Michael Thaut

Michael Thaut
University of Toronto | U of T · music, neuroscience, rehabilitation science

PhD

About

155
Publications
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Publications

Publications (155)
Article
The present study examined spatial accuracy of mallet endpoints in a marimba performance context. Trained percussionists performed two- (i.e., Experiment 1) and four-mallet (i.e., Experiment 2) excerpts in three tempo conditions including slow, intermediate, and fast. Motion capture was utilized to gather data of upper-limb and mallet movements, as...
Article
Shared emotional experiences during musical activities among musicians can be coupled with brainwave synchronization. For non-speaking individuals with CP, verbal communication may be limited in expressing mutual empathy. Therefore, this case study explored interbrain synchronization among a non-speaking CP (female, 18 yrs), her parent, and a music...
Article
Full-text available
Sound-producing movements in percussion performance require a high degree of fine motor control. However, there remains a relatively limited empirical understanding of how performance level abilities develop in percussion performance in general, and marimba performance specifically. To address this issue, nine percussionists performed individualise...
Article
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Research in basic and clinical neuroscience of music conducted over the past decades has begun to uncover music's high potential as a tool for rehabilitation. Advances in our understanding of how music engages parallel brain networks underpinning sensory and motor processes, arousal, reward, and affective regulation, have laid a sound neuroscientif...
Article
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The present study investigated motor kinematics underlying performance-related movements in marimba performance. Participants played a marimba while motion capture equipment tracked movements of the torso, shoulders, elbows, wrists, and hands. Principal components analysis was applied to assess the movements during the performance related to sound...
Article
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Background: A common and debilitating challenge experienced by people with TBI is gait-associated mobility impairment and persisting cognitive impairments. Cognitive and physical impairments are often addressed independently during rehabilitation, however, increasing evidence links cognitive and motor processes more closely. Objectives: (1) To dete...
Article
Research Objectives To use a novel limb acceleration measure to reveal mechanisms of improved paretic limb control following music-based rehabilitation. Design A consecutive sample. Setting A music and health research facility in Toronto, CA. Participants 30 community dwellers aged 30-79 years in the chronic stroke phase with minimal volitional...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the potential benefits of three Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP)-based interventions in rehabilitation of the affected upper-extremity [UE] for adults with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Design Randomized-controlled pilot study Setting University research facility Participants Thirty community-dwelling...
Conference Paper
Sound production in a percussion context like marimba results from using two mallets held in each hand to strike a unique bar/target location. If the mallets contact the bar above the resonator below, optimal sound production occurs. This study examined mallet accuracy to further understand mechanisms underlying motor control in marimba performance...
Conference Paper
Musicians execute thousands of complex movements during a performance. This study examined the accuracy of such movements in a marimba performance context. Marimba performance is associated with an idealistic performance accuracy component wherein the terminal position of the mallets should strike the bar over the resonator to produce optimal sound...
Article
Background: Repeated exposure to long-known music has been shown to have a beneficial effect on cognitive performance in patients with AD. However, the brain mechanisms underlying improvement in cognitive performance are not yet clear. Objective: In this pilot study we propose to examine the effect of repeated long-known music exposure on imagin...
Poster
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The auditory and motor systems have rich connectivity during movement to the predictable auditory rhythmic stimuli, promoting the synchronization of the two systems through a process called rhythmic entrainment (Thaut, 2003). Auditory-motor entrainment occurs when the frequency of external rhythmic auditory cues determines the frequency of activity...
Article
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The study compared the prevalence of the Val66Met Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6265) in a sample of musicians (N = 50) to an ethnically matched general population sample from the 1000 Human Genome Project (N = 424). Met-carriers of the polymorphism (Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes) are typically present in 25–30...
Article
Background: The burden of post-stroke cognitive impairment, as well as affective disorders, remains persistently high. With improved stroke survival rates and increasing life expectancy, there is a need for effective interventions to facilitate remediation of neurocognitive impairments and post-stroke mood disorders. Objective: To investigate th...
Article
Full-text available
One of the questions yet to be fully understood is to what extent the properties of the sensory and the movement information interact to facilitate sensorimotor integration. In this study, we examined the relative contribution of the continuity compatibility between motor goals and their sensory outcomes in timing variability. The variability of in...
Article
Full-text available
Restoration of upper limb motor function and patient functional independence are crucial treatment targets in neurological rehabilitation. Growing evidence indicates that music-based intervention is a promising therapeutic approach for the restoration of upper extremity functional abilities in neurologic conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: In this experimental study, we aimed to determine whether guided music listening (GML) - a music intervention based on models of mood mediation and attention modulation - modulates masticatory muscle activity and awake bruxism in subjects with chronic painful muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD myalgia, mTMD), a condition causing...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Restoration of upper limb motor function and patient functional independence are crucial treatment targets for neurologic recovery. Growing evidence indicates that music-based intervention is a promising therapeutic approach for the restoration of upper extremity functional abilities in neurologic conditions. In this context, music techn...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to long-known music would evoke more extensive activation of brain regions minimally affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and outside traditional memory networks using a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm involving listening to long-known and recently-lear...
Article
Objectives To explore the immediate effects of voice focus adjustments on the oral-nasal balance of hypernasal speakers, measured with nasalance scores. Methods Five hypernasal speakers (2M, 3F) aged 5-12 (SD 2.7) learned to speak with extreme forward and backward voice focus. Speakers repeated oral, nasal, and phonetically balanced stimuli. Nasal...
Article
Full-text available
Modern music therapy, starting around the middle of the twentieth century was primarily conceived to promote emotional well-being and to facilitate social group association and integration. Therefore, it was rooted mostly in social science concepts. More recently, music as therapy began to move decidedly toward perspectives of neuroscience. This ha...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of multisensory processing in music by individuals with normal hearing, hearing loss, and deafness. The first section provides an account of theory and evidence regarding the neural mechanisms underpinning multisensory processing. The second section considers auditory-only processing of music with a focus on latera...
Article
Objectives: This study investigated the effect of training backward and forward voice focus adjustments on oral-nasal balance in speech and singing in typical speakers. Methods: Twenty participants (10M/10F) aged 24.25 (SD 3.73) years read phonetically balanced, nasal and oral speech stimuli, and sang a song in both forward and backward voice fo...
Article
Medical therapies applied to Parkinson's disease (PD) have advanced tremendously since the 1960's based on advances in our understanding of the underlying neurophysiology. Behavioral therapies, such as rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), have been developed more recently and demonstrated efficacy. However, the neural mechanisms of RAS are only vag...
Article
Full-text available
Unilateral visual neglect from right hemispheric stroke is a condition that reduces a person's ability to attend to and process stimuli in their left visual field, resulting in neglect and inattention to the left side of their environment. This perceptual processing deficit can negatively affect individuals' daily living which in turn reduces funct...
Article
Full-text available
Music interventions have been widely adopted as a potential non-pharmacological therapy for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to treat cognitive and/or behavioral symptoms of the disease. In spite of the prevalence of such therapies, evidence for their effectiveness report mixed results in the literature. The purpose of this narrative review i...
Article
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Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) is a novel impairment-focused behavioral intervention system whose techniques are based on the clinical neuroscience of music perception, cognition, and production. Auditory Stimulation (RAS) is one of the NMT techniques, which aims to develop and maintain a physiological rhythmic motor activity through rhythmic audit...
Data
Fine motor assessments scores for both dominant and non-dominant hands before (pre) and after (post) a 5-week session of Neurologic Music Therapy. (A) Overall motor score, section 3 of the UPDRS; (B) Time to complete the pegboard, as part of the GPT (Grooved Pegboard Test); (C) Number of finger-to-thumb oppositions, as part of the NES (Neurological...
Data
Participants' demographics and baseline characteristics. UPDRS, Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, an overall marker for Parkinson's disease progression and symptoms severity.
Article
Full-text available
The role of auditory information on perceptual-motor processes has gained increased interest in sports and psychology research in recent years. Numerous neurobiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated the close interaction between auditory and motor areas of the brain, and the importance of auditory information for movement execution, cont...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory-motor entrainment using Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) has shown to improve motor control in healthy persons and persons with neurologic motor disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and stroke. Neuroimaging studies have shown the modulation of corticostriatal activity in response to RAS. However, the underlying neurochemical mechanisms...
Chapter
From neuroimaging and behavioral research investigating the unique relation between music and preserved cognitive skills to the clinical use of music to mediate the developmental and therapeutic processes, music has played a prominent role in clinical and research literature on autism spectrum disorder. In this chapter, we discuss the current state...
Chapter
This chapter presents a broad panorama of the current knowledge concerning the anatomical and functional basis of music processing in the healthy brain. Neuroimaging studies developed over the past 20 years provide evidence that music processing takes place in widely distributed neural networks. Here, attention is focused on core brain networks imp...
Article
Objectives: This study explored the role of auditory feedback in the regulation of oral-nasal balance in singing in trained singers and non-singers. Study design: Experimental repeated measures study. Methods: Twenty non-singers (10M/10F) and 10 female professional singers sang a musical stimulus repeatedly while hearing themselves over headph...
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by a dysfunctional basal ganglia (BG) system, producing motor and non-motor symptoms. A significant number of studies have demonstrated that rhythmic auditory stimulation can improve gait and other motor behaviors in PD that are not well managed by the conventional therapy. As music, being highly...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study tested whether Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) training would effectively reduce the number of falls in Parkinson’s Disease patients with a history of frequent falls. Design: Randomized withdrawal study design. Subjects: Sixty participants diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease with at least 2 falls in the past 12...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9–11 year old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a test measuring a participant's ability to recall a list of 15 words over multi...
Article
Neurophysiological research has shown that auditory and motor systems interact during movement to rhythmic auditory stimuli through a process called entrainment. This study explores the neural oscillations underlying auditory-motor entrainment using electroencephalography. Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two control conditions,...
Article
Full-text available
Music has played a prominent role in the clinical and research literature on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regard to diagnosis, therapy, and behavioral observations of exceptional artistic abilities in this population. Music as therapy for ASD has traditionally focused on social interaction, communication skills, and social-emotional behaviors....
Article
Aims: To evaluate the effects of Guided Music Listening (GML) on masticatory muscles and on the amplitude of wake-time tooth clenching in individuals with higher vs lower frequency of clenching episodes. Methods: The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded during three 20-minute music (relaxing, stress/tension, and fa...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigat...
Thesis
Full-text available
~~~ Published at the Morgan Library of Colorado State University, @ https://mountainscholar.org/handle/10217/173464. ~~~ Emotional tone in Western languages (i.e., the Germanic and Romance group) is influenced by the Western musical scale. Studies have shown that as differences increase between Western and non-Western languages, overall comprehensi...
Article
Comments on Warren Brodsky and Cynthia Briggs review (see record 2016-11944-001) of Thaut and Hoemberg's book, Handbook of Neurologic Music Therapy (see record 2014-42500-000). The current authors are concerned that the review reads more like a multipage document elaborating on the reviewers’ philosophical disagreements with Neurologic Music Therap...
Article
The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that...
Chapter
Die neurobiologische Musikforschung trägt eine entscheidende Rolle: Ziel vieler Studien ist dabei, die unterstützende Wirkung der Musik auf therapeutisches Lernen, Verhalten und Neuroplastizität zu untersuchen und evidenzbasiert klinisch zu übersetzen. Die Übertragung von wissenschaftlich fundierten motorischen und kognitiven Lerntheorien auf thera...
Article
The discovery of rhythmic auditory-motor entrainment in clinical populations was a historical breakthrough in demonstrating for the first time a neurological mechanism linking music to retraining brain and behavioral functions. Early pilot studies from this research center were followed up by a systematic line of research studying rhythmic auditory...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g. fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sen...
Article
The present study used a synchronization-continuation paradigm during continuous bimanual drumming with different cues in 17 persons with Down syndrome, eight typical persons with similar mental age and eight typical persons with similar chronological age. The task required participants to hit two drums with their hands at the same time following m...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will...
Article
Full-text available
Based on insights from brain research in music, neurologic music therapy (NMT) has been established as a new model for music in therapy and medicine. Standardized clinical interventions are based on clusters of research evidence and established learning principles in motor, speech/language, and cognitive training. The research support for NMT in st...
Article
Full-text available
Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research over the past two decades has revealed a rich physiological connection between the auditory and motor system across a variety of cortical, subcortical, and spinal levels. Entrainment accrues due to the fast and precise processing of temporal information in the auditory system. Results in high performance sports and neurologic rehabilitatio...
Article
Neurologic music therapy (NMT) is a specific methodology of music therapy that is based on neuroscience models of music perception and production. Codified NMT techniques are developed out of basic and applied research on the unique effects of music on the brain. The distributed nature of neuronal networks for music processing in the brain, combine...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the functional neuroanatomy of harmonic music perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented short pieces of Western classical music to nonmusicians. The ending of each piece was systematically manipulated in the following four ways: Standard Cadence (expected resolution), Deceptive Cadence (moder...
Article
Entrainment is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies) when one system's motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. The use of entrainment for therapeutic purposes was established for the first time in the early 1990s by Thaut and colleagues...
Article
This chapter discusses neuroscience and music research and how this research has informed the use of music in therapy for rehabilitation. First, it begins with evidence of cortical engagement when listening and performing music. Second, it explores motor synchronization to rhythm. Third, it presents evidence of successful rehabilitation of sensorim...
Article
This chapter examines the neurological bases of musical communication. First, it presents behavioural data from psychophysical studies in terms of how these data provide insight into assumed brain function on a theoretical level. Second, it reviews studies using brain imaging and brain wave recordings to shed some light on what is known so far abou...
Article
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT AUDITORY rhythm has a profound effect on the motor system. Evidence shows that the auditory and motor system have a rich connectivity across a variety of cortical, subcortical, and spinal levels. The auditory system—a fast and precise processor or temporal information—projects into motor structures in the brain...
Article
NEUROLOGIC MUSIC THERAPY LAST CAME INTO research and clinical focus via cognitive rehabilitation. New imaging techniques studying higher cognitive functions in the human brain 'in vivo' and theoretical advancements in music and brain function have facilitated this development. There are shared cognitive and perceptual mechanisms and shared neural s...
Article
This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive functio...
Article
To determine changes in kinematic variables and compensatory movement patterns of survivors of stroke completing constraint-induced therapy (CIT). Pre-post, case series. Clinical rehabilitation research laboratory. Men (n=7) and women (n=3) with unilateral stroke occurring at least 9 months prior to study entry with moderate, stable motor deficits....
Article
Full-text available
Recovery of skilled upper limb movement remains a critical focus of rehabilitation in individuals post stroke. Conventional treatments, however, have demonstrated limited capability to produce substantial improvements in poststroke quality of movement. Recently, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has emerged as efficacious in improving and normali...
Chapter
This article discusses music therapy in medical and neurological rehabilitation settings. Neurologic music therapy encompasses evidence-based methods of the functional application of music in the rehabilitation of neurologic disorders. One of the most widely implemented clinical areas is its application in sensorimotor therapy, focusing on gait tra...