Michael Winter

Michael Winter
University of Exeter | UoE · Department of Politics

BSc PhD

About

176
Publications
45,756
Reads
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6,600
Citations
Citations since 2017
27 Research Items
3287 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
January 2002 - present
University of Exeter
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (176)
Article
Full-text available
Certain physical and mental health issues are particularly prevalent in farming occupations, yet frequently, farmers, particularly males, are resistant to seeking help from primary care practitioners. A qualitative approach examined the perspective of stakeholders at livestock auction marts to identify the determinants for, or barriers to, seeking...
Article
Full-text available
Making the reasoning and evidence behind conservation management decisions clear and transparent is a key challenge for the conservation community. Similarly, combining evidence from diverse sources (e.g., scientific and local knowledge) into decision‐making is also difficult. Our group of conservation researchers and practitioners has co‐produced...
Preprint
Making the reasoning and evidence behind conservation decisions clear and transparent is a key challenge for the conservation community. Similarly, combining evidence from diverse sources (e.g., scientific vs non-scientific information) into decision-making is also difficult. Our group of conservation researchers and practitioners has co-produced a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report examines what livestock auction marts could do not only to ensure their own survival into the future, but also to support farmers and the rural community. Specifically, the report examines the role of livestock auction marts by exploring: • The social value of auction marts and their value to rural communities, particularly in areas whe...
Article
Full-text available
Non-technical summary Until the past half-century, all agriculture and land management was framed by local institutions strong in social capital. But neoliberal forms of development came to undermine existing structures, thus reducing sustainability and equity. The past 20 years, though, have seen the deliberate establishment of more than 8 million...
Article
Three tenets of sustainable intensification should guide the fourth agricultural revolution: people, production, and the planet. Thus far, narratives of agriculture 4.0 have been predominately framed in terms of benefits to productivity and the environment with little attention placed on social sustainability. This is despite the fact that agricult...
Article
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Although the effects of public austerity have been the subject of a significant literature in recent years, the changing role of the state as a partner in collaborative environmental governance under austerity has received less attention. By employing theories of collaborative governance and state retreat, this paper used a qualitative research des...
Article
Full-text available
Farmers today are increasingly facing pressure from policy and market forces to improve their environmental performance. Yet – despite widespread recognition of the negative externalities of agriculture on a national and global scale – many farmers would argue that, as “custodians of the countryside” they have always respected and cared for the loc...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable intensification is a process by which agricultural productivity is enhanced whilst also creating environmental and social benefits. We aimed to identify practices likely to deliver sustainable intensification, currently available for UK farms but not yet widely adopted. We compiled a list of 18 farm management practices with the greates...
Article
The use of decision support tools on-farm may help to deliver evidence-based guidance to farmers, helping to improve productivity and prevent environmental degradation. While much research has sought to increase the uptake of decision support tools in practice, largely by identifying desirable characteristics of system design, rather little work ha...
Article
Full-text available
The use of decision support tools on-farm may help to deliver evidence-based guidance to farmers, helping to improve productivity and prevent environmental degradation. While much research has sought to increase the uptake of decision support tools in practice, largely by identifying desirable characteristics of system design, rather little work ha...
Article
Diffuse pollution of watercourses from agriculture represents a complex and persistent environmental problem in the UK. This paper provides insights into why UK policy interventions have had limited success to date, drawing on the disciplines of psychology, sociology and behavioural economics to more thoroughly understand farmer attitudes and behav...
Conference Paper
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We have long used the term ‘clean green and ethical’ to describe our teaching and research in livestock industries. ‘Clean’ drives us to reduce our reliance on chemicals, drugs and hormones, and ‘ethical’ drives us to maximise animal welfare. ‘Green’, the focus of the present paper, drives us to reduce our environmental footprint. Nowadays, the soc...
Research
Full-text available
Article in Arable Farming (March by Teresa Rush) on our research on decision support tools in agriculture.
Article
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A study of the cultural ecosystem services (CES) arising from peoples' interactions with the rural environment is conducted within the context of a landscape scale, 'nature improvement' initiative in the United Kingdom. Taking a mixed methodological approach, the research applies, and demonstrates empirically, a framework for CES developed under th...
Article
Full-text available
The construction of culture as a class of ecosystem service presents a significant test of the holistic ambitions of an ecosystems approach to decision making. In this paper we explore the theoretical challenges arising from efforts to understand ecosystems as objects of cultural concern and consider the operational complexities associated with und...
Article
Full-text available
Decision support tools, usually considered to be software-based, may be an important part of the quest for evidence-based decision-making in agriculture to improve productivity and environmental outputs. These tools can lead users through clear steps and suggest optimal decision paths or may act more as information sources to improve the evidence b...
Article
Full-text available
Decision support tools, usually considered to be software-based, may be an important part of the quest for evidence-based decision-making in agriculture to improve productivity and environmental outputs. These tools can lead users through clear steps and suggest optimal decision paths or may act more as information sources to improve the evidence b...
Article
Full-text available
Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce gre...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable intensification is a concept of growing importance, yet it is in danger of becoming scientifically obsolete because of the diversity of meanings it has acquired. To avoid this, it is important to consider the various scales on which it can aid progress towards feeding human populations while also protecting the environment.
Article
Full-text available
1.Agri-environment schemes remain a controversial approach to reversing biodiversity losses, partly because the drivers of variation in outcomes are poorly understood. In particular, there is a lack of studies that consider both social and ecological factors.2.We analysed variation across 48 farms in the quality and biodiversity outcomes of agri-en...
Article
Agricultural land and food security are under pressure from climate change, population growth, urbanisation, and demand for biofuels and animal protein. We have re-assessed the role of ruminant livestock in meeting food requirements in the context of mixed agricultural systems, and focussed on seven major challenges: • Poor animal health and welfar...
Article
Devising policy instruments and interventions that can manage and mitigate the risks associated with microbial watercourse pollution is a significant concern of the contemporary environmental protection agenda. This paper reports on the work of a citizens' jury that sought to elicit reasoned public judgments about the nature and acceptability of th...
Chapter
The concept of food miles has found great currency within many societies. Although at first it might seem obvious that transporting food a greater distance implies greater carbon emissions, little evidence to support this has been published. Food travelling greater distances is likely to be stored in greater volumes and the usual economies of scale...
Article
Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is f...
Article
The Farm Management Survey was a sample survey set up by the Ministry of Agriculture to assess the level of farm incomes in England and Wales. It continues to the present day as the Farm Business Survey. The article sets the original Survey in its intellectual context, pointing out that Britain was a relative latecomer to such survey work, and expl...
Article
Reconciling environmental objectives for land use with the need to produce more food is a prominent concern of scientific and policy discourses on sustainable agriculture. The idea of sustainable intensification has emerged as one prominent framing of this challenge. In this paper we elaborate this idea from an ecosystem services perspective to nat...
Article
Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for ‘food security’ in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic assoc...
Article
Research on voluntary agri-environmental schemes (AES) typically reveals limited engagement on the part of most participants, with the majority enticed into participation by a combination of attractive payment rates and compatibility with the existing farming system. Commentators have argued that changing farmer attitudes towards environmental mana...
Article
Engagement with farmers and landowners is often undertaken by the research community to obtain information relating to typical land, livestock and enterprise management and generally centres on responses to questionnaire surveys. Farmers and land managers are constituted as expert observers of ground-level processes and provide diverse information...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the efficacy of the concept of food miles that has proved so popular with the public as a means of assessing the sustainability of produce. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses data from a UK major food importer and retailer to correlate carbon emissions from transport, and transport‐related stor...
Article
This paper examines the implications of adopting catchment scale approaches for the sustainable management of land and water systems. Drawing on the findings of an interdisciplinary study examining how farm management practices impact on the loss of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and potential pathogens from land to water, the paper argues that...
Article
Organic agriculture has a totemic role in debates about farming. Domestic organic production is thought to play a role in relocalised food networks. However, little is known about the market orientation of organic producers in England and Wales. Drawing on a mixed methods approach this paper characterises national, regional and local markets for or...
Article
The topics of storage and transportation are highly intertwined as are considerations of distance to market. Improved storage systems and capabilities open the potential for access to more distance markets, an approach which then means we need to address the topic of food miles. Because improved bulk storage can allow for bulk movement, it is not o...
Article
Expanding Anaerobic Digestion (AD) in the UK will not only depend upon finding appropriate economic structures to support on‐farm developments but also an appreciation of environmental issues such as less Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions; reduced use of artificial fertilisers; and better management of farm wastes. At the core of this paper is the Ana...
Article
Full-text available
European rural development scholars have been preoccupied with how to understand the pace and scope of rural landscape change, as increasingly liberalized market economic policies and stringent environmental mandates shape contemporary landscapes and livelihoods. Recent efforts to document and theorize the new practices occurring in rural landscape...
Article
Full-text available
Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of stud...
Article
This paper draws on lessons from a UK case study in the management of diffuse microbial pollution from grassland farm systems in the Taw catchment, southwest England. We report on the development and preliminary testing of a field-scale faecal indicator organism risk indexing tool (FIORIT). This tool aims to prioritise those fields most vulnerable...
Article
The paper examines drivers of change in agricultural land use in order to identify data requirements and assess data suitability. In order to assess the fitness for purpose of available data, the paper provides an overview of the sources of data for agriculture and land use in the UK, in both a contemporary and historical context. It provides a bri...
Article
Shortly after the designation of Exmoor National Park in 1954 the moorland that the park was charged with maintaining and enhancing came under threat from agricultural improvement. The ensuing ‘moorland conflict’ eventually led to a pioneering system of moorland management agreements. The moorland management agreements have an important place in th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines some of the theoretical and methodological issues arising from the process of conceptualising and eliciting values for environmental risk in the context of heterogeneous expert knowledge. Drawing on the experience of a recent research project examining the relationship between livestock farming systems and microbial watercourse...
Article
This paper provides a critical commentary on the conception of food miles followed by an empirical application of food miles to two contrasting food distribution systems based on carbon emissions accounting within these systems. The comparison is between the carbon emissions resultant from operating a large-scale vegetable box system and those from...
Article
A laboratory assay for comparative characterization of various faecal matrices with respect to faecal indicator organism (FIO) release using, artificial rain water. Fresh sheep and beef-cattle faeces, dairy cattle slurry and beef cattle farm yard manure (FYM) were collected from commercial units in south-west England and applied to 20 randomized 1...
Article
Diffuse microbial pollution from agriculture is a key contributor to water quality impairment. Reducing the risk of microbial contamination of watercourses from agricultural sources requires both environmentally appropriate and socially acceptable mitigation and management approaches. A cross-disciplinary toolkit for on-farm microbial risk assessme...
Article
The purpose of this study was to take a fresh look at the nature of organic production, consumption and marketing in England and Wales in order to better assess its current and likely contribution to rural development and its ability to meet consumer expectations. Based on a mixed methodological approach the study consulted with 2,300 individuals t...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional livestock farming provides consumers with cheap and reliable sources of milk and meat. Yet the inevitable by-product, i.e. livestock faecal matter, represents a potential source of pathogenic microorganisms. This paper applies the Faecal Indicator Organisms Costing Assessment Tool (FIOCAT), which was designed as part of the RELU projec...
Article
Full-text available
A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers’ environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses thes...
Article
This paper addresses the issue of the risk that livestock agriculture has for human exposure to pathogenic organisms from watercourses (including bathing waters or consumption of contaminated shellfish). The paper describes trends in livestock farming, the extent of microbial contamination of water, and what farmers can do to reduce transfers. A ca...
Article
This paper provides an historical background to corporatist policy arrangements in British agriculture. It then examines recent changes in agricultural objectives, policy making, and conflicts. In particular it emphasises the politicisation of agriculture and tlie changed basis for corporatist initiative in policy making and implementation conseque...
Article
Family farming is an important element in British agriculture, particularly dairying. The nature of specialised milk production by family farmers is intricately linked to the activities of the Milk Marketing Board (M.M.B.). This article traces the history of the Milk Marketing Board and assesses its impact on dairy producers. The Board is taken as...
Article
The paper examines the social organization of deer hunting in the South-west of England and considers the ways in which such activities constitute a distinct form of life. The ritual of hunting is discussed and responses from a questionnaire survey of Hunt followers are presented to show that the two Hunts investigated appear to attract a small but...
Article
The report presents a repeat of a 1989-90 postal survey to explore the land tenurial changes in England and Wales that have resulted from legislative and structural change. Clearly, since 1990, the introduction of Farm Business Tenancies means that the two sets of results, while not directly comparable, allows the occupancy of land under unconventi...
Article
This paper explores the regionalization and rescaling of agro-food governance in the context of renewed interest in the territoriality, or respacing, of agro-food markets. Rescaling concerns state processes and multilevel governance. Rural respacing is driven by changes in the agro-food sector brought about by market developments. This paper examin...
Article
This paper provides an historical context to policy reform and agricultural adjustment within the EU, primarily through examining the development of policy concerns and issues in the UK. It suggests that, notwithstanding the emergence of a common policy for European agriculture there is still considerable scope for national, regional and local diff...
Article
This paper explores the social dimension in the way sustainability ideas have been developed in English agriculture. It suggests that social characteristics and values have been systematically neglected in the promotion of sustainable agriculture in England, and that this has grave consequences for those who make their living from the land. The rea...
Article
Full-text available
Rural Stress Information Network
Article
With an increasing amount of public funds being spent on agri-environmental schemes effective methods have to be developed to evaluate them. As many schemes have multiple objectives there is a need for a multi-disciplinary approach to any evaluation. A method was developed to assess the degree to which ecological, landscape, historical and access o...
Article
There are policy pressures to make agriculture more environmentally sustainable and to give a more local expression to agri-environmental priorities. This paper considers these moves, with particular reference to the beef sector, and speculates on the further policy responses required to facilitate benign local agri-environmental management. The UK...
Article
This paper examines embeddedness and the turn to quality in agro-food research. It suggests that the notion of embeddedness requires critical scrutiny and that the implications of the turn to quality for the geography of agriculture may not be as radical as some have suggested. The relationship between quality and local embeddedness is explored in...
Article
Report co-authored with the Rural and Tourism Research Group, University of Plymouth. Statistics (Commodities & Food) Division of Defra
Article
Agriculture is a key land user implicated in the causes of, and solutions to, the problem of biodiversity decline. The development, in the late 1990s, of farm biodiversity action plans (farm BAPs) represents an important step towards achieving greater farmer involvement in biodiversity and is the first specific attempt to devise a practical mechani...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract It has become,fashionable to conceptualiserecent shifts in agrarian priorities as a „post- productivist‟ transition from a previously „productivist‟ agriculture. This notion has become,more popular throughout the 1990s as a way to capture in one convenient package the complex,changes experienced by both the agricultural sector specifically...
Article
Environmental policies in agriculture have now been fully incorporated into policy throughout Europe both within and outside of the European Union. One of the cornerstones to the successful implementation of these policies is both the willingness and ability of farmers to implement them. Many actors influence both the formulation and implementation...
Article
This paper examines the environmental impact of the 1992 reforms to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union within British arable agriculture. It demonstrates how policies that were expected by some to have positive environmental outcomes did not do so. One reason for this failure is to do with the design of the policy instrument...
Article
The potential contribution of integrated farming systems (IFS) to the development of a more sustainable agriculture has been largely ignored within social science and by policy analysts. The goals of IFS are to sustain agricultural production, maintain farm incomes, safeguard the environment and respond to consumer concerns about food quality issue...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the current governance of common land with the intention of updating a story last examined in detail in studies in the late 1980s. In addition, the paper draws on recent conceptualizations of stakeholders and governance. A brief history of common land shows that governance systems are highly localized and dependent on custom and...