Michael E Symonds

Michael E Symonds
University of Nottingham | Notts · Division of Child Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology

BSc, PhD

About

420
Publications
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Publications

Publications (420)
Article
Full-text available
Background Thyroid hormones are essential for the full thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and have been implicated in dermal temperature regulation. Nevertheless, persistent cold-intolerance exists among a substantial proportion of hypothyroid patients on adequate levothyroxine (LT4) substitution. Materials and Methods To assess if...
Article
Full text available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/author/PCNUSWKWK85E53PDS7RB?target=10.1111/pedi.13163 Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is essential to maintain body temperature. Its ability to convert chemical energy in glucose and free fatty acids to heat is conferred by a unique protein, UCP‐1. BAT activity is greatest i...
Article
Despite preclinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation for weight management, findings in clinical setting are contradictory. Electronic bibliographical databases were systematically searched up to February 2019 with no limitation in language, including Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Clinical...
Article
Background & aims: Existing evidence on the possible effects of pro-/synbiotics on overweight or obese children and adolescents has not been fully established. Therefore, the present review was undertaken to evaluate the overall effects of pro-/synbiotics supplementation on anthropometric indices and metabolic indices in overweight or obese childr...
Article
Objective: To determine whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in school-age children differs between the sexes and to explore the impact of dietary intake, sedentary behavior, and picky/fussy eating. Study design: Children aged 8.5-11.8 years of age (n = 36) underwent infrared thermography to determine the temperature of the skin overlying...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To investigate whether housing temperature influences rat adiposity, and the extent it is modified by diet and/or pregnancy. Housing temperature impacts on brown adipose tissue, that possess a unique uncoupling protein (UCP) 1, which, when activated by reduced ambient temperature, enables rapid heat generation. Methods: We, therefore, examined...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Cold stimulation, acting through β 3-adrenergic adrenoreceptors, is the primary functional regulator of brown adipose tissue. Diet can also stimulate heat production from brown fat, contributing to dietary-induced thermogenesis. It is not known, however, whether this is a direct effect of the food, its metabolism, or stimulation of tempe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given their...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ with an important lifelong role in temperature and metabolic regulation. Enhanced brown adipose tissue activity is a possible treatment modality for obesity and diabetes. We report a unique "real-life" field study of enhanced activity of brown adipose tissue in response to the acute cold challe...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Retrospective studies of brown adipose tissue (BAT) function assessed by the uptake of fluorine-18-fludeoxyglucose using a positron emission tomography/ computed tomography scans primarily in cancer patients, indicate that BAT activity differs with sex and body mass index (BMI) in adult humans. The extent to which comparable findings are...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that the global rise in temperature is contributing to the onset of diabetes, which could be mediated by a concomitant reduction in brown fat activity. Brown (and beige) fat are characterised as possessing a unique mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein (UCP)1 that when activated can rapidly generate large amounts of...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary methyl donors, including folate, may modify the placenta and size at birth but the influence of maternal body weight has not been widely investigated. We therefore examined whether maternal or fetal folate status, together with indices of placental folate transport, were modulated by either maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI i.e.,...
Article
Objective The effect of silymarin supplementation on metabolic status and oxidative stress of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been conclusively studied. Therefore, the efficacy of silymarin supplementation in these patients was assessed through a meta-analysis. Methods The following databases were searched up to May 15, 2018:...
Article
Full-text available
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) possesses a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) which, when activated, enables the rapid generation of heat and the oxidation of lipids or glucose or both. It is present in small amounts (~15–350 mL) in adult humans. UCP1 is rapidly activated at birth and is essential in preventing hypothermia in newborns, who rapidly genera...
Chapter
Historically, brown adipose tissue has been elusive and not easy to detect, hence its relative obscurity in human physiology until its rediscovery in 2009. At that point, it was proven that the symmetrical artefacts frequently detected on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which resolved if the environment was kept warm, wer...
Article
Full-text available
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) undergoes pronounced changes after birth coincident with the loss of the BAT-specific uncoupling protein (UCP)1 and rapid fat growth. The extent to which this adaptation may vary between anatomical locations remains unknown, or whether the process is sensitive to maternal dietary supplementation. We, therefore, conducted...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in pregnant women indicate the maternal microbiome changes during pregnancy so as to benefit the mother and fetus. In contrast, disruption of the maternal microbiota around birth can compromise normal bacterial colonisation of the infant’s gastrointestinal tract. This may then inhibit development of the gut so as to increase susceptibility...
Article
Full-text available
Although brown adipose tissue (BAT) is one of the smallest organs in the body, it has the potential to have a substantial impact on both heat production as well as fat and carbohydrate metabolism. This is most apparent at birth which is characterised with the rapid appearance and activation of the BAT specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP)...
Article
Full-text available
Brown and beige adipocytes are characterised as expressing the unique mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP)1 for which the primary stimulus in vivo is cold exposure. The extent to which cold-induced UCP1 activation can also be achieved in vitro, and therefore perform a comparable cellular function, is unknown. We report an in vitro model to induce...
Article
Interest in brown adipose tissue has increased in recent years as a potential target for novel obesity, diabetes and metabolic disease treatments. One of the significant limitations to rapid progress has been the difficulty in measuring brown adipose tissue activity, especially in humans. Infrared thermography (IRT) is being increasingly recognized...
Article
Global rates of obesity continue to rise and are necessarily the consequence of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This is the result of an expansion of adipose tissue due to both the hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and hyperplasia of adipocyte precursors. Exercise elicits numerous physiological benefits on adipo...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical properties of cells play an important role in cell function and behavior. This paper presents recent developments that have enabled the use of laser-generated phonons (ultrasound) with sub-optical wavelengths to look inside living cells. The phonons reveal contrast from changes in the elasticity of the cell and can provide high resol...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Obesity and its metabolic consequences are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) utilises glucose and free fatty acids to produce heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. Effective evaluation of human BAT stimulators is constrained by current standard BAT assessment methods as positron emission tomogra...
Article
Intra-uterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long term metabolic health in the offspring. We utilised an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose home...
Article
Full-text available
Brown adipose tissue acting through a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) has a critical role in preventing hypothermia in new-born sheep but is then considered to rapidly disappear during postnatal life. The extent to which the anatomical location of fat influences postnatal development and thermogenic function, particularly following feeding, in adu...
Article
The global prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic disease continues to increase through the 21st century. Whilst multi-factorial, obesity is ultimately caused by chronic caloric excess. However, despite numerous interventions focussing on reducing caloric intake these either fail or only elicit short-term changes in body mass. There is n...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental...
Article
Full-text available
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0)...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with substantial metabolic capacity and has important roles in the maintenance of body weight and metabolism. Regulation of BAT is primarily mediated through the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) pathway. The in vivo endocrine regulation of this pathway in humans is unknown. The objective of our st...
Article
Full-text available
Excess visceral adiposity, in particular that located adjacent to the heart and coronary arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the pathophysiological state, dysfunctional adipose tissue secretes an array of factors modulating vascular function and driving atherogenesis. Conversely, brown and beige adipose tissues utilise glu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The identification and characterisation of unique gene profiles expressed in specific adipose tissue depots around the body could provide novel insights on fat development. We report a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome from the five major (epicardial, pericardial, perirenal, sternal and omental) adipose depots from one week old sheep. This st...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Patients with pheochromocytoma (pheo) show presence of multilocular adipocytes that express uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 within periadrenal (pADR) and omental (OME) fat depots. It has been hypothesized that this is due to adrenergic stimulation by catecholamines produced by the pheo tumors. Objective: To characterize the prevalence and re...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in rodents and newborn humans demonstrate the influence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in temperature control and energy balance and a critical role in the regulation of body weight. Here, we obtained samples of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from neonates, infants, and children in order to evaluate changes in their transcriptional landscap...
Article
Maintenance of thermal homeostasis within a tight range is regulated not only by a variety of internal and external cues but also by sex and biological age. The major organ responsible for adaptive thermogenesis is brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the recent re-discovery of its presence in adult humans has led to huge interest in the role that it may...
Article
Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and f...
Conference Paper
ABSTRACT Background and Aims The recent surge in maternal obesity and its associated outcomes has led to an increase in intervention studies designed to attenuate the potential adverse effects on both the mother and offspring. Pregnancy and lactation are periods of great maternal metabolic flux and regulation of adipose tissue metabolism which is...
Article
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and is a potential therapeutic target. Brown adipose tissue can have a significant impact on energy balance and glucose homeostasis through the action of uncoupling protein 1, dissipating chemical energy as heat following neuroe...
Data
Figure S1. (A) Timeline for calorimetry and thermal imaging vist, cooling vest with vehicle infusion. (B) Timeline for calorimetry and thermal imaging vist, warm room with vehicle or glucagon infusion. (C) Timeline for PET/CT visit.
Data
Figure S2. (A) Plasma glucagon levels. (B) Plasma glucose levels. (C) Plasma insulin levels. (D) Change in fibroblast growth factor‐21 levels between start and end of intervention.
Data
Figure S3. (A) Mean pulse rate (measured every 15 min) of all 11 subjects during exposure to the cooling vest (blue bar), vehicle infusion in a warm room (red bar) and glucagon infusion in a warm room (green bar). (B) Change in mean aterial pressure [estimated from diastolic (DBP) and systolic (SBP) measurements as DBP + 1/3(SBP − DBP)] between the...
Data
Figure S4. Effects of cold exposure and glucagon infusion in a warm room on energy expenditure separated into brown adipose tissue (BAT)‐