Michael Sharpe

Michael Sharpe
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Psychiatry

MD

About

463
Publications
149,480
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
32,587
Citations
Citations since 2016
69 Research Items
12732 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
Position
  • Trust Lead
June 2011 - September 2022
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1997 - May 2011
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (463)
Article
Objective Previous studies of depression and anxiety during the year before death have reported different findings. We therefore aimed to study depression and anxiety in patients who had died from cancer and had previously attended cancer clinics. Methods We analysed routine data on 4869 deceased patients who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and...
Article
Background To inform the future development of Consultation-Liaison (C-L) Psychiatry services we need accurate information on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the general hospital inpatient setting. Systematic reviews have summarized the literature on specific aspects of this broad topic, but there has been no high-level overview that agg...
Article
Objectives To describe the implementation of a collaborative care (CC) screening and treatment program for major depression in people with cancer, found to be effective in clinical trials, into routine outpatient care of a cancer center. Method A mixed-methods observational study guided by the RE-AIM implementation framework using quantitative and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Persons with noncommunicable diseases have elevated rates of premature mortality. The contribution of psychiatric comorbidity to this is uncertain. We aimed to determine the risks of premature mortality and suicide in people with common noncommunicable diseases, with and without psychiatric disorder comorbidity. Methods and findings We...
Article
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), sometimes referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and often as CFS/ME, is an illness characterized by disabling fatigue and other symptoms, typically worsened by activity. The main evidence-based treatments are rehabilitative in nature and include specific types of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and graded ex...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing specialisation and technical sophistication of medical tools across the 21st century have contributed to dramatic improvements in the life‐expectancy of children and adolescents with complex physical health problems. Concurrently, there is growing appreciation within the community of the extent that children and adolescents experience me...
Article
Objectives A decision not to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of cardiorespiratory arrest requires a discussion between the doctor and the patient and/or their relatives. We aimed to determine how many older patients admitted to acute medical wards had a pre-existing 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' (DNACPR) decision...
Article
Background: Major depression is found in around ten percent of patients attending cancer clinics. One of the symptoms of major depression, defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), is 'thoughts of death or suicide'. In order to implement depression screening programs for patients with cancer, we need to know the p...
Article
Objective To determine the prevalence of anxiety in general hospital inpatients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant published studies. Method We searched Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase and Ovid PsycINFO from inception to December 2020. We included studies of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms of clinically significant se...
Article
Objectives: To determine, for doctors looking after older medical inpatients: (1) how difficult they find discussions about 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' (DNACPR); (2) whether difficulty is associated with doctors' personal and professional characteristics; (3) how frequently DNACPR discussions are made more difficult by practical...
Article
Objective: The question of whether depression is associated with worse survival in people with cancer remains unanswered because of methodological criticism of the published research on the topic. We aimed to study the association in a large methodologically robust study. Methods: We analysed data on 20,582 patients with breast, colorectal, gyna...
Article
Objective To systematically review randomized trials of the effectiveness of inpatient Consultation-Liaison (C-L) Psychiatry service models in improving patient outcomes, reducing length of hospital stay and decreasing healthcare costs. Method We searched databases including Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and EBSCO CINAHL for relevant tr...
Chapter
This chapter describes how the collaborative care model can be used to integrate psychosocial care into cancer care. It also describes the evolution of, and evidence for, the collaborative care approach in cancer services. Collaborative care consists of systematic identification of need, integrated delivery of psychosocial care by care managers wit...
Article
Objectives Validated diagnostic interviews are required to classify depression status and estimate prevalence of disorder, but screening tools are often used instead. We used individual participant data meta-analysis to compare prevalence based on standard Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – depression subscale (HADS-D) cutoffs of ≥8 and ≥11 v...
Article
Objective To describe a new service model for the psychiatric care of general hospital inpatients, called Proactive Integrated Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (‘Proactive Integrated Psychological Medicine’ in the UK). Method The new service model was developed especially for general hospital inpatient populations with multimorbidity, such as older...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prolonged acute hospital stays are a problem for older people and for health services. Failure to effectively manage the psychological and social aspects of illness is an important cause of prolonged hospital stay. Proactive Psychological Medicine (PPM) is a new way of providing psychiatry services to medical wards which is proactive,...
Article
Objectives To classify patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by pattern of physical activity and determine the clinical associations of each type. Methods 579 out of 641 participants with CFS from the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, Cognitive behavioural therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial wore an Actiwatch (accelerometer) for between 3...
Chapter
Physical symptoms are not always associated with disease. In secondary medical care as many as a third of patients present with symptoms unexplained by disease. Such ‘medically unexplained symptoms’ pose a challenge for clinical services that focus on identifying and treating disease. The principles of effective management are to: (a) avoid overinv...
Chapter
Somatic symptom disorder is a diagnosis for patients who have marked concern about physical symptoms that appears to be disproportionate to the severity of any associated disease. In conversion disorder the patient’s symptom is loss of a function, such as movement of a limb. This does not mean that the symptoms are not real. Somatic symptom disorde...
Chapter
Psychiatry first developed as a separate medical specialty about 150 years ago when physicians were recruited to staff the new lunatic asylums. It later embraced psychotherapy and more recently has adopted community rather than hospital-based working. The fact that psychiatry remains largely separate from other areas of medicine, together with the...
Chapter
Medically ill patients often have psychiatric illness. Physicians can and should detect and diagnose these illnesses during their standard medical assessment. All that is required is knowledge of key questions to ask patients, awareness of the clinical signs that may be observed, and an appreciation of the value of additional information from relat...
Chapter
Illness is conventionally categorized into two main types: ‘medical’ or ‘psychiatric’. This dichotomization is such an accepted feature of current medical practice that we take it for granted. But is it really the best way to think about and manage illness? In order to answer these questions, the chapter reviews what is meant by ‘medical’ and ‘psyc...
Chapter
Conversion disorder (now also called functional neurological symptom disorder) describes symptoms (of motor and sensory dysfunction such as limb weakness, tremor, visual loss, with or without ‘blackouts’), which can be positively identified as being inconsistent with neurological disease. The disorder is common in neurological services and frequent...
Article
Objective: Two previous individual participant data meta-analyses (IPDMAs) found that different diagnostic interviews classify different proportions of people as having major depression overall or by symptom levels. We compared the odds of major depression classification across diagnostic interviews among studies that administered the Depression s...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is chronic disabling illness characterized by severe disabling fatigue, typically made worse by exertion. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) is thought by some to be the same disorder (then referred to as CFS/ME) and by others to be different. There is an urgent need to find effective treatments for CFS. The UK M...
Article
Objective: Functional limb weakness is a common symptom of functional neurological disorder. Few controlled studies have examined possible predisposing factors to determine their specificity for this symptom. Methods: In this prospective case-control study, patients with functional limb weakness (<2 years duration, N=107) were compared with a co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prolonged acute hospital stays are a major problem for older people and for health services. Failure to effectively manage the psychological and social aspects of illness is an important cause of prolonged hospital stays. Proactive Psychological Medicine (PPM) is a new way of providing psychiatry services to medical wards. PPM is proac...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary medicine distinguishes between illness and disease. Illness refers to a person’s subjective experience of symptoms; disease refers to objective bodily pathology. For many illnesses, medicine has made great progress in finding and treating associated disease. However, not all illnesses are successfully relieved by treating the disease....
Article
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of exercise therapy, alone and in combination, for people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared with treatment as usual control conditions and other interventions (psychological therapies, pharmacological treatment).
Article
Objective: There is evidence that patients with cancer have worse survival if they have comorbid major depression, but uncertainty whether a reduction in depression severity improves survival. We aimed to address this question. Methods: We did a secondary analysis of data from participants in the SMaRT Oncology-2 and 3 trials of depression treat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Somatic Symptom Disorders (SSD), Bodily Distress Disorders (BDD) and functional disorders (FD) are associated with high medical and societal costs and pose a substantial challenge to the population and health policy of Europe. To meet this challenge, a specific research agenda is needed as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental h...
Article
Purpose Pain is suboptimally managed in patients with cancer. We aimed to compare the effect of a policy of adding a clinician-delivered bedside pain assessment and management tool (Edinburgh Pain Assessment and management Tool [EPAT]) to usual care (UC) versus UC alone on pain outcomes. Patients and Methods In a two-arm, parallel group, cluster ra...
Article
Background Comorbid depression in the medically ill is clinically important. Admission to a general hospital offers an opportunity to identify and initiate treatment for depression. However, we first need to know how common depression is in general hospital inpatients. We aimed to address this question by systematically reviewing the relevant liter...
Article
Background: Comorbid major depression has been associated with worse survival in patients with cancer. However, we do not know if treating depression improves survival. In the SMaRT Oncology-2 (good prognosis cancers) and SMaRT Oncology-3 (lung cancer, a poor prognosis cancer) trials, we found that a depression treatment programme, Depression Care...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The assessment of fear of recurrence (FCR) is crucial for understanding an important psychological state in patients diagnosed and treated for cancer. The study aim was to determine psychometric details of a seven question self-report scale (FCR7) and a short form (FCR4) based upon items already used in various extensive measures of FC...
Article
Discover the world’s best science and medicine | Nature.com
Article
The study of mediation of treatment effects, or how treatments work, is important to understanding and improving psychological and behavioral treatments, but applications often focus on mediators and outcomes measured at a single time point. Such cross-sectional analyses do not respect the implied temporal ordering that mediation suggests. Clinical...
Article
Full-text available
Editor's Summary In a recent Round the Corner, Mitchell commented on a Cochrane Review of exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). One of the trials included in that review, and discussed by Mitchell, was the PACE trial. In this month's Round the Corner we are publishing a response we received from authors of the PACE trial (Chalder, Wh...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction There is growing awareness that cancer services need to address patients’ well-being as well as treating their cancer. We developed systematic approaches to (1) monitoring patients’ symptoms including depression using a ‘Symptom Monitoring Service’ and (2) providing treatment for those with major depression using a programme called ‘De...
Article
Background: Wilshire et al. suggest that we have overestimated the number of patients that recover from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) after receiving a course of either cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) or graded exercise therapy (GET), as reported in a secondary analysis of outcome data from the Pacing, graded Activity and Cognitive behavior ther...
Article
Full-text available
This article is written in response to the linked editorial by Dr Geraghty about the adaptive Pacing, graded Activity and Cognitive behaviour therapy; a randomised Evaluation (PACE) trial, which we led, implemented and published. The PACE trial compared four treatments for people diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome. All participants in the tria...
Article
Background Chronic fatigue syndrome is likely to be a heterogeneous condition. Previous studies have empirically defined subgroups using combinations of clinical and biological variables. We aimed to explore the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome. Method We used baseline data from the PACE trial, which included 640 participants with chronic...
Article
Objective Patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome have a poor outcome and can incur high healthcare and societal costs. We aimed to compare the medium-term (16 months) cost-effectiveness and the long-term (40 months) economic outcomes of a bespoke cognitive-behavioural group treatment (STre...
Article
Background: Screening has been recommended to improve the identification of depression in medical patients. There is, therefore, a need for useful practical information on how to successfully implement large-scale depression screening in medical clinics. Objective: To describe the practical lessons learned from our experience of implementing a l...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical trials are expensive and time-consuming and so should also be used to study how treatments work, allowing for the evaluation of theoretical treatment models and refinement and improvement of treatments. These treatment processes can be studied using mediation analysis. Randomised treatment makes some of the assumptions of mediation models...
Article
Full-text available
Aims and method To record the development of liaison psychiatry in the UK and to summarise the current levels of activity. We also highlight the challenges the specialty may face if it is to develop further. History since the 1970s is reviewed by early pioneers and those involved in the present day, with a focus on the key role played by members of...
Article
Dear Editor, Friedberg and Adamowicz reviewed our paper about recovery from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) after treatment in the PACE trial.1–3 We write in order to correct some errors of fact and interpretation in their review. The authors suggest that we did not use any measures of patients’ perceptions of recovery. In fact we used the patient...
Chapter
The name given to functional neurologic symptoms has evolved over time in the different editions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), reflecting a gradual move away from an etiologic conception rooted in hysterical conversion to an empiric phenomenologic one, emph...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Comorbid major depression is associated with reduced quality of life and greater use of healthcare resources. A recent randomised trial (SMaRT, Symptom Management Research Trials, Oncology-2) found that a collaborative care treatment programme (Depression Care for People with Cancer, DCPC) was highly effective in treating depression in...
Article
Background: The PACE trial found that, when added to specialist medical care (SMC), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or graded exercise therapy (GET) were superior to adaptive pacing therapy (APT) or SMC alone in improving fatigue and physical functioning in people with chronic fatigue syndrome 1 year after randomisation. In this pre-specified...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) added to specialist medical care (SMC), or graded exercise therapy (GET) added to SMC, are more eff ective in reducing fatigue and improving physical function than both adaptive pacing therapy (APT) plus SMC and SMC alone for chronic fatigue syndrome. We investigate putative treatment mechanisms.
Article
FROM: Coventry P, Lovell K, Dickens C, et al . Integrated primary care for patients with mental and physical multimorbidity: cluster randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for patients with depression comorbid with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. BMJ 2015;350:h638. Collaborative care, a treatment model in which a specialist mental h...
Article
Objectives Illness perceptions play an important role in the onset and maintenance of symptoms in functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder). There has, however, been little work examining differences between subtypes of this disorder. We therefore aimed to compare illness perceptions of patients with non-epileptic seizures (NE...
Article
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common and distressing problem after stroke. The best ways to prevent or treat PSF are uncertain. Several different interventions can be argued to have a rational basis.
Article
The discipline of so-called medically unexplained or functional somatic symptoms is divided into a large number of terminology-defined diagnostic concepts that have been developed on the basis of expert consensus rather than through systematic research in representative samples.1 These diagnoses have been used to define inclusion criteria for clini...
Article
Collaborative care is a systematic, team-based approach to the management of depression and other psychiatric disorders in medical settings. Collaborative care has been found to be effective and cost-effective, but there is little information to guide its implementation in clinical care. The objective of this article is to provide a practical guide...