Michael Waldon

Michael Waldon
University of Louisiana at Lafayette | ULL · Department of Civil Engineering

PhD

About

179
Publications
15,900
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275
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Waldon's research has focused on water quality modeling and monitoring in streams, lakes, and wetlands, with a particular emphasis on TMDL and waste load allocation determinations in Louisiana, on modeling spills in the Mississippi River and other Louisiana water bodies, and on monitoring and modeling Everglades wetlands. Now retired, Dr. Waldon continues to pursue research related to hydrologic and water quality modeling, monitoring, and management.
Additional affiliations
July 2000 - July 2012
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Position
  • Senior Hydrologist
Description
  • Provided scientific and technical support to the Department of Interior, participated in Everglades monitoring design and analysis, and oversaw development of a suite of wetland hydrology and water quality models.

Publications

Publications (179)
Data
This report appendix documents an intensive water quality survey that was conducted by the Water Pollution Control Division (Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality) on the Vermilion River system in Louisiana. The survey took place on August 3, 1982. Sampling was performed from the main channel of the vermilion River, selected tributaries, an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Hurricane storm surge is an episodic event that is relatively rare at any single location. Because of the random nature of surge events in both time and space, studies and modeling of storm surge are often limited by the sparse distribution of stage recording sites within the affected region. The purpose of this brief note is to draw the attention...
Presentation
Full-text available
We can find both good news and bad news in our century-long historic daily rainfall rainfall record in Lafayette, Louisiana. It is good news that our annual average rainfall is unchanged. Annual rainfall has been near 60 inches/year for 119 years. However, it is very bad news that heavy rainfall events are now happening more frequently. In 1900, he...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Motivation for this study - In Lafayette, Louisiana, despite more than a century of flood control projects on the Vermilion River and its tributaries, flood risk continues. Numerous factors have contributed to the failure of past projects including: (1) increased runoff quantity and intensity due to urbanization and loss of agricultural land, (2) c...
Article
Full-text available
Flooding from locally heavy rainfall in the Vermilion River Basin of Louisiana in August of 2016 caused extensive property damage. Following the flood, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) surveyed high water marks in areas across South Louisiana which experienced flooding. Th...
Working Paper
Full-text available
Water diversions may have positive or negative effects on water quality. In this paper we examine the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in the Vermilion River in southern Louisiana in the United States. A full half century of hydrologic and water quality monitoring data are now available spanning the period before and af...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Predictive Models Technical Advisory Committee (PM-TAC) for Louisiana’s 2017 Coastal Master Plan was formed in 2013 to provide input on the use of models throughout the development of the 2017 Coastal Master Plan. This Final Report for the PM-TAC is designed to provide feedback on the overall modeling methodology and to provide advice and recom...
Method
Full-text available
For decades, numerous tracer studies have been performed in streams and other waterbodies throughout the world. Typically, these studies involve slug injection of a dye or other soluble tracer at an upstream site, and observation of passage of the tracer at one or more downstream locations by taking discrete water samples or measurements. For appli...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As restoration of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) continues, there is a need for a quantitative methodology for predicting impacts of proposed management changes on Refuge water quantity and quality. A series of compartment-based models have been developed for the hydrologic and water quality modeling of the Ref...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) overlays a 58,000 ha area. Located in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA, the Refuge is a remnant of the historic Everglades. Sheetflow that naturally would flow across the Refuge wetlands was disrupted in the 1950s and early 1960s by construction of stormwater pumps, and levees with...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Dynamic Model for Stormwater Treatment Areas (DMSTA) model (Walker and Kadlec, 2011) has been extensively applied in the analysis of total phosphorus (TP) dynamics in natural and constructed wetlands. DMSTA has been applied in stormwater treatment area (STA) design and operation in South Florida, and specifically has been applied to the STAs di...
Code
This model attempts to duplicate the STA_0 example from DMSTA (http://www.wwwalker.net/dmsta/). The model was programmed using the Windows version of Berkeley Madonna (BM), Version 8.3.18. See the ReadMe file for more information.
Article
The last remaining large remnant of softwater wetlands in the US Florida Everglades lies within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. However, Refuge water quality today is impacted by pumped stormwater inflows to the eutrophic and mineral-enriched 100-km canal, which circumscribes the wetland. Optimal management is a challen...
Article
Highlights ► The model integrates a 1-D channel model with a 2-D gridded marsh model. ► Daily stage and long-term average chloride concentration are well simulated. ► Simulating regulatory outflows allows testing scenarios that do not apply historic flows. ► Calibrating chloride concentration assisted in fine tuning the hydrodynamic calibration. ►...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although sulfate contamination is a serious environmental issue in the Everglades, it has received less attention compared to phosphorus enrichment. Sulfate impacts wetlands through several mechanisms. Sulfate reduction, which is assumed to be the major mechanism of sulfate disappearance, produces potentially toxic sulfide, and is linked to methyla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Simple Refuge Screening Model (SRSM) Version 4 models stage, and concentrations of chloride sulfate, and total phosphorus (TP) in the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge using Berkeley-Madonna simulation software. The model is structured with one canal compartment and three concentric marsh compartments. The SRSM initially u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current environmental management issues in the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge illustrate how water-quality constraints impinge upon efforts to restore the hydrology of the Florida Everglades. Prior to human alterations, the present-day Refuge was part of an Everglades landscape that was shaped by the directional flow of water, extended...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cluster analysis was applied to objectively determine the number of compartments and to spatially delineate compartments with similar features in the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge which led to delineate the 9-Compartment Model structure based on the analysis of concentrations of chloride, total phosphorus, sulfate, and cal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The South Florida wetlands ecosystem is an environment of great ecological diversity. Over the past 100 years, the combined effects of agriculture, urbanization, and water management have caused negative impacts to the ecosystem. Water quantity and quality modeling are necessary to identify management strategies that maximize ecological benefits, w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This presentation describes the design, evaluation, and application of hydrologic performance measures for the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge.
Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mike Waldon (DOI Everglades Program Team) gave a presentation on his research: “Near Zeroth Order Sulfate Disappearance Rate Estimated using Models of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge”. He described how the hydrology of the Loxahatchee area (aka WCA1) has been altered from a predominantly sheet-flow system to a riparian w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The L40 canal is a perimeter canal surrounding the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) that typically receives low P discharges at various flows from the stormwater treatment area, STA-1E. In the present study, the generalized linear mixed model, GLIMMIX, approach was used to evaluate total-P (TP) concentrations of L40...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) exists as the only softwater remnant (58,275 ha) of the Northern Everglades. Alterations in the water quality, quantity, and timing have resulted in myriad impacts to the Refuge. Therefore, it is paramount to develop an effective means to study the impact of the hydrodynamic and water...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is a 58,725 ha remnant of the Northern Everglades. Changes in water quantity, timing and quality have negatively impacted the Refuge. Therefore, a priority for the Refuge is to develop water quantity and quality models to identify appropriate water management strategies that will...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A performance measure (PM) in other disciplines is also termed a figure-of-merit, or objective function. Modeled PMs may be applied as design constraints or as objectives to be maximized or minimized, and are often applied in support of selecting a preferred alternative. Performance measures quantitatively clarify project objectives, benefits, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Simple Refuge Screening Model (SRSM) version 4 simulates coupled hydrodynamics and water quality within the 58,000-ha Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. The SRSM is implemented using the ordinary differential equations solver Berkeley Madonna (www.berkeleymadonna.com). The compartment size and arrangement in version 4 are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This poster focuses on the development and application of linked spatially explicit hydrodynamic and water quality models for the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. The Refuge is a 58,275 ha remnant of the Northern Everglades. The spatially-explicit MIKE FLOOD and ECO Lab modeling frameworks were used to simulate the hydrodyna...
Article
Full-text available
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge overlays Water Conservation Area 1, a 580 km freshwater wetland remnant of the northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. Changes in water quantity and quality have impacted the Refuge ecosystem. Ensuring appropriate management to maximize benefits for wildlife while meeting f...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In cooperation with the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is developing and applying a suite of hydrology and water quality models. The models are formulated with varying levels of spatial resolution. The water quality model with the least spatial resolution has three concentric...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conclusions/Lessons Learned * Approach in model development must not be overly rigid or constrained * Sub-regional models are appropriate for addressing many restoration design and management questions * Simulation of regulation schedule adds to model credibility & utility * Modeling multiple constituents increases credibility of models * Approach...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The original project was designed to use a Lagrangian sampling design. The Lagrangian sampling, also termed plug sampling, is a method of stream sampling that tags a parcel of water using a tracer, and follows the tagged parcel using the tracer so that the same water parcel is sampled repeatedly through time (Mills et al., 1986). This method was te...
Conference Paper
The remaining Everglades are impounded by an extensive canal and levee system. In the northern Everglades, a 144,000-acre wetland is circumscribed by 100 km of canals with a direct overbank connection to the marsh, creating a floodplain wetland environment. Historical monitoring established limited hydrology-ecology response relationships; however,...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This short report documents the various kinetic formulations and associated rates and constants used in water quality modeling in the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) enhanced monitoring and modeling program (Brandt et al. 2004). This report describes the processes modeled in the simpler refuge models implemented in...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As restoration of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) continues, there is a need for a simple, quantitative methodology for predicting impacts of proposed management changes on Refuge stage. The Simple Refuge Screening Model (SRSM) simulates the water budget, regulation schedule implementation, and constituent dynam...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of this manual is to provide users with a detailed description of modeling the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge hydrodynamics using MIKE FLOOD. The contents of this manual include descriptions of data preparation, model setup, and model execution. Note that this manual focuses on the hydrodynamics modeling of th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The MIKE FLOOD model programs are divided into modules, including the hydrodynamic (HD) and advection-dispersion (AD) modules. Refuge MIKE FLOOD user manuals have been similarly divided. This manual deals with the AD module, and is the counterpart of the User’s Manual of A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge Hydrodynamics Modeling with MIKE F...
Article
Full-text available
Sulfate contamination has been identified as a serious environmental issue in the Everglades ecosystem. However, it has received less attention compared to P enrichment. Sulfate enters the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a remnant of the historic Everglades, in pumped stormwater discharges with a mean concentration...
Conference Paper
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is a 58,275 ha remnant of the historic Everglades, Florida, USA. Changes in water quantity, timing and quality have impacted the Refuge including habitat suitability changes for fish and wildlife. Development of water quantity and quality models support identification of water man...
Article
Full-text available
A water-quality model application to large geographical areas typically involves the spatial aggregation of sub-areas into compartments which are assumed within the model to be uniform. Model compartments often are delineated using available data and professional judgment. Compartment delineation affects the accuracy ofhydrodynamic and water qualit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There can be utility in having a suite of alternative models available for research and management applications. Model credibility is improved when alternative models are in substantial agreement; model limitations and deficiencies can be highlighted when differences in model projections are identified. The latter is valuable both for identifying w...
Article
Full-text available
The discharge of nutrient and ion-enriched agricultural and urban runoff into perimeter canals surrounding the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge and subsequent intrusion into a natural soft-water marsh is causing ecosystem alterations. Because this habitat is among the last remaining rainfall-driven areas of the Florida Evergl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sulfate contamination has been identified as a serious environmental issue in the Everglades. However, it has received less attention compared to phosphorus enrichment. Sulfate enters the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a remnant of the historic Everglades, in pumped stormwater discharges with a mean concentration...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is a 58,000 ha remnant of the Northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, Florida (USFWS, 2000). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that changes in water quantity, timing and quality are introducing negative impacts to the Loxahatchee Refuge’s ecosystem. It is a prior...
Article
Full-text available
COMPARTMENT DELINEATION FOR A WETLAND WATER QUALITY MODEL IN THE NORTHERN EVERGLADES, FLORIDA, USA A water-quality model application to large geographical areas typically involves the spatial aggregation of sub-areas into compartments which are assumed within the model to be uniform. Model compartments often are delineated using available data and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Impact of stream sediments on surface water quality has been an area of active water-science research (Bostrom et al., 1988; Brunke and Gonser, 1997; Brunke et al., 1998; Dahm et al., 1998; Daroub et al., 2003; DiToro, 2001; Grimm and Fisher, 1984; Perkins and Underwood, 2001; Vollmer et al., 2002; Waldon and McCormick, 2003). Sediments play an imp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water budget and hydrodynamic models are nearing completion for the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. The Refuge is a remnant of the historic northern Everglades ecosystem, and has been impacted by hydrologic modification, and elevated nutrient and mineral concentrations in inflowing water. These models will be used to provid...
Conference Paper
Nutrient and ion-enriched agricultural and urban runoff discharged to canals surrounding the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), threaten historically soft-water ecosystem health. Canal waters intrude into the Refuge’s interior marsh and cause ecosystem alterations such as converting sawgrass to cattail. To protect the...
Conference Paper
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is a 144,000 acre wetland established for the multiple purposes of flood protection, water supply, and wildlife habitat. Agricultural and urban runoff pumped into the Refuge has elevated nutrients which negatively impact the Refuge ecosystem. Even at very low levels of phosphorus...
Conference Paper
Most of the Everglades, including the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), developed as a rainfall-driven system with waters low in inorganic ions, but has been impacted by intrusion of water with high nutrient and solute concentrations. In June 2004, the Refuge began detailed water quality monitoring to provide information to aid...
Conference Paper
An enhanced water quality monitoring network was established in the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge to complement existing monitoring. Data were collected from June 2004 through December 2005 at 53 sites, including 7 transects, and were analyzed to identify water management alternatives that minimize poor water quality and ecological im...
Technical Report
Full-text available
According to the Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Refuge (USFWS, 2000), “Water quality, quantity and delivery timing affect the welfare of fish, wildlife and plants… Because the Everglades is no longer a free-flowing system that relies on temporal weather patterns to sustain it, humans must now attempt to provide water when and where the sys...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Simplified models can provide insight and quantitative predictions that develop our understanding of the process of canal water intrusion in the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). The model described in this report is a model of water flow in and out of the marsh from the perimeter canal based on a flat-pool assumption and using...
Article
Full-text available
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge overlays an area termed Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA-1, a 143,000 acre (58,000 ha) freshwater wetland. It is a remnant of the northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. Sheetflow that naturally would flow across the Refuge wetlands was disrupted in the 1950s and early 1960s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
It has been suggested by Gary Goforth that the datum of the 1-8C canal stage gauge has shifted, and that this has resulted in erroneous consent decree phosphorus level calculations. I have compared the 1-8C with the 1-7 and 1-9 marsh gauges (1960-2003), and also the S-5A pump tailwater gauge (1960-1998). My analyses and conclusions relevant to thes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Simplified models can provide insight and quantitative predictions that develop our understanding of relevant process. Here, a simple model of canal water intrusion in the Refuge is explored. The two component models described here are (1) a model of stage at refuge gauging sites, and (2) a model of water flow in and out of the marsh from the perim...
Conference Paper
There are a variety of ways to analyze spatial water quality data. Approaches for analyzing water quality data along transects include typical gradient analyses and generation of isopleths. As presented elsewhere at the 2006 GEER conference, these types of approaches were used to characterize penetration of canal water into the interior of the A.R....
Conference Paper
June 5-9, 2006 Lake Buena Vista, Florida To assess the influence of water management operations on canal water intrusion into the marsh interior of the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, we examined structure operations (flows and stages along canals and at structures) along with spatial patterns of conductivity along a series of transect...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the development of a hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. The Loxahatchee Refuge, which overlays Water Conservation Area-1, protects a last remnant of the historic northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, Florida. It covers 143,238 acres (about 58,000 ha) and is l...
Conference Paper
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge also known as Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA-1) is 143,238 acres (58,000 ha) and is located approximately seven miles west of Boynton Beach, FL where it is all that remains of the northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, FL. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) there h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge is the only remnant of the northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, Florida (USFWS, 2000). It includes 143,238 acres (58,000 ha) and is located seven miles west of the city of Boynton Beach. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has indicated that changes in water quantity, timing an...