Michael Wyrwich

Michael Wyrwich
Friedrich Schiller University Jena | FSU · Department of Economics

About

114
Publications
23,793
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1,800
Citations
Citations since 2016
87 Research Items
1648 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
Full-text available
We document the generation and the content of the Comprehensive Patent Database (CPDB) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) (1949-1990), which is freely available at GESIS https://doi.org/10.7802/2448. The database contains all patents granted in the GDR and published by the Office of Inventions and Patents (later: German Patent and Trade Mark O...
Article
Full-text available
We document the generation and the content of the Comprehensive Patent Database (CPDB) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) (1949-1990), which is freely available at GESIS https://doi.org/10.7802/2448. The database contains all patents granted in the GDR and published by the Office of Inventions and Patents (later: German Patent and Trade Mark O...
Article
Full-text available
What characterizes regions where right-wing populist parties are relatively successful? A prominent hypothesis proposed in the emerging “geography of discontent” literature claims that places that are “left behind” constitute a breeding ground for the rise of populism. We re-examine this hypothesis by analyzing the rise of populism in Germany. Our...
Preprint
Full-text available
We review and discuss research on the development of regional entrepreneurship over time. A particular focus is on the long-term persistence of regional levels of entrepreneurship, its explanation, and its meaning for economic development. What is the state of empirical research in this field, and what can explain the empirical findings? How are lo...
Article
Full-text available
The rigorous anti-entrepreneurial policies that prevailed during communist regime did not leave any long-term negative ef¬fects on the level of self-employment in East Germany. On the contrary, self-employment in East Germany is higher today than in the West of the country. Our analysis suggests that the current differences in self-employment be¬tw...
Article
In his seminal contribution, Baumol (1990) proposes that the direction of entrepreneurial effort towards its productive (e.g., start-up activity) or unproductive (e.g., rent-seeking) use in a society depends on institutions or the “rules of the game”. We focus on an important micro-foundation of Baumol's theory namely that certain individuals chang...
Article
We investigate how specific regional conditions found in East Germany at the end of the socialist regime impact development during the turbulent shock transition to a market economy. Both the self-employment rate (an indicator of a pre-socialist entrepreneurial tradition) and the share of the workforce with a university degree (as measure of the ge...
Data
Gesamtheit aller Patentanmeldungen und -erteilungen in der DDR, die im Zeitraum zwischen dem 1.1.1939 (Anmeldung vor, aber Erteilung in der DDR) und dem 29.06.2006 (Anmeldung in, aber Erteilung nach der DDR) vom Amt für Erfindungs- und Patentwesen (AfEP, später: Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt/DPMA) veröffentlicht wurden. Der Kerndatensatz umfasst...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurship is often found to be highly persistent over time. Although the historical roots of persisting effects of entrepreneurship are partially uncovered, their mechanisms remained largely unclear. To understand the historical roots of contemporaneous regional entrepreneurship, we exploit different types of historical self-employment in re...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing literature that explores the persistence of regional economic activities over time. We contribute to the literature by focusing on the regional concentration of a traditional industry. To be more precise, we examine the regional persistence of the crafts sector over a period of more than 100 years. We use historical data on the d...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate how self-employment in East Germany was impacted by 40 years of Soviet-style communism and the subsequent shock transition to a market economic system. To this end, we compare self-employment in East and West Germany after reunification with self-employment before the separation of Germany after World War II. Our results show that th...
Article
Extant research explores the role played by individuals and, in particular, founders in defining open innovation strategies at the firm level. We join this discussion by combining insights from imprinting literature that explores the enduring impact of a founder's personal history, with inputs from literature that stresses the impact of past experi...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected not only incumbent firms, but also the emergence of start-ups. This paper investigates and analyzes the pandemic's effect on new business formation, as well as business exits and insolvencies, in Germany. We find that the overall level of business registrations slightly decreased during the first year of the...
Chapter
Es werden zentrale Ergebnisse des Buches knapp zusammengefasst und wesentliche Schlussfolgerungen gezogen. Da wesentlich Determinanten von Entrepreneurship sehr langfristig wirken und sich die positiven Effekte häufig erst über lange Zeiträume entfalten, sollte die Entrepreneurship-Politik auch langfristig orientiert sein. Die erheblichen Unterschi...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel gibt zunächst einen Überblick über typische Finanzierungsquellen von neu gegründeten Unternehmen. Daran anschließend wird erläutert, aus welchen Gründen der Markt für Gründungskapital vor allem bei der Finanzierung innovativer Gründungen versagt. Eine mögliche Lösung des Finanzierungsproblems von Unternehmensgründungen stellt die Bet...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick zu wesentlichen Ausprägungen von Gründungsgeschehen und Marktdynamik in Deutschland. Dabei wird auf Probleme der empirischen Erfassung von Gründungen und unternehmerischer Selbstständigkeit eingegangen. Der empirische Überblick über das Gründungsgeschehen umfasst sowohl die zeitliche Entwicklung von Gründungen un...
Chapter
Der Begriff Entrepreneurship steht für Eigenschaften und Handlungsweisen, die dynamisches Unternehmertum kennzeichnen. Konkret geht es dabei um Kreativität, Innovation, unternehmerische Initiative und das Eingehen ökonomischer Wagnisse. Da diese Charakteristika von Entrepreneurship vor allem mit neuen und jungen Unternehmen in Verbindung gebracht w...
Chapter
Ausgangspunkt dieses Kapitels ist ein Überblick über mögliche Wirkungen von Unternehmensgründungen auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Grundlegend ist dabei die Unterscheidung von direkten und indirekten Effekten. Darauf aufbauend wird ein Überblick über die empirischen Befunde zu den Wachstumswirkungen von Gründungen gegeben. Dabei wird insbesond...
Chapter
Gegenstand dieses Kapitels sind die Ziele und gestalterischen Möglichkeiten der Entrepreneurship-Politik. Dabei werden die wirtschaftspolitischen Implikationen der Entrepreneurship-Forschung sowie die Erfahrungen mit verschiedenen Maßnahmen zur Förderung von Entrepreneurship diskutiert. Ein Schwerpunkt der Betrachtung liegt bei der Förderung qualit...
Chapter
Es werden die wesentlichen Entwicklungsprobleme von neu gegründeten Unternehmen behandelt. Im Zentrum der Betrachtung stehen die Verweildauer im Markt sowie die Beschäftigungsentwicklung. Ausgangspunkt sind die besonderen Probleme in der Gründungsphase von Unternehmen. Aufbauend auf einem Überblick über die Beschäftigungsentwicklung von Gründungsko...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel behandelt die Erfolgsfaktoren und damit auch die Scheiterursachen von Unternehmensgründungen. Dabei geht es zunächst um Einkommen und Zufriedenheit von Selbstständigen im Vergleich zu abhängig Beschäftigten. Daran anschließend wird ein Überblick über Hypothesen und empirische Ergebnisse zum Erfolg von Unternehmensgründungen gegeben....
Chapter
Im Modell des Occupational Choice (Kap. 4) kommt den unternehmerischen Fähigkeiten einer Person die Schlüsselrolle für die Wahl der Erwerbsform zu. In diesem Kapitel wird erläutert, worin unternehmerische Fähigkeiten bestehen und welche Faktoren zu ihrer Herausbildung beitragen. Behandelt werden insbesondere die für eine erfolgreiche Gründung erfor...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel erläutert den Wesensinhalt von Entrepreneurship, stellt verschiedene in diesem Zusammenhang relevante Begriffe vor und zeigt wichtige Dimensionen des Themas auf. Dabei werden verschiedene Arten von Entrepreneurship und einige wesentliche Wirkungen von Entrepreneurship auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung erläutert. Abschließend wird e...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die wesentlichen Determinanten der Gründungstätigkeit, deren Kenntnis eine wichtige Voraussetzung für effektive Maßnahmen der Gründungsförderung darstellt. Ausgehend vom Zusammenhang zwischen individuellen Charakteristika einer Person und ihrer Gründungsneigung, wird zunächst auf die die institutionellen Rah...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit demografischen Merkmalen und den Berufsverläufen von Gründern. Dabei geht es zunächst um das Alter von Gründern, um Unterschiede in der Gründungsneigung zwischen Männern und Frauen sowie um Besonderheiten der Gründungsaktivitäten von Migranten. Weitere Themen sind die Standortwahl von Gründungen, Gründungen aus A...
Chapter
Das Kapitel behandelt die Theorie des Occupational Choice, mit der zu erklären versucht wird, wieso jemand als Unternehmer tätig ist, während andere in abhängiger Beschäftigung oder Arbeitslosigkeit bleiben. Dabei wird ein einfaches formales Grundmodell abgeleitet, das den Ausgangpunkt für diverse Erweiterungen bildet.
Article
We investigate the reasons for the pronounced regional differences of new business formation after the transformation from a centrally planned system to a market economy in East Germany. Relatively high start-up rates are found in regions that had a well-qualified workforce and a relatively high share of self-employment left over at the end of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
A region's present-day economic performance can be deeply anchored in historical factors. We provide the first systematic evidence of a deep imprinting effect in the context of Roman rule in the southwestern part of Germany nearly 2,000 years ago. Our analysis reveals that regions in the former Roman part of Germany show a stronger entrepreneurship...
Article
There is a widely held belief that agglomeration economies encourage significantly more successful and productive innovation activities. Based on this belief some scholars even suggest that policies designed to stimulate innovation in non-urban areas are ineffective and a waste of resources. Investigating the geographic concentration of patented in...
Research
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to test a key aspect of Baumol's theory that the allocation of entrepreneurial efforts toward its productive (e.g., start-up activity) or unproductive (e.g., rent-seeking) use depends on institutional conditions. In contrast to previous research, we study a context where a radical and exogenous institutional change took pla...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Ostdeutsche Regionen, die zum Ende der DDR-Zeit einen relativ hohen Besatz an privaten Unternehmen und ein hohes Qualifikationsniveau der Beschäftigten aufwiesen, haben den abrupten Übergang zur Marktwirtschaft vor mehr als 30 Jahren relativ gut bewältigt. Insbesondere sind diese Regionen durch intensive Gründungsaktivitäten geprägt...
Article
Popular theories claim that innovation activities should be located in large cities because of more favorable environmental conditions that are absent in smaller cities or peripheral areas. Germany provides a counterexample to such theories. We argue that a major reason behind the geography of innovation in Germany is the country’s pronounced legac...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected not only incumbent firms, but also the emergence of start-ups. This paper investigates and analyzes the pandemic's effect on new business formation, as well as business exits and insolvencies, in Germany. We find that the overall level of business registrations slightly decreased during the first year of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
What characterizes regions where right-wing populist parties are relatively successful? A prominent hypothesis proposed in recent literature claims that places that are "left behind" or "do not matter" are a breeding ground for the rise of populism. We reexamine this hypothesis by analyzing the rise of populism in Germany. Our results suggest that...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the role of different types of institutions, such as entrepreneurship-facilitating entry conditions, labor market regulations, quality of government, and perception of corruption for individual well-being among self-employed and paid employed individuals. Well-being is operationalized by job and life satisfaction of individuals...
Book
Der Begriff Entrepreneurship steht für unternehmerische Initiative, Kreativität, Innovation und das Eingehen ökonomischer Wagnisse. Er bezeichnet diejenigen Formen von Unternehmertum, die eine zentrale Triebkraft für wirtschaftliche Entwicklung darstellen. Dabei ist der Fokus auf Unternehmensgründungen und junge Unternehmen gerichtet. Das Buch beha...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate how initial conditions that existed in East Germany at the end of the socialist regime impact regional development during the turbulent shock transition to a market economic system. Our investigation spans a period of almost 30 years. Both the self-employment rate (an indication of the existence of a pre-socialist entrepreneurial tra...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate the reasons for the pronounced regional differences of new business formation after the transformation from a socialist planned system to a market economy in East Germany. Relatively high start-up rates are found in regions that had a well-qualified workforce and a relatively high share of remaining self-employed at the end of the so...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decades, entrepreneurial activity has started to be considered a third mission of higher education institutions. Our study examines the extent to which entrepreneurship at universities is driven by spatial proximity between university faculties. To this end, we use a new dataset that links information on business idea generation by fa...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate how major historical shocks affect regional trajectories of economic activity. To this end, we conduct a comparative analysis of the development of entrepreneurship in East and West Germany after World War II. The introduction of an anti-entrepreneurial socialist economy in East Germany in 1949, and the subsequent transformation to a...
Chapter
In vielen Regionen ist das Niveau unternehmerischer Selbständigkeit über längere Zeiträume sehr persistent. Diese Persistenz zeigt sich auch dann, wenn die regionale Wirtschaft drastischen Änderungen der wirtschaftlich-gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen ausgesetzt war. Eine Erklärung für diesen Befund besteht darin, dass ein hohes Niveau an unter...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate whether the Roman presence in the southern part of Germany nearly 2,000 years ago had a deep imprinting effect with long run consequences on a broad spectrum of measures ranging from present-day personality profiles to a number of socioeconomic outcomes and why. Today's populations living in the former Roman part of Germany score ind...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate the geographic concentration of patenting in large cities using a sample of 14 developed countries. There is wide dispersion of the share of patented inventions in large metropolitan areas. South Korea and the US are two extreme outliers where patenting is highly concentrated in large cities. We do not find any general trend that the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Popular theories claim that innovation activities should be located in large cities because of more favorable environmental conditions that are ab-sent in smaller cities or remote and rural areas. Germany provides a clear counterexample to such theories. We argue that a main force behind the geography of innovation in Germany is the country’s feder...
Chapter
The development of regions is considerably shaped by their history. We review research that finds significant persistence of regional levels of entrepreneurship over longer periods of time. It is argued that the long term persistence of regional entrepreneurship indicates the presence and effect of a culture of entrepreneurship that is conducive to...
Article
Die geographische Psychologie befasst sich unter anderem mit Persönlichkeitsunterschieden von Regionen und Regionstypen, in denen Personen leben und handeln. Mittels solcher Forschung können regionale „Mentalitäten“ untersucht werden aus denen sich Forschungsfragen zu Entwicklungspfaden von Regionen und deren Populationen ableiten lassen. Während e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Persistence of entrepreneurship over longer periods of time could indicate a culture of entrepreneurship among the local population that may be an important factor for regional development, but does persistence of economic activity require cultural transmission? We exploit the diverse historical developments in the territory that is Poland today to...
Research
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the role of different types of institutions, such as entrepreneurship- facilitating entry conditions, labor market regulations, quality of government, and perception of corruption for individual well-being among self-employed and paid employed individuals. Well-being is operationalized by job and life satisfaction of individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurial role models influence decisions to start firms. This effect is even stronger if peers and observers live in the same region. However, most studies remain silent about the role of entrepreneurial failure for the direction of role modeling. Failed role models can trigger a deterrence of entrepreneurship in others of the same region. W...
Article
Full-text available
There is a research gap with respect to understanding the role of cultural attitudes in favour of entrepreneurial activity for actual start-up behaviour. We combine historical self-employment data with a psychological measure for entrepreneurial attitudes. The results reveal a positive relationship between the historical level of self-employment in...
Chapter
We investigate the relationship between a regional tradition of entrepreneurship and the personality profile of the regional population. Based on the Big Five approach of assessing someone’s personality structure we construct an entrepreneurial personality profile. We find a significant relationship between the historical level of self-employment i...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the empirical evidence of persistent levels of regional self-employment and new business formation. It is argued that a regional culture of entrepreneurship plays an important role in explaining the persistence of entrepreneurship. We discuss possible explanations for the emergence of a culture of entrepreneurship, and how it...
Chapter
We investigate the persistent levels of self-employment and new business formation in different time periods and under different framework conditions. The analysis shows that regional differences regarding the level of self-employment and new business formation tend to be persistent for periods of more than 100 years, despite abrupt and drastic cha...
Chapter
We use the historical self-employment rate and take it as an instrument to analyze the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth in recent periods. The results indicate that German regions with a high level of entrepreneurship in the early twentieth century have higher start-up rates at the end of the century. The remarkable long-term effect of...
Chapter
We investigate how institutional change, specifically, the transition from a socialist system to a western-type market economy, relates to the re-emergence of entrepreneurship in East Germany. This region is particularly well suited for such a study because of the rapid change of the institutional framework and the possibility of using West Germany...
Chapter
We investigate the role played by an entrepreneurship culture and the historical knowledge base of a region in current levels of new business formation in innovative industries. The analysis is for German regions and covers the years 1907–2016. We find a pronounced positive relationship between high levels of historical self-employment in science-b...
Chapter
We summarize and discuss the main results of the analyses of this book, and draw conclusions for theory and policy. Finally, we identify some promising avenues for further research.
Chapter
This chapter begins by giving a brief overview of German history from the beginning of the twentieth century until today. We then introduce and discuss the principal data sources that are used in this book, and offer a comparison between the regional levels of self-employment in the years 1907 and 1925 with levels of new business formation today.
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and age for self-employed persons as compared to paid employees. While, on average, there are higher levels of job satisfaction in self-employment as compared to paid employment, we find that an individual's age is an important moderator in this relationship. Specifically, the probab...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the role of entrepreneurship culture and the historical knowledge base of a region on current levels of new business formation in innovative industries. The analysis is for German regions and covers the time period 1907–2014. We find a pronounced positive relationship between high levels of historical self-employment in science-based...
Research
Full-text available
"Formal and informal institutions in regional entrepreneurial processes", 56th ERSA Congress, Cork, August, 28-31, 2018 - Special session proposal.
Article
This paper investigates the persistence of self-employment in the districts of Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave, between 1925 and 2010. The area experienced a number of disruptive historical shocks during this period. This setting rules out the fact that the persistence of self-employment can be explained by the persistence of institutions and cultur...
Article
Full-text available
There is a research gap with respect to understanding the role of entre-preneurial culture and tradition for actual start-up behaviour. We combine historical self-employment data (entrepreneurial tradition) with a psychological measure for entrepreneurial attitudes (entrepreneurial culture). The results reveal a positive relationship between the hi...
Article
This study investigates the effect of local manufacturing on start-up activity across knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) industries by relying on the natural experiment of German reunification. KIBS did not exist in the former socialist East Germany. The findings show that local manufacturing affected the co-location of new KIBS firms in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Have you ever wondered whether new technologies at work could make it easier to enter the labor market? It is known that technical innovations are complementary to certain skills, increasing the demand for people with these qualifications. The open question is to what degree innovations can help to complement a lack of skills, thereby lowering labo...
Research
Full-text available
"The Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems", RSA Conference, Lugano, June 4-6, 2018 - Special Session Proposal
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates whether the relationship between a person’s occupational sta-tus and well-being differs across countries with varying institutional contexts. We find that the relationship between job- and life satisfaction of self-employed people as well as of paid employees varies considerably across countries. Our results indicate that en...
Article
en Female labour force participation (FLFP) increased significantly in the 20th century. Nevertheless, there are persisting spatial differences in FLFP. Using data from Germany, this paper demonstrates that regional differences in the degree of industrialization in the 1920s explain spatial variation in FLFP at that time and almost 100 years later....
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Neuere Forschungen brachten deutliche Hinweise auf regional unterschiedliche Ausprägungen bestimmter Persönlichkeitsmerkmale in der Bevölkerung. Solche regionalen Unterschiede bei prägenden Verhaltenseigenschaften einer Bevölkerung können wesentlich zur Erklärung einer regionalen Entwicklung beitragen. Wir geben einen Überblick über...