Michael Yudelson

Michael Yudelson
ACT, Inc. · Emerging Technologies

PhD

About

78
Publications
19,150
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1,343
Citations
Introduction
Michael Yudelson currently works at the ACTNext, ACT, Inc. Michael does research in Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
Carnegie Mellon University
Position
  • Researcher
July 2017 - present
ACT, Inc.
Position
  • Researcher
January 2016 - May 2017
Carnegie Mellon University
Position
  • Researcher
Education
August 2004 - September 2010
University of Pittsburgh
Field of study
  • Information Sciences

Publications

Publications (78)
Chapter
Full-text available
For as long as the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) approach is known, so are the attempts to account for not only skill-level but individual student factors. A lot of computational methods to implement individualization in BKT were proposed over the past 25 years as BKT existed. To this day, virtually all individualization approaches were not suit...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this work, we propose a Transformer-based model to trace students’ knowledge acquisition. We modified the Transformer structure to utilize: the association between questions and skills; and the elapsed time between question steps. The use of question-skill associations allows the model to learn specific representation for frequently encountere...
Chapter
Elo is a rating schema used for tracking player level in individual and, sometimes, team sports, most notably – in chess. Also, it has found use in the area of tracking learner proficiency. Similar to the 1PL IRT (Rasch), Elo rating schema could be extended to serve the most demanding needs of learner skill tracking. Elo’s advantage is that it has...
Article
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In recent years, work with educational testing data has changed due to the affordances provided by technology, the availability of large data sets, and by the advances made in data mining and machine learning. Consequently, data analysis has moved from traditional psychometrics to computational psychometrics. Despite advances in the methodology and...
Article
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Learning and assessment systems have grown and taken shape to incorporate concepts from both models for assessment and models for learning. In this paper we argue that a third dimension is necessary. Not only is it important to understand what the capabilities of a learner are, and how to grow and expand these capabilities, but we must consider whe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we are discussing the case of offering retired assessment items as practice problems for the purposes of learning in a system called ACT Academy. In contrast to computer-assisted learning platforms, where students consistently focus on small sets of skills they practice till mastery, in our case, students are free to explore the whol...
Article
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Few models have been more ubiquitous in their respective fields than Bayesian knowledge tracing and item response theory. Both these models were developed to analyze data on learners. However, the study designs that these models are designed for differ; Bayesian knowledge tracing is designed to analyze longitudinal data while item response theory i...
Conference Paper
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Stereotypes are frequently used in real life to classify students according to their performance in class. In literature, we can find many references to weaker students, fast learners, struggling students, etc. Given the lack of detailed data about students, these or other kinds of stereotypes could be potentially used for user modeling and persona...
Conference Paper
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Understanding effective human tutors’ strategies is one approach to discovering effective tutorial strategies. These strategies are described in terms of actions that tutors take while interacting with learners. To this end, we analyze in this paper dialoguebased interactions between professional tutors and tutees. There are two challenges when exp...
Conference Paper
The current study introduces a model for measuring student diligence using online behaviors during intelligent tutoring system use. This model is validated using a full academic year dataset to test its predictive validity against long-term academic outcomes including end-of-year grades and total work completed by the end of the year. The model is...
Conference Paper
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Various e-learning systems that provide electronic textbooks are gathering large amounts of student reading interactions. This data can potentially be used to model student knowledge acquisition. However, reading activity is often overlooked in canonical student modeling. Prior studies modeling learning from reading either estimate knowledge at the...
Article
We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent var...
Conference Paper
Nearly every adaptive learning system aims to present students with materials personalized to their level of understanding (Enyedy, 2014). Typically, such adaptation follows some form of mastery learning (Bloom, 1968), in which students are asked to master one topic before proceeding to the next topic. Mastery learning programs have a long history...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to improve instructional task design often make reference to the mental structures, such as “schemas” (e.g., Gick & Holyoak, 1983) or “identical elements” (Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901), that are common to both the instructional and target tasks. This component based (e.g., Singley & Anderson, 1989) approach has been employed in psychometric...
Conference Paper
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With the advent of ubiquitous web, programming is no longer a sole prerogative of computer science schools. Scripting languages are taught to wider audiences and programming has become a flag post of any technology related program. As more and more students are exposed to coding, it is no longer a trade of the select few. As a result, students who...
Conference Paper
Generalizability of models of student learning is a highly desirable feature. As new students interact with educational systems, highly predictive models, tuned to increasing amounts of data from previous learners, presumably allow such systems to provide a more individualized, optimal learning path, give better feedback, and provide a more effecti...
Article
Full-text available
Bayesian Knowledge Tracing is a popular method for student modeling because of its capability to infer student’s dynamic knowledge state in real time as the student is solving a series of problems (Corbett & Anderson, 1995). After its introduction in 1995, many extensions to the original technique have been proposed to improve. Variants include: fi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT)[1] is a user modeling method extensively used in the area of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In the standard BKT implementation, there are only skill-specific parameters. However, a large body of research strongly suggests that student- specific variability in the data, when accounted for, could enhance model accuracy...
Conference Paper
Causal reasoning is difficult for middle school students to grasp. In this research, we wanted to test the possibility of using machine learning for modeling students’ causal reasoning in a virtual environment designed to assess this skill. Our findings suggest it is possible to use machine learning to emulate student pathways that are able to pred...
Conference Paper
Educational Data Mining researchers use various prediction metrics for model selection. Often the improvements one model makes over another, while statistically reliable, seem small. The field has been lacking a metric that informs us on how much practical impact a model improvement may have on student learning efficiency and outcomes. We propose a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is intended as guidance for those who are familiar with user modeling field but are less fluent in statistical methods. It addresses potential problems with user model selection and evaluation, that are often clear to expert modelers, but are not obvious for others. These problems are frequently a result of a falsely straightforward appl...
Conference Paper
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Transfer of learning to new or different contexts has always been a chief concern of education because unlike training for a specific job, education must establish skills without knowing exactly how those skills might be called upon. Research on transfer can be difficult, because it is often superficially unclear why transfer occurs or, more freque...
Conference Paper
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Achieving transfer - the ability to apply acquired skills in contexts different from those contexts the skills were mastered in - is, arguably, the sine qua non of education. Capturing transfer of knowledge has been addressed by several user modeling and educational data mining approaches (e.g., AFM, PFA, CFA). While similar, these approaches use d...
Article
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An educational digital library may store a wealth of diverse educational resources targeting different audiences from young schoolchildren to graduate students to school and college teachers. With the growth of the volume and the diversity of the library, it becomes increasingly difficult for the users to find resources, which are relevant to their...
Article
Adaptive hypermedia is one of the most popular approaches of personalized information access. When the field started to emerge, the expectation was that soon nearly all published hypermedia content could be adapted to the needs, preferences, and abilities of its users. However, after a decade and a half, the gap between the amount of total hypermed...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays, it is a common practice to use several educational systems in one domain. In this situation, each of the systems should be able to provide the best user modeling based on the integrated data about the user. However, differences in domain conceptualization complicate the ability of the systems to understand each other’s user models and nec...
Conference Paper
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A traditional library is a social place, however the social nature of the library is typically lost when the library goes digital. This paper argues social navigation, an important group of social information access techniques, could be used to replicate some social features of traditional libraries and to enhance the user experience. Using the cas...
Conference Paper
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Adaptive link annotation is one of the most popular adaptive educational hypermedia techniques. It has been widely studied and demonstrated its ability to help students to acquire knowledge faster, improve learning outcomes, reduce navigation overhead, increase motivation, and encourage the beneficial non-sequential navigation. However, almost all...
Article
Full-text available
Rich, interactive eLearning tools receive a lot of attention nowadays from both practitioners and researchers. However, broader dissemination of these tools is hindered by the technical difficulties of their integration into existing platforms. This article explores the technical and conceptual problems of using several interactive educational tool...
Article
Full-text available
Rich, interactive eLearning tools receive a lot of attention nowadays from both practitioners and researchers. However, broader dissemination of these tools is hindered by the technical difficulties of their integration into existing platforms. This article explores the technical and conceptual problems of using several interactive educational tool...
Chapter
Full-text available
The original publication is available at http://www.springerlink.com With the growth of adaptive educational systems available to students, integration of these systems is evolving from an interesting research problem into an important practical task. One of the challenges that needs to be addressed is the development of mechanisms for student mode...
Article
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The paper analyzes three major problems encountered by our team as we endeavored to turn problem solving examples in the domain of programming into highly reusable educational activities, which could be included as first class objects in various educational digital libraries. It also suggests three specific approaches to resolving these problems, a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we are presenting a retrospective approach to evaluating user models by utilizing previously collected learning logs rather than setting up a new experiment. This approach is applied in a novel way to modeling heterogeneous types of user activity - problem solving, and browsing annotated examples. We are blending the two types of act...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growth of adaptive educational systems available to students, integration of these systems is changing from an interesting research problem into an important practical task. One of the challenges that need to be accepted on the way is the development of mechanisms for student model integration. The architectural principles and representati...
Article
Full-text available
-Adaptive link annotation is a popular adaptive navigation support technology. Empirical studies of adaptive annotation in the educational context have demonstrated that it can help students to acquire knowledge faster, improve learning outcomes, reduce navigational overhead, and encourage non-sequential navigation. In this paper, we present our...
Article
Full-text available
Creating student models for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) in novel domains is often a difficult task. In this study, we outline a multifactor approach to evaluating models that we developed in order to select an appropriate student model for our medical ITS. The combination of areas under the receiver-operator and precision-recall curves, with...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present an open architecture that combines different SQL learning tools in an integrated Exploratorium for database courses. The integrated Exploratorium provides a unique learning environment that allows database students to take complimentary advantages of multiple advanced learning tools.
Conference Paper
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A service-based approach to link annotation expands the applicability of adaptive navigation support functionality beyond the limits of traditional adaptive hypermedia systems. With this approach, the decision-making functionality is separated from the application systems and encapsulated in a personalization service. This paper attempts to evaluat...
Article
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This paper reviews our work on providing students interactive access to annotated program examples. We review our experience with WebEx, the system that allows students to explore examples line by line. After that we present NavEx, an adaptive environment for accessing interactive programming examples. NavEx enhances WebEx with a specific kind of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper analyzes problems encountered by our team while creating an educational digital library of program examples. We present approaches to resolving these problems, and evaluations of the suggested approaches.
Conference Paper
Social navigation is a promising way to guide users in hypermedia environments. In this paper we present Social WebEx, a system that provides social navigation to line-by-line annotated code examples. Social WebEx is a version of "plain" WebEx that only provides access to annotations of lines of code. In social WebEx users are able to see their own...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive Web systems utilize user models (or group models) to represent essential information about an individual user (or a group) so that these systems can adapt their behavior to the goals, tasks, interests, and other features of individual users or groups of users. Meanwhile, proper performance assessment has become a critical issue for the eff...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, researchers report the results of a study of interactive annotated examples (IAEs) in the context of a business programming course. Using code examples is a key element in most course that cover programming, and providing students with as- needed assistance in the form of code annotations is extremely beneficial. In this experiment,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growth of adaptive educational systems available for students, semantic integration of user modeling information from these systems is emerging into an important practical task. Ontologies can serve as the major representational framework for such integration. However, not all adaptive systems rely on ontologies for representing domain kno...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growth of adaptive educational systems available to students, semantic integration of user modeling information from these systems is emerging into an important practical task. Ontologies can serve as the major representational framework for such integration. In this paper, we report an experiment on integration of domain models of two dif...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the growing popularity of user modeling servers, little attention has been paid to optimizing and evaluating the performance of these servers. We argue that implementation issues and their influence on server performance should become the central focus of the user modeling community, since there is a sharply increasing real-life load on use...
Conference Paper
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Content authoring is an important part of adaptive educational system development process. The success of the large-scale transfer of these systems to the real classrooms highly depends on how actively classroom teachers will be involved in the content authoring. This paper suggests an approach to the adaptive content authoring based on the coarse-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper demonstrates how stereotypic student groups can be created to enhance cognitive models in computer tutors. Computer tutors use cognitive models to track what skills students are learning and what practice attempts are most needed; often, these models contain relatively few individualized student parameters due to computational concerns....
Article
Full-text available
Using examples of programming code is a key element in learning how to program. Instructors frequently add comments in the lines of code in order to explain code. This method is effective; however, it has serious complications: first, the code is not "flexible", i.e. each student has to view all comments at once, even if he or she does not need all...
Article
Full-text available
One of the interesting problems that have attracted the attention of both industry and academia in current e-learning environments is the reusability of learning content in Learning Management Systems (LMS). A number of standards have defined a Run-Time environment in order to allow an LMS to deal with learning objects i.e. to launch, track and com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A number of research teams are working to organize personalized access to the modern repositories of educational resources. The goal of personalized access is to help students locate resources that match their individual goals, interests, and current knowledge. The project presented in this paper is focused on the least explored way of personalized...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adaptive link annotation is a popular adaptive navigation support technology. Empirical studies of adaptive annotation in the educational context have demonstrated that it can help students to acquire knowledge faster, improve learning outcome, reduce navigation overhead, and encourage non-sequential navigation. In this paper we present our study o...