Study Sample: Five thousand six hundred and sixty-one patients with idiopathic, age- or noise exposure-related hearing loss and 85 untreated VS patients. DATA COLLECTION and Audiometric, patient history, and clinical impression data were collected from 22,785 consecutive patient visits to the audiology section at Mayo Clinic in Florida from 2006 to 2009 to screen for eligibility. Those eligible were then stratified by VS presence, age, sex, and self-reported noise exposure history. Pure-tone asymmetry distributions were analyzed. Audiometric data from VS diagnoses were used to create four additional audiograms per patient to model the hypothetical development of AHL prior to the actual hearing test. The ability of 11 previously defined hearing asymmetry calculations to distinguish between VS and non-VS cases was described. A logistic regression model was developed that integrated age, sex, and noise exposure history with pure-tone asymmetry data. Regression model performance was then compared to existing asymmetry calculation methods. The 11 existing pure-tone asymmetry calculations varied in tumor detection performance. Age, sex, and noise exposure history helped to predict benign forms of hearing asymmetry. The logistic regression model outperformed existing asymmetry calculations and better accounted for normal age-, sex-, and noise exposure-related asymmetry variability. Our logistic regression asymmetry method improves the clinician's ability to estimate risk of VS, in part by integrating categorical patient history and numeric test data. This form of modeling can enhance clinical decision making in audiology and otology.
Galvanic stimulation has long been used as a nonmechanical means of activating the vestibular apparatus through direct action on the vestibular nerve endings. This stimulation has been reported to be safe, but no studies have examined the potential changes in the corresponding cochlear receptors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Fourteen subjects underwent DPOAEs during several conditions of GVS. The DPOAEs ranged from ∼ 1 kHz to ∼ 8 kHz at 65/55 dB for f1/f2 and with an f2/f1 ratio of 1.2. The subjects were evaluated at 10 stimulation conditions that ranged from -2.0 mA to +2.0 mA for each frequency. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in DPOAE amplitudes for all conditions with and without GVS. Results also showed no significant differences between DPOAE amplitudes before and after GVS. Multivariate analysis found subject variability in DPOAE amplitude, which was not thought to be GVS related. Results indicated that GVS produced neither temporary nor permanent changes in DPOAEs.
Despite improvement in the computational capabilities of visual displays in flight simulators, intersensory visual-vestibular conflict remains the leading cause of simulator sickness (SS). By using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), the vestibular system can be synchronized with a moving visual field in order to lessen the mismatch of sensory inputs thought to result in SS. A multisite electrode array was used to deliver combinations of GVS in 21 normal subjects. Optimal electrode combinations were identified and used to establish GVS dose-response predictions for the perception of roll, pitch, and yaw. Based on these data, an algorithm was then implemented in flight simulator hardware in order to synchronize visual and GVS-induced vestibular sensations (oculo-vestibular-recoupled or OVR simulation). Subjects were then randomly exposed to flight simulation either with or without OVR simulation. A self-report SS checklist was administered to all subjects after each session. An overall SS score was calculated for each category of symptoms for both groups. The analysis of GVS stimulation data yielded six unique combinations of electrode positions inducing motion perceptions in the three rotational axes. This provided the algorithm used for OVR simulation. The overall SS scores for gastrointestinal, central, and peripheral categories were 17%, 22.4%, and 20% for the Control group and 6.3%, 20%, and 8% for the OVR group, respectively. When virtual head signals produced by GVS are synchronized to the speed and direction of a moving visual field, manifestations of induced SS in a cockpit flight simulator are significantly reduced.
- Sep 2011
Objective: 1) Report a novel method for measuring vestibular sensations of movement induced by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). 2) Introduce a new approach to quantify vestibular symptoms in patients with vertigo and related disorders.
- Aug 2011
Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCN) results after chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Consequent demyelination, particularly of the cochleovestibular nerve and cerebellum, causes auditory-vestibular dysfunction. Predominant symptoms include progressive sensorineural hearing loss, imbalance, and ataxia. Despite characteristic auditory-vestibular involvement, SSCN is not well known among the hearing health community. Clinical records of 49 patients diagnosed with SSCN were reviewed. Analysis included review of demographic, audiometric, and vestibular data of the largest sample to date and comparison to 31 audiovestibular case reports in the literature. Hearing loss and disordered balance were reported by 92% and 67% of patients, respectively. Results suggest variable but substantial auditory-vestibular involvement related to SSCN. Hearing loss is typically progressive, sloping, and asymmetric and exceeds hearing loss expected based on age or sex. Decreased word recognition is possible and traditional amplification may fail to provide benefit. SSCN is a destructive disorder affecting the auditory-vestibular system. Although not a common diagnosis, SSCN may be more prevalent than clinicians realize. Site of lesion may be anywhere within the auditory-vestibular system from the inner ear to the cortex, although the cochleovestibular nerve and cerebellum are particularly vulnerable. The progressive retrocochlear nature of the disorder makes differential diagnosis difficult and development of effective treatment options challenging. It is essential that audiologists and otologists recognize this uncommon cause of sensorineural hearing loss and balance disorder and the implications for evaluation, treatment, and counseling.
- May 2011
A few studies in the literature have reported postural changes with hypoxia, but none have quantified the magnitude of change. Further understanding of this condition could have implications for patients at risk for falls, individuals undergoing acute altitude exposure, and pilots and commercial passengers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of hypoxia (oxygen nitrogen mixtures) on postural standing balance using the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) system. This improves upon previous protocols by manipulating vision and standing balance with a sway-referenced visual field and/or platform. Additionally, normative data were available for comparison with the cumulative test scores and scores for each condition. Altitude hypoxia was simulated by use of admixing nitrogen to the breathing gas to achieve equivalent altitudes of 1524 m, 2438 m, and 3048 m. Subjects were evaluated using the CDP system. Subjects showed an overall trend toward decreased performance at higher simulated altitudes consistent with the initial hypothesis. Composite standing balance sway scores for the sensory organization subtest of CDP were decreased compared to baseline for simulated altitudes as low as 2438 m (mean sway scores: 81.92 at baseline; 81.85 at 1524 m; 79.15 at 2438 m; 79.15 at 3048 m). Reaction times to unexpected movements in the support surface for the motor control subtest (MCT) increased compared to baseline (mean composite scores: 133.3 at baseline; 135.9 ms at 1524 m; 138.0 ms at 2438 m; 140.9 ms at 3048 m). The CDP testing provided a reliable objective measurement of degradation of balance under hypoxic conditions.
- Dec 2010
This case study details the evaluation, explantation, and subsequent reimplantation of a cochlear implant (CI) recipient with an unusually deep electrode array insertion. Although the positive value of sufficiently deep insertion and the effect of insertion variability have been researched, there are few data available that illustrate the detrimental effects on speech recognition when deep insertion corrupts optimal use of the CI. This unique case report challenges the assumption that deeper insertion will result in improved speech understanding and demonstrates the importance of fully evaluating recipients' complaints and recognizing the impact of frequency-to-place mismatch.
- May 2010
The arterial pulse has historically been an essential source of information in the clinical assessment of health. With current sphygmomanometric and oscillometric devices, only the peak and trough of the peripheral arterial pulse waveform are clinically used. Several limitations exist with peripheral blood pressure. First, central aortic pressure is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than peripheral pressure. Second, peripherally obtained blood pressure does not accurately reflect central pressure because of pressure amplification. Lastly, antihypertensive medications have differing effects on central pressures despite similar reductions in brachial blood pressure. Applanation tonometry can overcome the limitations of peripheral pressure by determining the shape of the aortic waveform from the radial artery. Waveform analysis not only indicates central systolic and diastolic pressure but also determines the influence of pulse wave reflection on the central pressure waveform. It can serve as a useful adjunct to brachial blood pressure measurements in initiating and monitoring hypertensive treatment, in observing the hemodynamic effects of atherosclerotic risk factors, and in predicting cardiovascular outcomes and events. Radial artery applanation tonometry is a noninvasive, reproducible, and affordable technology that can be used in conjunction with peripherally obtained blood pressure to guide patient management. Keywords for the PubMed search were applanation tonometry, radial artery, central pressure, cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, and arterial pulse. Articles published from January 1, 1995, to July 1, 2009, were included in the review if they measured central pressure using radial artery applanation tonometry.
- Jan 2010
Recent studies in noise-induced and idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss have suggested that magnesium supplementation may lessen both hearing loss and the severity of tinnitus in patients. Further epidemiological evidence indicates that all age groups of Americans fall short of the recommended daily allowance for magnesium by 100 mg daily. The purpose of this study was to examine any potential benefit in lessening the severity of tinnitus in patients taking supplemental magnesium. The study was a single-arm, open-label, before-and-after study of oral magnesium (532 mg per day) in 26 patients for 3 months. Tinnitus severity was evaluated and recorded daily by the patient using the Tinnitus Distress Rating (TDR) scale of 0 (no tinnitus) to 10 (worst possible tinnitus). The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was administered before and at the end of the study, and scores were converted to the grades of the 5-item Tinnitus Severity Scale (TSS). The purpose of this phase 2 study was to investigate whether the treatment was effective at all, and, as such, a placebo control was not performed. All data were collected at Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona, between March 6 and December 10, 2008. Patients with moderate to very severe tinnitus (TDR score of 3 through 8). Intervention: Daily magnesium supplementation, 532 mg; patient completion of the THI; and daily self-report of TDR. The main outcome measures were mean TDR scale scores and THI scores as converted to TSS grades. The primary analysis was done on the basis of intention to treat. Twenty-six patients were enrolled; 19 completed the study. The extent of handicap, as measured by THI/TSS, for subjects with slight or greater impairment was significantly decreased (P=.03). Patients who ranked slight or greater on the THI/TSS before intervention showed a significant decrease in the severity of their tinnitus at post-testing (P=.008). The results suggest that magnesium may have a beneficial effect on perception of tinnitus-related handicap when scored with the THI.
- Jul 2009
Considered a rare disorder, superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCN) has become more frequently diagnosed in recent years. As it is characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, patients' needs may surpass the capability of hearing aid technology. Despite the retrocochlear nature of the disorder, patients have undergone cochlear implantation (CI) with varying success. To summarize the issues surrounding cochlear implant candidates with SSCN as well as highlight trends in performance postimplantation. Retrospective case reports of seven cochlear implant candidates detail the symptoms, typical audiologic presentation, and array of clinical issues for patients with this progressive and potentially fatal disease. Despite the retrocochlear component of a hearing loss caused by SSCN, cochlear implantation may be a viable option. It is essential that the CI audiologist not only be aware of the disorder but also be well versed in the resulting implications for the cochlear implant process. A more thorough case history, an expanded candidacy test battery, and knowledge of the typical presentation of SSCN are critical. The diagnosis of SSCN will impact expectations for success with the cochlear implant, and counseling should be adjusted accordingly.
- Aug 2003
Physiologic measures that range from evaluation of the status of the middle ear to myogenic potentials linked to vestibular stimulation are important supplements to behavioral measures of hearing. All of these measures are influenced by medications that may be used to treat symptoms or otherwise help to manage patients who present with multiple handicaps. Some of the interactions occur because of the medication's direct influence on the auditory system, whereas others stem from general depressant effects on the central nervous system. In general, responses obtained from the periphery tend to be vulnerable to cochleotoxic or vestibulotoxic agents that may influence the response before they produce a measurable hearing loss. In contrast, endogenous responses are influenced markedly by level of sedation or sleep state. The clinician employing physiologic measures must be aware of the patient's medication history to interpret properly the outcomes of physiological tests.
The last several decades have revealed clinical and experimental data regarding the importance of magnesium (Mg) in hearing. Increased susceptibility to noise damage, ototoxicity, and auditory hyperexcitability are linked to states of Mg deficiency. Evidence for these processes has come slowly and direct effects have remained elusive because plasma Mg levels do not always correlate with its deficiency. Despite the major progress in the understanding of cochlear mechanical and auditory nerve function, the neurochemical and pharmacologic role of Mg is not clear. The putative mechanism suggests that Mg deficiency may contribute to a metabolic cellular cascade of events. Mg deficiency leads to an increased permeability of the calcium channel in the hair cells with a consequent over influx of calcium, an increased release of glutamate via exocytosis, and over stimulation of NMDA receptors on the auditory nerve. This paper provides a current overview of relevant Mg metabolism and deficiency and its influence on hearing.
- Aug 2000
To compare hypothetical costs for identification of acoustic tumors when using magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium Gd 64 (MRI-(64)Gd) as a sole diagnostic test and when using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing followed by MRI-( 64)Gd (ABR + MRI-(64)Gd) for those with positive ABR findings. Retrospective review of the medical records of 75 patients having surgically confirmed acoustic neuromas to categorize them into 3 subgroups relative to their risk of having a cerebellopontine angle tumor based on history, symptoms, and routine pure-tone and speech audiometric findings. Hypothetical costs associated with identification of patients with acoustic neuroma in each subgroup were calculated for MRI-(64)Gd alone and ABR + MRI-( 64)Gd. Auditory brainstem response sensitivity and specificity data for the 75 patients with acoustic neuroma and 75 patients without a tumor matched for hearing loss were applied to the hypothetical subgroups. Tumor size was considered also. Tertiary care center. Comparison of costs for MRI-(64)Gd and ABR + MRI-(64)Gd. Fouteen patients with acoustic neuroma were assigned to the high-risk category (30% probability); 45 were in the intermediate-risk category (5% probability); and 16 were in the low-risk category (1% probability). Auditory brainstem response testing correctly identified 100% of the large tumors (>2.0 cm), 93% of the medium-sized tumors (1.1-2.0 cm), and 82% of the small tumors (<1.0 cm). The hypothetical costs for identifying 14 patients with acoustic neuroma among 47 patients in the high-risk category using MRI-(64)Gd would be $70,500; ABR + MRI-(64)Gd costs for the 13 patients identified by ABR would be $39,600. Hypothetically 900 patients would be tested to identify the 45 acoustic neuromas in the intermediate-risk category. Magnetic resonance imaging with (64)Gd screening would reach $1.35 million for this sample. Auditory brainstem response testing and MRI-(64)Gd would be $486,000, but 4 acoustic neuromas would be missed. For the low-risk subgroup MRI-6(4)Gd screening of 1600 patients to identify 16 acoustic neuromas would total $2.4 million; ABR + MRI-(64)Gd to identify 15 of them would be $787,500. In this sample of 75 acoustic neuromas, large tumors were more prevalent in the low-risk subgroup than in the high- or intermediate-risk subgroups. Decisions regarding assessment of patients at risk for acoustic neuromas must be made on a case-by-case basis. Use of ABR + MRI-( 64)Gd allows considerable savings when patients are in the intermediate- or low-risk subgroups. New MRI and ABR testing techniques offer promise for reducing costs.
- Jul 2000
Outer hair cell (OHC) metabolism is blocked by cisplatin. Concurrent changes in the renal handling of magnesium occur because of the damage cisplatin causes to the renal proximal tubule cells within the thick ascending loop of Henle. Although there is no evidence of cisplatin within the OHCs, there are significant levels of intracellular calcium, the antagonist to magnesium at the cell membrane. The OHC motile response is dependent on intracellular calcium. When the calcium current is suppressed by an antagonist, the extracellular OHC microphonic potential decreases. Magnesium deficiency is known to produce hyperexcitability within the central nervous system, including fatal audiogenic seizures. In addition, increases in the amplitude of the auditory brainstem response wave V occur with aminoglycoside therapy and magnesium deficiency. This paper illustrates the amplitude growth of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in two patients treated with cisplatin and explores the possible underlying reasons why this may be related to magnesium metabolism.
- Nov 1995
To determine disease concordancy in the first identical twin with corticobasal degeneration. The patients were 63-year-old, erythrocyte antigen-confirmed monozygotic male twins who were clinically discordant for progressive apraxia caused by corticobasal degeneration. Neuropsychologic and kinesiologic testing, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomographic measurements of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose. The affected twin had lower neuropsychologic and kinesiologic test scores than did his brother, particularly on tests sensitive to right-compared with left-hemisphere function; widespread cerebral atrophy, worst in right parietotemporal cortices; and reduced whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, worst in right posterior cortices. The clinically asymptomatic twin had normal neuropsychologic and kinesiologic test scores but performed more poorly on tests sensitive to left- compared with right-hemisphere function; had no abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging; and had left temporoparietal as well as mild whole-brain hypometabolism. Corticobasal degeneration may remain clinically discordant in identical twins after 7 years. Positron emission tomography and neuropsychologic findings suggest the possibility of a preclinical stage of corticobasal degeneration. There is generalized cortical atrophy in patients with corticobasal degeneration in addition to focal atrophy.
- Jul 1995
The remarkable ability of the body to maintain balance is the result of central nervous system integration of sophisticated inputs from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems. Strategies by patients with balance dysfunction are aphysiologic when their performance is relatively better on more difficult conditions of sensory conflict than on easier ones. Twenty-two aphysiologic patterns on computerized dynamic posturography were compared with age-matched normal and vestibular patterns. The aphysiologic group performed significantly better than the patients in the vestibular dysfunction group on the most difficult subtests of computerized dynamic posturography, conditions 5 and 6, yet significantly poorer on the easier subtests, conditions 1 through 4. In addition, patients in the aphysiologic group tended to show greater intertrial variability compared with patients in both normal and vestibular system dysfunction groups. A stepwise linear discriminant analysis was used to determine a set of conditions that had significant value in discriminating between the three patient groups. Case studies are presented to further illustrate the clinical usefulness of computerized dynamic posturography testing in the evaluation of patients suspected of having a functional component to their on-feet balance problems.
Sudden unilateral hearing loss may result from etiologies affecting cochlea, eighth nerve, or more central auditory tracts. Two case studies are presented in which the measurement of otoacoustic emissions helped rule out outer hair cell cochlear pathology. In both cases, the final diagnosis was sudden unilateral hearing loss associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). For one case, the sudden hearing loss was the first clinically recognized presenting sign of MS.
Behavioral audiometry may be of limited value for those patients who have incurred significant brain injury and remain unresponsive to auditory stimuli. Even the more "objective" tests such as auditory brainstem response (ABR) and acoustic reflex testing may be inadequate tools to assess peripheral auditory function when significant brainstem injury has occurred. Determination of peripheral hearing becomes important because rehabilitation strategies are anchored to the knowledge of sensory function prior to implementing appropriate plans of intervention. We present the usefulness of otoacoustic emission (OAE) testing to further evaluate the cochlear function in a patient with traumatic brain injury who was subsequently inconsistent in response to sound.
- Apr 1994
The implantation of a cochlear electronic prosthetic device is an acceptable means of improving the communication ability of pre- and postlingually deafened children and adults. A significant number of patients in this series are in the senior citizen age group. It has been beneficial in improving communication ability in selected profoundly deafened individuals. There has been a significant improvement in the cochlear electronic prosthetic device since the initial report of Djourno in 1957.
- Jul 1991
Tinnitus, a common complaint, reportedly affects more than 37 million Americans. Most often, it is associated with a sensorineural hearing loss in the high-frequency range. Tinnitus, however, is a symptom and not a disease. Complacency about this symptom complex may cause physicians to overlook a severe underlying pathologic process. Patients with unilateral tinnitus, pulsatile tinnitus, fluctuating tinnitus, or tinnitus associated with vertigo should undergo thorough assessment, including elicitation of a complete history, physical examination, and audiologic analysis. In many instances, treatment is effective. Masking of tinnitus, medical therapy, and biofeedback and counseling are some measures that have been used in the management of tinnitus.
- Dec 1989
Thirty-six weanling guinea pigs were fed either a low (600 ppm) or normal (3000 ppm) diet of magnesium for 8 weeks. One half of each diet group received intramuscular injections of magnesium-depleting drugs, furosemide and gentamicin. The other half were controls and received equal intramuscular injections of saline. Auditory brainstem responses were obtained from all animals before and after 8 weeks of treatment of diet and drugs to examine the effects of treatment upon hearing and auditory brainstem function. A three-way analysis of variance of dietary magnesium, by drug and by sex, showed no significant differences in auditory brainstem wave V thresholds, wave V latencies, or interpeak wave I-V latencies between the control and experimental groups. The low magnesium diet group, which received drugs, had significantly greater wave V auditory brainstem response amplitudes. Results can be explained on the basis of magnesium influencing the uptake of calcium into both the hair cells and associated brainstem pathways.
- Apr 1981
Delayed intervention in hearing-impaired infants may diminish ultimate speech and language development. A program for identifying hearing-impairment using ABR was initiated for neonates in the intensive care nursery. Hearing in 81 neonates whose birth weights ranged from 800 to 3980 grams was tested using ABR. Infants were tested when they achieved a post-conceptional age of 34 weeks or within 1 week of birth. Normal binaural hearing (30 dB HL) was found in 64/81 (79%). Hearing abnormalities were detected in 17/81 (21%) and included: mild monaural hearing loss (no response at 30 dB) in 5 neonates (6.2%); mild binaural hearing loss in 5 other neonates (6.2%); moderate binaural hearing loss (no response at 40 dB) in 3 neonates (3.7%); moderately-severe or severe binaural hearing loss (no response at 60 dB) in 4 neonates (4.9%). The expected incidence of hearing loss in a normal nursery poulation is <1%. The high incidence of hearing loss observed in this study suggests that formal ABR be performed in the ICN prior to discharge.
- Jun 1978
A rationale is given for measuring acoustic reflexes in order to establish an estimation of cochlear funtion. Anatomical and physiological descriptions of the normal middle ear are outlined. Particular attention is paid to changes of the acoustic transmitting properties of the middle ear due to middle ear muscle contractions to acoustic stimuli, and the predictive value of these measures in the assessment of sensorineural hearing impairment.
- Dec 1977
A rationale for measuring middle ear function in the speech clinic is given. Anatomical and physiological descriptions of the norman middle ear and four pathological conditions are described in light of present measurement techniques. Emphasis is placed on these measurements as routine procedures for the known or suspected cases of otitis media seen by speech pathologists.
- Jun 1977
Hearing conservation programs are often plagued with a lack of follow-through at the conclusion of identification audiometry. The procedures and results of the Lincoln Institute's hearing conservation program are reported. The results indicate some of the inherent problems associated with screening techniques. In addition, they help demonstrate the need for precautions in informing parents of such results. These precautions in parental counselling must not only be conservative in nature, but also ensure parental co-operation and understanding. These precautions chiefly stem from the lack of personal contact that is possible from mass screenings. Without personal contact, an indirect form of counselling results. This type of counselling must express tact and yet be persuasive enough to generate concern for the necessary confirmation of the hearing impairment.