Michael Strube

Michael Strube
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Department of Psychology

About

261
Publications
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11,745
Citations
Citations since 2016
40 Research Items
5235 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (261)
Preprint
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Mixed-effect regression models are powerful tools for researchers in a myriad of fields. Part of the appeal of mixed-effect models is their great flexibility, but that flexibility comes at the cost of complexity and if users are not careful in how their model is specified, they could be making faulty inferences from their data. As others have argue...
Article
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CDC-recommended mitigation behaviors and vaccination status were assessed in an online sample (N = 810; ages 18–80). Results were consistent with a differential distress hypothesis positing that whereas psychological distress, which is induced in part by social deprivation, interferes with mitigation behaviors involving social distancing, it motiva...
Article
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Cognitive aging researchers have been challenged with demonstrating age-related effects above and beyond global slowing ever since Cerella raised this issue in 1990. As the literature has made clear, this has indeed proved to be a difficult task and continues to plague the field. One way that researchers have attempted to test for disproportionate...
Article
In two studies, participants completed an implicit attractiveness task with faces as primes varying on (a) facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and (b) skin tone from dark to light, and target pictures of environmental scenes varying in attractiveness. On each trial, participants were briefly primed with a face. Next, they categorized a...
Article
Background Deficits in goal-directed behavior (i.e. behavior conducted to achieve a specific goal or outcome) are core to schizophrenia, difficult to treat, and associated with poor functional outcomes. Factors such as negative symptoms, effort-cost decision-making, cognition, and functional skills have all been associated with goal-directed behavi...
Preprint
Cognitive aging researchers have been challenged with demonstrating age-related effects above and beyond global slowing ever since Cerella raised this issue in 1990. As the literature has made clear, this has indeed proved to be a difficult task and continues to plague the field. One way that researchers have attempted to test for disproportionate...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Wearable sensors allow for direct measurement of upper limb (UL) performance in daily life. Objective. To map the trajectory of UL performance and its relationships to other factors post-stroke. Methods. Participants (n = 67) with first stroke and UL paresis were assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after stroke. Assessments...
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The present study examined individual characteristics potentially associated with changes in mitigation behaviors (social distancing and hygiene) recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis of online survey responses from 361 adults, ages 20–78, with US IP addresses, identified significant correlates of adaptive behavior...
Article
In clinical practice, physical therapists often use different kinds of tests and measures in the assessment of their patients. For therapists to have confidence when using their tests and measures, an important attribute is having intratester and intertester reliability. Studies that assess reliability are cases of observer agreement. Many studies...
Article
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People often turn to others for help with regulating their emotions, a process known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Emerging research has begun to document the importance of IER in well-being. However, the basic elements of IER in daily life are still not clearly understood. We aimed to better understand the characteristics of adults' e...
Article
Nonacceptance of emotion is consistently linked with increased levels of psychopathology and diminished well-being. Research has found that negative emotion and nonacceptance of emotion are positively associated cross-sectionally but has yet to directly investigate temporal associations between these constructs. Given that negative emotions are fre...
Article
One in three college students have overweight or obesity and are in need of brief, simple weight loss interventions. Implementation intentions, a strategy that connects a goal-aligned behavior to a cue, facilitate goal attainment of health behaviors but have not been applied as a standalone treatment for weight loss. The purpose of this study was t...
Article
A new probabilistic losses questionnaire as well as Kirby's delayed gains questionnaire and a previously developed delayed losses questionnaire were administered to a large online sample. Almost all participants showed the positive discounting choice pattern expected on the Kirby questionnaire, decreasing their choice of a delayed gain as time to i...
Article
Full-text available
A significant problem in eyewitness identification occurs when witnesses view a suspect in one venue such as a mugshot and then later in a lineup where the suspect is the only previously viewed person. Prior research has documented that the witness may select the suspect from the lineup due either to misplaced familiarity from seeing the mugshot or...
Article
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Purpose: Essential to the successful management of patients with sacroiliac joint pain (SIJP) is understanding how these joints move. The innominates tilt together in the same direction with symmetrical activities (i.e. forward-bending) but move opposite of one another when performing asymmetrical activities (i.e. walking). How they move in patien...
Article
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Metatarsals are a frequent site of stress and fragility fractures in younger athletic populations and aging older adults. Metatarsal fractures are particularly common in Charcot neuropathic arthropathy (CN), a complication of diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathic metatarsal fractures may be due to an accelerated cortical bone ost...
Article
In prospective memory (PM) research, a common finding is that people are slower to perform an ongoing task with concurrent PM demands than to perform the same task alone. This slowing, referred to as costs, has been seen as reflecting the processes underlying successful PM. Historically, costs have been interpreted as evidence that attentional capa...
Article
Background. Upper limb (UL) performance, or use, in daily life is complex and likely influenced by many factors. While the recovery trajectory of UL impairment poststroke is well documented, little is known about the recovery trajectory of sensor-measured UL performance in daily life early after stroke and the potential moderating role of psychosoc...
Article
Background and purpose: The recovery patterns of upper limb (UL) impairment after stroke are established. Psychosocial factors such as belief that paretic UL recovery is possible, confidence, and motivation to use the paretic UL in everyday tasks are unexplored early after stroke. The purpose of this exploratory study was to characterize belief, c...
Article
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This study examines relationships among self-assessment and a high-stakes listening and speaking exam with 82 adult Chinese scholars seeking scholarships from the China Scholarship Council to support their research in the English-speaking academy. Students completed a criterion-referenced self-assessment questionnaire (Brantmeier, Vanderplank, & St...
Article
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a hereditary disorder characterized by disrupted phenylalanine metabolism and cognitive impairment. However, the precise nature and developmental trajectory of this cognitive impairment remains unclear. The present study used a verbal fluency task to dissociate executive and verbal processes in children with PKU (n = 23; 7–...
Article
Participants rated the attractiveness and racial typicality of male faces varying in their facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and in skin tone from dark to light in two experiments. Experiment 1 provided evidence that facial features and skin tone have an interactive effect on perceptions of attractiveness and mixed-race faces are perc...
Article
Background: Neuropathic foot impairments treated with immobilization and off-loading result in osteolysis. In order to prescribe and optimize rehabilitation programs after immobilization we need to understand the magnitude of pedal osteolysis after immobilization and the time course for recovery. Objective: To determine differences in a) foot sk...
Article
Full-text available
When using multiple regression, researchers frequently wish to explore how the relationship between two variables is moderated by another variable; this is termed an interaction. Historically, two approaches have been used to probe interactions: the pick-a-point approach and the Johnson-Neyman (JN) technique. The pick-a-point approach has limitatio...
Article
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Background: The gastrocnemius has two heads, medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG); little is known how they contract with different foot positions. The MG is more frequently strained than the LG; and gastrocnemius activation pattern altered by foot position may play a role in injury. Leg exercises often use a toe-in versus toe-...
Article
We examined the patterns and variability of post-stroke recovery in multiple behavioural domains. A large cohort of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions was studied prospectively and longitudinally at one to two weeks, three months and one year after the stroke using structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure lesion anatomy a...
Article
Purpose: Whether, and if so when, a second-ear cochlear implant should be provided to older, unilaterally implanted children is an ongoing clinical question. This study evaluated rate of speech recognition progress for the second implanted ear and with bilateral cochlear implants in older sequentially implanted children and evaluated localization...
Article
This review explores characteristics of facial primes employed in priming studies of racial prejudice and stereotyping and examines why variability in primes is important to study. It addresses the role of perceptual, cue-based processing of visual stimuli characteristics in altering racial typicality, and the effects of different within and betwee...
Article
Background: A common assumption is that changes in upper limb (UL) capacity, or what an individual is capable of doing, translates to improved UL performance in daily life, or what an individual actually does. This assumption should be explicitly tested for individuals with UL paresis poststroke. Objective: To examine changes in UL performance a...
Article
Objective: 1) Determine if higher doses of motor therapy in chronic post-stroke hemiparesis result in better outcomes compared to lower doses, and 2) Evaluate potential modifiers of the dose-response relationship. Methods: Eighty-five adults with UE paresis ≥ 6 months after stroke were randomized to one of four dose groups in this single-blind,...
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Strokes often cause multiple behavioural deficits that are correlated at the population level. Here, we show that motor and attention deficits are selectively associated with abnormal patterns of resting state functional connectivity in the dorsal attention and motor networks. We measured attention and motor deficits in 44 right hemisphere-damaged...
Article
With 24 adolescent students enrolled in a French language summer camp, the present study examines the relationship between self-assessment and oral production in French, interpreting results through a framework of individual learning variables. Participants were surrounded by French inside and outside the classroom. Self-assessment was measured thr...
Article
Background: It is unknown if low back pain (LBP) outcomes are enhanced by classification-specific treatment based on the Movement System Impairment classification system. The moderating effect of adherence to treatment also is unknown. Objectives: Compare the efficacy of a classification-specific treatment (CS) and a non classification-specific...
Article
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Aims To determine if participants can reduce foot progression angle (FPA), and if FPA reduction decreases regional plantar stresses and forces in individuals with diabetes. Methods Design Three-group cross-sectional design with repeated measures. Subjects twenty-eight participants either with diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetes and peripheral neuro...
Article
Introduction: Foot progression angle (FPA) is a predictor of elevated regional plantar stresses and loads, which are indicators of dermal injury risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DMPN). FPA accounts for 15-45% of the variance in plantar stresses and loads in adults with DMPN. However, the biomechanical factors u...
Article
So-called smart technologies are at the forefront of modern energy research. Many existing works focus on the effects of smart technologies, with scales ranging from a single household to an entire city. One area that is less studied is the adoption of these technologies. In this paper, we extend our prior work to develop a more robust framework fo...
Article
Full-text available
A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with...
Article
Background and purpose: Excess lower extremity intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), reduced strength, and functional limitations are common in obese individuals with and without diabetes (the former termed diabesity). Individuals with diabesity are particularly susceptible to accelerated sarcopenia, which may be underdiagnosed. The purpose of this...
Chapter
Effect indicators (also called reflective indicators) are observed variables that are assumed to be affected by a common underlying latent variable. Scores on effect indicators (e.g., item scores on a personality test, an attitude scale, or an intelligence inventory) are assumed to move in response to changes in the underlying construct—they reflec...
Chapter
Effect sizes such as correlation coefficients and standardized mean differences gain meaning in the context of how the relevant variables are measured and the causal model in which the variables are embedded. Whether a particular effect size is judged to be small or large hinges on how much measurement error is present, whether the relevant target...
Chapter
When small samples of participants are randomly assigned to experimental conditions, it is not usual for the resulting groups to be unequal in their distributions of individual differences (e.g., some groups having more men than women). The resulting correlation between individual-difference variables and treatment makes it possible for individual...
Chapter
Survival analysis is used to understand the timing of an event—its nature and predictors. Its name derives from common applications related to medical survival that occurs over a period of years (e.g., survival time following cancer diagnosis), but the procedure is easily applied to any categorical outcome (e.g., correct solution of a challenging p...
Chapter
Very early in my career, I was teaching the research methods class required of our majors. The class required students to complete several demonstration research projects, each requiring collection of a small amount of data. One of the projects involved a demonstration of the illusion of control. It involved having participants express their confid...
Article
Abstract We explored bias and its perception in newspaper reports of the 2002 Olympics figure skating
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Background: The windlass mechanism, acting through the plantar fascia, stabilizes the arches of the foot during stance phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in radiographic measurements of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) between toe-flat and -extended positions in participants with and without diabetes mellitus (DM), p...
Article
Background: An objective classification system for studying youth baseball players in the U.S.A. was published in 1996. Professional baseball is composed of greater than 25% international players a majority of whom come from five countries. Many youth baseball players are injured in early years play, both in the U.S.A. and internationally. There i...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of progress in the 2nd implanted ear as it relates to the 1st implanted ear and to bilateral performance in adult sequential cochlear implant recipients. In addition, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Method: The authors performed a prospective lon...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent are personality traits and sexual strategies linked? The literature does not provide a clear answer, as it is based on the Sociosexuality model, a one-dimensional model that fails to measure long-term mating (LTM). An improved two-dimensional model separately assesses long-term and short-term mating (STM; Jackson and Kirkpatrick, 200...
Article
Personality pathology is associated with many negative health outcomes in young adulthood, including overutilization of healthcare resources. It is unclear, however, what the relation between personality pathology and medical resource utilization is as individuals age and develop new physical health problems. The present study examined whether pers...
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Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy associated foot deformity can result in joint instability, ulceration, and even amputation. The purpose of the present study was to follow patients with and without active Charcot osteoarthropathy for as long as two years to examine the magnitude and timing of foot alignment changes. We studied fifteen subjects...
Article
Full-text available
Which personality traits are associated with physical attractiveness? Recent findings suggest that people high in some dark personality traits, such as narcissism and psychopathy, can be physically attractive. But what makes them attractive? Studies have confounded the more enduring qualities that impact attractiveness (i.e., unadorned attractivene...
Article
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Mentalizing has been examined both in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) primarily by either cognitive-linguistic (referred to as verbal) or emotion recognition from eyes (referred to as visual) mentalizing tasks. Each type of task is thought to measure different aspects of mentalizing. Differences in clinical features and devel...
Article
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We studied implicit and explicit ethnic attitudes and ethnic evaluations in Russia, where ethnic prejudice and violence are on the rise. Undergraduate sociology students (N = 54) judged 100 faces, varying in facial physiognomy (Eurocentric to Afrocentric) and skin tone (light to dark), and completed implicit and explicit ethnic attitude measures. P...
Article
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Background Neuropathic deformities impair foot and ankle joint mobility, often leading to abnormal stresses and impact forces. The purpose of our study was to determine differences in radiographic measures of hind foot alignment and ankle joint and subtalar joint motion in participants with and without neuropathic midfoot deformities and to determi...
Article
Background: Previously, we demonstrated that people in the Rotation with Extension low back pain subgroup display greater asymmetry of passive tissue characteristics during trunk lateral bending than people without low back pain. The purpose of this secondary analysis is to examine factors that explain the group differences. Methods: Twenty-two...
Article
Objective To determine the effects of weight-bearing (WB) versus nonweight-bearing (NWB) exercise for persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN).DesignRandomized controlled trial with evaluations at baseline and after intervention.SettingUniversity-based physical therapy research clinic.ParticipantsParticipants with DM and P...
Article
In this chapter, I describe more formally the importance of reliability to science and show how scientists determine the reliability of their observations. I begin by describing more specifically the basic task that scientists try to accomplish in their work and show how reliability is crucial to accomplishing that task. Then I give a formal defini...
Article
Previous research has not sufficiently addressed factors that define and moderate racial categorization judgments. This study independently manipulated skin color and facial physiognomy to determine their relative weighting in racial categorization. Participants (N = 250) judged faces varying on 10 levels of facial physiognomy (from Afrocentric to...
Article
Full-text available
Current measures used to determine sentence recognition abilities in cochlear implant recipients often include tests with one talker and one rate of speech. Performance with these measures may not accurately represent the speech recognition abilities of the listeners. Evaluation of cochlear implant performance should include measures that reflect r...
Article
College students (N = 90) reported their pro-environment behaviors as well as their pro-environment intentions, their explicit and implicit attitudes about the environment, and their knowledge about environmental issues. Intentions and knowledge significantly and independently predicted behavior. Environmental knowledge was not significantly relate...