Michael B. Twidale

Michael B. Twidale
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Graduate School of Library and Information Science

Doctor of Philosophy

About

139
Publications
20,648
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3,061
Citations

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
The centenaries of former chapters of the British Music Society (BMS), established in 1918, have prompted the governing bodies to take stock of their histories and build on the cataloguing, documentation and preservation of their archival collections. The InterMusE project aims to support this shared ‘instinct to archive’ by capturing and, cruciall...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new paradigm to address the persistence of difficulties that people have in accessing and using information. Our idea consists of two main aspects: engaging wider society with usability and distributing the topic across disciplines. We claim that bad usability is a social justice issue. Primarily, we propose that usability should becom...
Conference Paper
In post-COVID times we are focusing quite rightly on the plight of our major cultural institutions; but just as important are the local societies that enrich our community life, including amateur music societies, devastated by stringent social-distancing requirements and the health and safety implications of live performance in small spaces. We pro...
Chapter
Museum collections are primarily experienced in physical museums. Metadata and linked data have the potential to support new models of interaction with heritage objects outside museums. Object biographies are a conceptual lens through which to view object metadata. We explore the concept of object biography through an interview-based study of selec...
Article
If scientific research can be described as "arm's length'' cooperative work, then the sciences engaged in the creation and maintenance of cooperatively built classification systems might be said to require extremely long arms; workers must reach across great distances of time, space and awareness to independently contribute to the creation and main...
Article
Cambridge Core - Knowledge Management, Databases and Data Mining - Interactive Information Seeking, Behaviour and Retrieval - edited by Ian Ruthven
Article
Interactive Information Seeking, Behaviour and Retrieval - edited by Ian Ruthven December 2013
Chapter
Taxonomists produce a myriad of phenotypic descriptions. Traditionally these are provided in terse (telegraphic) natural language. As seen in parallel within other fields of biology researchers are exploring ways to formalize parts of the taxonomic process so that aspects of it are more computational in nature. The currently used data formalization...
Article
Migration of data collections from one platform to another is an important component of data curation – yet, there is surprisingly little guidance for information professionals faced with this task. Data migration may be particularly challenging when these data collections are housed in relational databases, due to the complex ways that data, data...
Conference Paper
There are many factors in task design that might make it ‘complex’: having multiple components, having multiple cross-dependent components, tasks that involve comparison, evaluation, estimation, or learning. In this paper, we discuss a case study of a complex task we may consider to be highly natural, a common concern for many people, and one that...
Article
Full-text available
In natural history museums, knowledge organization systems have gradually been migrated from paper-based catalog ledgers to electronic databases; these databases in turn must be migrated from one platform or software version to another. These migrations are by no means straightforward, particularly when one data schema must be mapped to another-or,...
Article
The characterization of scholarly communication is dominated by citation-based measures. In this paper we propose several metrics to describe different facets of open access and open research. We discuss measures to represent the public availability of articles along with their archival location, licenses, access costs, and supporting information....
Conference Paper
People can often find themselves out of their depth when they face knowledge-based problems, such as faulty technology, or medical concerns. This can also happen in everyday domains that users are simply inexperienced with, like cooking. These are common exploratory search conditions, where users don’t quite know enough about the domain to know if...
Article
The study uses grounded theory approach to develop different categories of stopwords leading to the creation of a stopword list for email-based data. The finding of the study will contribute in better understanding of email as data and developing better algorithms which could automatically remove specific category of stopwords.Cette étude se base s...
Chapter
Universities are strange organizations. They are charged with multiple, perhaps contradictory, and certainly mutually complexifying missions. These include teaching, research, and service to local, national and international communities, economic regeneration and urban revitalization.
Article
Personal name variants are a common problem in digital libraries, reducing the precision of searches and complicating browsing-based interaction. The book-centric approach of name authority control has not scaled to match the growth and diversity of digital repositories. In this paper, we present a novel system for user-driven integration of name v...
Conference Paper
Conference Paper
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The open access movement has highlighted the barriers that exist for users to gain access to significant portions of the research literature. The open data approach seeks to extend the principles of open access to the data and code that supports the published scholarly record. Current metadata is inadequate to allow information researchers to evalu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present a novel system for user-driven integration of name variants when interacting with web-based information systems. The growth and diversity of online information means that many users experience disambiguation and collocation errors in their information searching. We approach these issues via a client-side JavaScript browser...
Conference Paper
This SIG proposal, sponsored by the CHI Design Community, looks at the intersection and cross-fertilization between HCI, and Digital and Performance Arts. We consider how the exploration of engaging and meaningful artistic experience can further push the boundaries of HCI research and practice and how tool use and models of evaluation can be explor...
Article
Library and Information Science (LIS) students are increasingly interested in pursuing careers that transcend traditional boundaries between libraries, archives, and museums. To help students achieve these goals, the LIS programs at the University of Illinois and Florida State University have offered courses on museum informatics—the sociotechnical...
Article
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A study of the Drupal open source project shows the rather problematic status of usability designers with respect to the larger developer community. Issues of power, trust, and identity arise and affect the way that usability recommendations are acted on or ignored. A political view of these aspects can help in interpreting the situation. We found...
Article
Navigation within the physical library building can be supported with mobile computing technology; specifically, a path suggestion software application on a patron’s mobile device can direct her to the location of the physical item on the shelf. This is accomplished by leveraging existing WiFi access points within a library building as well as supp...
Article
Full-text available
This study of metadata quality was conducted by the IMLS Digital Collections and Content (DCC) project team (http://imlsdcc.grainger.uiuc.edu/) using quantitative and qualitative analysis of metadata authoring practices of several projects funded through the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) National Leadership Grant (NLG) program. We...
Article
Full-text available
The usability of the collections registry has been reviewed at different periods during the project, and continues to be revisited in the continuation of the project. Usability analysis and interface redesign should be a continuous activity rather than a one-shot process at a single point in the systems development lifecycle. To make it feasible to...
Article
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Current institutional repository software provides few tools to help metadata librarians understand and analyze their collections. In this article, we compare and contrast metadata analysis tools that were developed simultaneously, but independently, at two New Zealand institutions during a period of national investment in research repositories: th...
Conference Paper
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A study was conducted across multiple open source software online technical help communities. This paper presents the types of discussions that occur, the types of questions asked and the type of responses that are given. The implications for socio-technical design are considered, exploring how help requests and discussions can be used to improve f...
Chapter
This chapter explores the concept of patchwork prototyping: the combining of open source software applications to rapidly create a rudimentary but fully functional prototype that can be used and hence evaluated in real-life situations. The use of a working prototype enables the capture of more realistic and informed requirements than traditional me...
Chapter
This chapter explores the concept of patchwork prototyping: the combining of open source software applications to rapidly create a rudimentary but fully functional prototype that can be used and hence evaluated in real-life situations. The use of a working prototype enables the capture of more realistic and informed requirements than traditional me...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a case study of developing and deploying a knowledge management system (KMS) in an organization. Knowledge Management (KM) initiative described in this paper is unique because it is being developed by using participatory approach by the Cross Functional Team (CFT). This paper describes a practical and systematic approach to con...
Article
Full-text available
Research on web mashups and visual languages share an interest in human-centered computing. Both research communities are concerned with supporting programming by everyday, technically inexpert users. Visual programming environments have been a focus for both communities, and we believe that there is much to be gained by further discussion between...
Article
Full-text available
The classic problem within the information quality (IQ) research and practice community has been the problem of defining IQ. It has been found repeatedly that IQ is context sensitive and cannot be described, measured, and assured with a single model. There is a need for empirical case studies of IQ work in different systems to develop a systematic...
Article
Full-text available
Persona-based design (PBD) has become a popular method for enabling design teams to reason and communicate about user centered design issues and trade-offs. There is a growing body of literature that describes different ways in which personas have been applied by researchers and practitioners. Despite this diversity in practice the debates about th...
Article
Information provision via digital libraries often separates the writing process from that of information searching. In this paper we investigate the potential of a tighter integration between searching for information in digital libraries and using those results in academic writing. We consider whether it may sometimes be advantageous to encourage...
Conference Paper
Help-giving interactions in open source technical support often involve more people than the conventional help-giver help-seeker pair. Contributions include lightweight but useful me-too contributions from fellow help-seekers. Problems with the reuse of help documentation may be resolved by contextualized discussions, and those discussions themselv...
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We describe a Web-based metadata quality tool that provides statistical descriptions and visualisations of Dublin Core metadata harvested via the OAI protocol. The lightweight nature of development allows it to be used to gather contextualized requirements and some initial user feedback is discussed.
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Based on a study of participatory design in the development of cyberinfrastructure involving the rapid composition of open source software and web services, we consider cases where researchers create their own ad hoc infrastructures out of available software. We compare "top- down" and "bottom-up" cyberinfrastructure development and speculate on wh...
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In everyday work environments, systems for work evolve constantly in response to changing environments, the need to overcome technical and social obstacles, or out of the desire by individuals to try something new or satisfy their curiosity. This proposal briefly reviews some emergent design activities, namely patchwork prototyping and a recent tre...
Article
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iSchools have a well-established reputation for rigorous analysis, applying a range of multidisciplinary methods. However, increasingly many of us are teaching design elements as well as doing design in our research. We believe that as iSchools, we have a unique perspective, or accent, on design activities, which comes from our history of studying...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main components in information quality (IQ) assurance is an IQ measurement model design and operationalization. One cannot manage IQ without first being able to measure it meaningfully and establishing a causal connection between the source of IQ change, the IQ problem types, the types of activities affected, and their implications. A be...
Conference Paper
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Many collaborative design tools may suffer from being too generic to address the specific complexities inherent in multidisciplinary collaboration. We provide accounts of several multidisciplinary HCI courses at our institution, elaborating on the challenges student teams face when integrating design practice from a wide variety of disciplines. Of...
Conference Paper
Successful collaborations between New Media Arts and HCI tend to develop hybrid techniques that promote balanced contributions from both disciplines. However, since many of these collaborations are one-off or highly dependent on the researchers/artists involved, systematic discussions of the role and impact of the various evaluation techniques and...
Article
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In order to protect email users from receiving unsolicited commercial email or spam, anti-spam measures building on technologies, such as filters and block lists, have been deployed widely. However, there is some evidence that certain anti-spam measures based on the purported origin of the spam cause unintended consequences related to issues of equ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the use of abstracted screenshots as part of a new help interface. Graphstract, an implementation of a graphical help system, extends the ideas of textually oriented Minimal Manuals to the use of screenshots, allowing multiple small graphical elements to be shown in a limited space. This allows a user to get an overview of a complex sequ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The software technologies used to create web interfaces for digital libraries are discussed using examples from Greenstone 3.
Conference Paper
Creativity support tools are set an especially difficult task when they are applied to art/science collaboration. Not because of any fundamental incompatibility between the disciplines, but because creativity support tools are rarely supple enough to manage dramatically shifting requirements at various stages of design or handle the diversity of ar...
Article
This chapter explores the concept of patchwork prototyping: the combining of open source software applications to rapidly create a rudimentary but fully functional prototype that can be used and hence evaluated in real-life situations. The use of a working prototype enables the capture of more realistic and informed requirements than traditional me...
Article
Full-text available
The recent emergence of web mash-ups and open source software is driving the development of new practices in software and systems development. In this paper we explore novel practices of user-driven innovation through an examination of several case studies which illustrate how users and developers are exploiting the proliferation of open APIs and o...
Article
We explore how some open source projects address issues of usability. We describe the mechanisms, techniques and technology used by open source communities to design and refine the interfaces to their programs. In particular we consider how these developers cope with their distributed community, lack of domain expertise, limited resources and separ...
Conference Paper
We explore online technical support of open source software by a study of postings to discussion boards. Our results indicate that there are several types of detail that are required by the help-givers to be able to diagnose and remediate help-seekers’ difficulties. As a result help interactions may iterate somewhat inefficiently. These findings ar...
Conference Paper
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The implications of using digital library software in educational contexts, for both the students and the software developers, are discussed in the light of two case studies of courses where students build digital libraries.
Conference Paper
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We explore the application of a wiki-based technology and style of interaction to enabling the incremental translation of a collaborative application into a number of different languages, including variant English language interfaces better suited to the needs of particular user communities. The development work allows us to explore in more detail...
Article
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We explore the potential of syndicating copy actions between group members, particularly as a way to provide lightweight activity awareness information. The advantages of the approach include its ease of integration with existing activities and tools, its flexibility and its lightweight nature for both giver and receiver of information. Its disadva...
Article
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In this workshop, we explore emerging research themes in web mash-ups which are relevant to CSCW research. Web mash-ups are web sites which combine data or services from more than one source into an integrated whole. The mash-up community resembles open-source communities and likewise could benefit from further study. We explore several themes in a...
Chapter
This chapter presents results from our empirical studies of metadata quality in large corpuses of metadata harvested under Open Archives Initiative (OAI) protocols. Along with a discussion of why and how metadata quality is important, an approach to conceptualizing, assessing metadata quality is presented. The approach is based on a more general mo...
Article
We consider ideas for a tighter integration of searching a digital library while writing a paper. A prototype system based on web services is described which allows us to explore the design space of ambient search tools to support and inspire the writing process. published or submitted for publication is peer reviewed
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Full-text available
The rapid progress of digital library technology from research to implementation has created a force for change in the curricula of library schools. The education of future librarians has always had to adapt to new technologies but the pace, complexity and implications of digital libraries pose considerable challenges. In this article we explore ho...
Article
The paper reviews work on informal technical help giving between colleagues. It concentrates on the process of how colleagues help each other to use a computer application to achieve a specific work task, contrasting this with the focus of much prior work on surrounding issues like the choice of whom to ask, information re-use and the larger work c...
Article
The paper considers the potential of a representation to facilitate the sharing of technical how-to help in workplace environments. The method uses screenshots of trails through a computer application made by others and sharable through a Knowledge Management System. A pilot study was conducted comparing this type of help both with conventional bui...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the use of abstracted versions of screenshots as part of an interface to support giving help to the user. Graphstract, the software implementation of this graphical help system, extends the ideas of textually oriented Minimal Manuals to the use of screenshots, enabling multiple small graphical elements to be shown in a small space. This...
Conference Paper
Summary form only given. At first glance it can look like open source software development violates many, if not all, of the precepts of decades of careful research and teaching in software engineering. One could take a classic SE textbook and compare the activities elaborated and advocated in the various chapters with what is actually done in plai...
Conference Paper
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The authors combine their experiences in three independent studies of informal learning in the contexts of the workplace, school and leisure. They uncover aspects of collaborative work, learning and play involving the use of different learning and teaching techniques, and supported by appropriations of the regular use of the applications. The impor...
Article
Open source communities have successfully developed a great deal of software although most computer users only use proprietary applications. The usability of open source software is often regarded as one reason for this limited distribution. In this paper we review the existing evidence of the usability of open source software and discuss how the c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a qualitative and formative study of the uses of a starfield-based visualization interface for analysis of library collections. The evaluation process has produced feedback that suggests ways to significantly improve starfield interfaces and the interaction process to improve their learnability and usability. The study also gave...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effective information quality analysis needs powerful yet easy ways to obtain metrics. The English version of Wikipedia provides an extremely interesting yet challenging case for the study of Information Quality dynamics at both macro and micro levels. We propose seven IQ metrics which can be evaluated automatically and test the set on a representa...
Article
Full-text available
The public nature of discussion in open source projects provides a valuable resource for understanding the mechanisms of open source software development. In this paper we explore how open source projects address issues of usability. We examine bug reports of several projects to characterise how developers address and resolve issues concerning user...
Conference Paper
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Note: This is a draft. Please do not cite without permission.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents early results from our empirical studies of metadata quality in large corpuses of metadata harvested under Open Archives Initiative (OAI) protocols. Along with some discussion of why and how metadata quality is important, an approach to conceptualizing, measuring, and assessing metadata quality is presented. The approach given i...
Article
In this poster we outline the types of institutions, metadata schemes, and materials contained in the NLG digital collection projects. It should come as no surprise that MARC and Dublin Core are the most often used metadata schemes in these projects, and that academic libraries make up the majority of the institutions involved in creating digital c...
Article
Full-text available
Open source communities have successfully developed many pieces of software although most computer users only use proprietary applications. The usability of open source software is often regarded as one reason for this limited distribution. In this paper we review the existing evidence of the usability of open source software and discuss how the ch...
Article
Full-text available
After software has been released the opportunities for users to influence development can often be limited. In this paper we review the research on post-deployment usability and make explicit its connections to open source software development. We describe issues involved in the design of end-user reporting tools with reference to the Safari web br...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the use of abstracted screenshots as part of a system to support help giving. GraphStract extends the ideas of textually oriented Minimal Manuals to the use of abbreviated screenshots, enabling multiple small graphical elements to be shown in a small space. This enables the user to get an overview of a complex sequential task as a whole...
Article
In this paper, we describe the conceptual idea of the Document Sandbox: an environment where users can make exploratory changes to a document safely and without concern of irreversibly altering the original, and which facilitates a user's search for the right feature for a task. The aim of this tool is to allow the user freedom and framework to sys...
Article
Full-text available
Web-based accounts, services and subscriptions often require a login and a password. Users can easily accumulate a bewildering array of logins and passwords to remember on security systems where usability design was often an afterthought. In this paper we describe our conceptual system for Minimal-Feedback Hints for Remote Authentication (MiFA), wh...