Michael Schultz

Michael Schultz
Universität der Bundeswehr München · Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik

Doctor of Engineering

About

191
Publications
107,152
Reads
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1,599
Citations
Introduction
I hold the Chair of Air Traffic Concepts at Universität der Bundeswehr München. My research topics are dynamic, flow centric management of airspaces (enroute, terminal area, and urban environment), inter-airport coordination, performance-based airport operations (air- and landside), and advanced concepts for the future traffic management (from drafting upcoming operations up to the implementation of initial demonstrators).
Additional affiliations
March 2022 - present
Universität der Bundeswehr München
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 2019 - February 2022
Technische Universität Dresden
Position
  • Principal Investigator
February 2019 - present
Nanyang Technological University
Position
  • Researcher
Education
January 2014 - January 2019
Technische Universität Dresden
Field of study
  • Aviation / Air Transportation
June 2006 - June 2010
Technische Universität Dresden
Field of study
  • Aviation Technology
June 1996 - June 2002
Technische Universität Dresden
Field of study
  • Business and Engineering

Publications

Publications (191)
Article
Full-text available
Actually, en-route flight traffic is carried out on a system of predefined routes with a low number of intersections between aircraft trajectories to enable the air traffic controllers to control and supervise the traffic especially around these intersections. Consequently, a route system always leads to a low ratio of used to unused airspace. To i...
Conference Paper
Publicly available aircraft airborne and ground movement data pave the way to new advanced analyses of complex behaviours and collaborative decision making tools for the optimisation of airport operations. Such data-driven approaches will allow cost efficient implementations, which are a key enabler for the efficient integration of small/medium siz...
Preprint
Full-text available
We design an optimal group boarding method using a stochastic cellular automata model for passenger movements, which is extended by a virus transmission approach. Furthermore, a new mathematical model is developed to determine an appropriate seat layout for groups. The proposed seating layout is based on the idea that group members are allowed to h...
Article
Full-text available
Passenger disembarkation takes place in the confined space of the aircraft cabin. Boarding can be regulated to a certain extent, but this does not apply to disembarking at the end of a flight. COVID-19 constraints require that cabin procedures not only be operationally efficient but also effectively reduce the risk of virus transmission to passenge...
Article
Full-text available
Efficient airport operations depend on appropriate actions and reactions to current constraints. Local weather events and their impact on airport performance may have network-wide effects. The classification of expected weather impacts enables efficient consideration in airport operations on a tactical level. We classify airport performance with re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We systematically study some issues that must be solved to define an air traffic control benchmarking system. Primarily, we examine the appropriate decision units, what to consider and what to avoid when choosing inputs and outputs in the case that several countries are included, and how we can identify and deal with outliers, like the Maastricht A...
Article
Full-text available
Efficiency and reliable turnaround time are core features of modern aircraft transportation and key to its future sustainability. Given the connected aircraft cabin, the deployment of digitized and interconnected sensors, devices and passengers provides comprehensive state detection within the cabin. More specifically, passenger localization and oc...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing need for dynamic in-flight adjustments of a trajectory allows the airport, air traffic control and the airline a high degree of flexibility in terms of in-flight execution. This concept enables numerous optimisation options to jointly meet the requirements of sustainable air transport to increase economic and ecological efficiency, a...
Article
Standardized, collaborative decision-making processes have already been implemented at some network-relevant airports, and these can be further enhanced through data-driven approaches (e.g., data analytics, predictions). New cost-effective implementations will also enable the appropriate integration of small and medium-sized airports into the aviat...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing the length of departure queues at runway entry points is one of the most important requirements for reducing aircraft traffic congestion and fuel consumption at airports. This study designs an aircraft departure model at a runway using a time-varying fluid queue. The proposed model enables us to determine the aircraft waiting time in the d...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating the performance of complex systems, such as air traffic management (ATM), is a challenging task. When regarding aviation as a time-continuous system measured in value-discrete time series via performance indicators and certain metrics, it is important to use sufficiently targeted mathematical models within the analysis. A consistent iden...
Article
We provide a mathematical formulation of flight-specific delay cost functions that enables a detailed tactical consideration of how a given flight delay will interact with all downstream constraints in the respective aircraft rotation. These functions are reformulated into stochastic delay cost functions to respect conditional probabilities and inc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Airport infrastructure evolves alongside legacy systems and processes that limit the ability to fully realise the efficiency potential of costly renovations. Airports will continue to take advantage of current and future technologies. Nevertheless, for such systems to work as efficiently as possible, the passenger should play an active role. This p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The air transportation network is essential to ensure mobility and connectivity between important metropolises and regions in Europe. Within the overall system, full-service network carriers operate sub-systems consisting of hub and spoke airports. These airlines enable various connections from different destinations by a low number of routes via t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Airport operations are undergoing significant change, having to meet pandemic requirements in addition to intrinsic security requirements. Although air traffic has declined massively, airports are still the critical hubs of the air transport network. The new restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic pose new challenges for airport operators in rede...
Article
This article presents a novel approach to incorporate the aircraft turnaround, which has recently been identified as one of the major contributors to airline delay, into existing concepts for integrated aircraft, crew, and passenger recovery. We aim to fill the research gap on how to holistically model network delay propagation as tactical decision...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Urban air mobility encompasses the idea of extending urban transportation to the airspace. For this purpose, several aircraft manufacturers and start-up companies have developed aircraft concepts for flying completely electrical. Electric aircraft have different behavior concerning flight performance, which mostly depends on battery characteristics...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Boarding and disembarking an aircraft is a time-critical airport ground handling process. Operations in the confined aircraft cabin must also reduce the potential risk of virus transmission to passengers under current COVID-19 boundary conditions. Passenger boarding will generally be regulated by establishing passenger sequences to reduce the influ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The SESAR ATM Master Plan describes the goal to fully integrate airports into the ATM network, such that airspace user operations are facilitated and related user costs are reduced. The corresponding flight prioritization mechanisms of the user-driven prioritization process are in the process of being validated at several airports across Europe. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic controllers have to make quick decisions to keep air traffic safe. Their behaviors have a significant impact on the operation of the air traffic management (ATM) system. Automation tools have enhanced the ATM system’s capability by reducing the controller’s task-load. Much attention has been devoted to developing advanced automation in...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a concept of operations and a corresponding implementation of a long-range air traffic flow management in the Asia-Pacific region. This management will provide an appropriate demand-capacity balancing considering both aircraft sequencing by local arrival management procedures and flow optimization to prevent over-demand in the approach a...
Article
Efficient ground handling at airports contributes significantly to the performance of the entire air transport network. In this network, airports are coupled by flights that depend on passenger and crew connections, effective local airport operations, and efficient ground handling resource management. In addition, airport stakeholders must consider...
Article
The corona pandemic significantly changes the processes of aircraft and passenger handling at the airport. In our contribution, we focus on the time-critical process of aircraft boarding, where regulations regarding physical distances between passengers will significantly increase boarding time. The passenger behavior is implemented in a field-vali...
Article
Full-text available
The air traffic is mainly divided into en-route flight segments, arrival and departure segments inside the terminal maneuvering area, and ground operations at the airport. To support utilizing available capacity more efficiently, in our contribution we focus on the prediction of arrival procedures, in particular, the time-to-fly from the turn onto...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster presents an overview of the SESAR project 'Integrated Multimodal Airport Operations for Efficient Passenger Flow Management' (IMHOTEP). IMHOTEP's vision is that of a multimodal European transport system where the different modes are seamlessly integrated, so that passengers travel from door to door in an efficient, sustainable and resil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing demands on a highly efficient air traffic management system go hand in hand with increasing requirements for predicting the aircraft’s future position. In this context, the airport collaborative decision-making framework provides a standardized approach to improve airport performance by defining operationally important milestones along t...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing demands on a highly efficient air traffic management system go hand in hand with increasing requirements for predicting the aircraft’s future position. In this context, the airport collaborative decision-making framework provides a standardized approach to improve airport performance by defining operationally important milestones along t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Air traffic within highly frequented terminal manoeuvring areas is characterized by a high number of climbing and descending aircraft, which are varying in size, speed and distance between each other, so collision risk is increased compared to enroute airspace. Additional collision risk with ground based, fixed obstacles have to be taken into consi...
Article
Full-text available
Competitive price pressure and economic cost pressure constantly force airlines to improve their optimization strategies. Besides predictable operational costs, delay costs are a significant cost driver for airlines. Especially reactionary delay costs can endanger the profitability of such a company. These time-dependent costs depend on the number...
Article
Full-text available
With the rise of COVID-19, the sustainability of air transport is a major challenge, as there is limited space in aircraft cabins, resulting in a higher risk of virus transmission. In order to detect possible chains of infection, technology-supported apps are used for social distancing. These COVID-19 applications are based on the display of the re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the airport of the future is expected to become a multimodal connection platform, one of the main challenges is to create the conditions for travellers to reach their destination by the most efficient and sustainable combination of modes. This will, furthermore, allow the airport and its surrounding region to make a better use of their resources...
Article
Full-text available
Air Transportation is a major contributor to international mobility and has high requirements to ensure safe and secure operations. Aircraft ground operations are impacted significantly by the current pandemic situation so that standard operating procedures need a redesign to incorporate the upcoming sanitation requirements. In particular, the pass...
Conference Paper
Due to the growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, or drones) in commercial, civil, and military applications, thousands of drones are expected in the urban airspace for many decades to come. The large traffic volume of drones brings many concerns about safety issues especially during the taking-off, approaching, and landing phases when mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aircraft trajectory prediction is at the heart of the air traffic control (ATC) system. An accurate prediction of aircraft's future locations is essential for the air traffic controllers (ATCOs) to maintain the situational awareness of the traffic and to have proper strategies of congest management and separation assurance, which in turn contribute...
Article
Full-text available
Air travel appears as particularly hazardous in a pandemic situation, since infected people can travel worldwide and could cause new breakouts in remote locations. The confined space conditions in the aircraft cabin necessitate a small physical distance between passengers and hence may boost virus transmissions. In our contribution, we implemented...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accurate prediction of aircraft arrival times is one of the fundamental elements for air traffic controllers to manage an optimal arrival and departure sequencing on the runway, reduce flight delays, and achieve a good collaboration with airports and airlines. In this work, we analyze the feature engineering problem to predict Aircraft Landing Time...
Article
Full-text available
Successful tests of biometric scans at boarding gates have shown that such scans can shorten the time required for passenger authentication, but that this can just result in passenger queues in the jetway growing nearly 25% faster. With efficient boarding in mind, three operational questions arise: How can the queue in the jetway be reduced by fast...
Conference Paper
Airports across the world are expanding by building multiple ground control towers and resorting to complex taxiway and runway system, in response to growing air traffic. Current outcome- based ground safety management at the airside may impede our potential to learn from and adapt to evolving air traffic scenarios, owing to the sparsity of acciden...
Presentation
Publicly available aircraft airborne and ground movement data open perspectives to produce new advanced analyses of complex behaviours and collaborative decision making tools for the optimisation of airport operations. Such data-driven approaches will allow cost efficient implementations, which are a key enabler for the efficient integration of sma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The data-driven analysis of aircraft movement data from public available sources provides further insights into the complex airport operations, beyond the capabilities of analytical and model-based methods. In the context of airport collaborative decision making, these data-driven approaches will allow cost efficient implementations, which are a ke...
Article
Full-text available
Low cost carriers usually operate from no-frills budget terminals which are designed for quick aircraft turnaround, faster passenger connections with minimal inter-gate passenger transfer times. Such operations are highly sensitive to factors such as aircraft delays, turnaround time and flight connection time and may lead to missed connections for...
Conference Paper
Classification of weather impacts on airport operations will allow efficient consideration of local weather events in network-wide analysis. We use machine learning approaches in our contribution to correlate weather data from meteorological reports and airport performance data, which contains flight plan data with scheduled, actual movements and d...
Article
Runway utilisation is a function of actual yearly runway throughput and annual capacity. The aim of the analysis in this project is to find data driven prediction models based on the features and relevant scenarios that might impact runway utilisation. The Gradient Boosting machine learning method will be assessed on their forecast performance and...
Article
Full-text available
Fragmentation has been suspected of contributing to inefficiencies in the European Air Traffic Management (ATM) system. Heterogeneities between providers may contain multiple aspects, such as airspace structure, staff rostering, or systems used for flow management. Applying the scientific approach of data envelopment analysis, this article provides...
Chapter
The future airspace has to provide a reliable infrastructure and operational concept to ensure efficient and safe operations considering both flight-centric operations and the integration of new entrants. We propose an approach for a dynamic sectorization to manage the air traffic demand and flow appropriately. Our dynamic sectorization results in...
Thesis
Full-text available
This cumulative habilitation thesis documents my research in the field of air traffic management with a specific focus on the aircraft ground operations. My research interests aims at a seamless transport network, where the aircraft and passenger trajectories are synchronized. Thus, I started working on aircraft turnaround and in particular the pas...
Preprint
Classification of weather impacts on airport operations will allow efficient consideration of local weather events in network-wide analysis. We use machine learning approaches to correlate weather data from meteorological reports and airport performance data contains of flight plan data with scheduled and actual movements as well as delays. In part...
Article
Multicriteria trajectory optimisation is expected to increase aviation safety, efficiency and environmental compatibility, although neither the theoretical calculation of such optimised trajectories nor their implementation into today’s already safe and efficient air traffic flow management reaches a satisfying level of fidelity. The calibration of...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable and predictable ground operations are essential for punctual air traffic movements. Uncertainties in the airborne phase have significantly less impact on flight punctuality than deviations in aircraft ground operations. The ground trajectory of an aircraft primarily consists of the handling processes at the stand, defined as the aircraft t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study successfully implements flight specific delay costs in an air traffic simulation with a multi-criteria trajectory optimization and exemplifies a coupling of turnaround and trajectory optimization of historical real flights. Therein, delay costs and detour costs for the reduction of contrail formation are individually calculated for each...
Presentation
Presentation of a methodology to assess the correlation of weather and delay at an airport using the ATMAP algorithm and publicly available traffic data.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The 4D Trajectory Management, invented by the Single European Sky ATM Research program SESAR enables the possibility for airlines and air traffic control to increase the efficiency, although different air traffic stakeholders follow partly competitive target functions. Following time based operations airlines will be able to fly along optimized tra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Space flight activities are becoming an eminent part of flight operations in the world today. Launch and re-entry operations are expected to grow beyond state use and research purposes into a commercial space transportation business. That creates an evident need to integrate space vehicle operations into the existing air traffic management system i...
Article
Full-text available
We provide an overview about the research done in the field of airport and airline operations with a specific focus on a fast, reliable and sustainable passenger boarding. The reliable prediction operational processes along the aircraft air-ground trajectory demands a comprehensive consideration of economic, environmental, and handling constraints...
Article
Full-text available
Weather events have a significant impact on airport performance and cause delayed operations if the airport capacity is constrained. We provide quantification of the individual airport performance with regards to an aggregated weather-performance metric. Specific weather phenomena are categorized by the air traffic management airport performance we...
Conference Paper
Limited capacity at the busiest airports is a key driver for delays in commercial aviation. By introducing priority based resource allocation schemes, the provision of additional capacities at comparable levels of service becomes possible.
Conference Paper
In this paper we compute the impact of weather events to airport performance, which is measured as deviation of actual and scheduled timestamps (delay). Weather phenomena are categorized by the Air Traffic Management Airport Performance (ATMAP) weather algorithm, which aims to quantify weather conditions at European airports. A comprehensive datase...
Article
Full-text available
Today's air traffic operations follow the paradigm of ‘flow follows structure’ which already limits the operational efficiency and punctuality of current air traffic movements. Therefore, we introduce the dynamic airspace sectorisation and consequently change this paradigm to the more appropriate approach of ‘structure follows flow’. The dynamic ai...
Conference Paper
In this paper we compute the impact of weather events to airport performance, which is measured as deviation of actual and scheduled timestamps (delay). Weather phenomena are categorized by the Air Traffic Management Airport Performance weather algorithm, which aims to quantify weather conditions at European airports. A comprehensive dataset of fli...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we address the prediction of aircraft boarding using a machine learning approach. Reliable process predictions of aircraft turnaround are an important element to further increase the punctuality of airline operations. In this context, aircraft turnaround is mainly controlled by operational experts, but the critical aircraft boarding i...
Chapter
In this paper we compute the impact of weather events to airport performance, which is measured as deviation of actual and scheduled timestamps (delay). Weather phenomena are categorized by the Air Traffic Management Airport Performance weather algorithm, which aims to quantify weather conditions at European airports. A comprehensive dataset of fli...