Michael Schredl

Michael Schredl
Central Institute of Mental Health | CIMH · Wissenschaftliches Schlaflabor

Prof. (apl.)

About

537
Publications
166,295
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
11,114
Citations

Publications

Publications (537)
Article
Gender is one of the well-recognized risk factors for idiopathic nightmares, but rarely connected to posttraumatic nightmare characteristics. Thus, this study aims to test gender differences in (posttraumatic) nightmare characteristics after controlling for trauma-related psychopathology in a large sample of people who experienced trauma. Research...
Article
Study objectives: The current study investigated nightmare frequency and distress during the pandemic and associated factors. Methods: 1718 participants completed a survey, 747 of which were youth. The MADRE dream questionnaire was used to collect self-reported data on nightmare frequency and distress. In addition, personality traits, current st...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Schlaf spielt auch für SportlerInnen eine wichtige Rolle, vor allem vor Wettkämpfen. Ziel der Arbeit In einer Stichprobe von NachwuchsathletInnen soll erfasst werden, ob ein gestörter Schlaf vorliegt und welche Ursachen und Auswirkungen ein gestörter Schlaf vor Wettkämpfen aus subjektiver Sicht hat. Material und Metho...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep-related metacognitions play a role in the etiology of insomnia and are distressing while falling asleep. Although similar concepts, such as thought suppression, have been studied in the context of dreaming, the relationship between sleep-related metacognitions and more negatively toned dreaming due to stressful pre-sleep experiences has yet t...
Article
Full-text available
In a previous questionnaire study with German professional athletes, we showed that the prevalence of lucid dreaming in athletes is 57% and that about 5% of athletes use their lucid dreams to practice sport skills while asleep. The present study applied a Japanese translation of the same questionnaire to a Japanese sample of college athletes to exp...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive impairment is a common feature in schizophrenia and the strongest prognostic factor for long-term outcome. Identifying a trait associated with the genetic background for cognitive outcome in schizophrenia may aid in a deeper understanding of clinical disease subtypes. Fast sleep spindles may represent such a biomarker as they are strongly...
Article
As dreams reflect waking life, the so‐called continuity hypothesis of dreaming, the literature showing that work‐related stress affects dreams negatively is very plausible. As in waking life, hobbies are an important component in the work–life balance. In the present study, the work–life balance in dreams was studied. Overall, 1695 persons (960 wom...
Article
Dream recall frequency and lucid dream frequency showed large inter-individual differences that are partly related to personality dimensions. However, as dream research is a small field, independent studies are necessary to build a solid empirical foundation. The present online survey included 1,537 participants (1150 women, 387 men) with a mean ag...
Article
Previous research identified personality and neurophysiological traits that are associated with inter-individual differences in lucid dreaming frequency. The present study investigated the question as to whether sensory processing sensitivity is related to lucid dreaming. Overall, 1,807 persons (1,008 woman, 799 men) with a mean age of 47.75 ± 14.4...
Article
Previous research indicated that dream variables such as dream recall, dream sharing, and nightmares are related to personality traits. However, the overall number of studies in this field is rather small, and this data set serves as a necessary replication. Overall, 819 persons (636 women, 183 men) with a mean age of 27.47 ± 9.32 years participate...
Article
Full-text available
This study considers the relationship between dreaming and race in light of the public protests following the murder of George Floyd on May 25, 2020. Findings are presented from an online survey about dreams and the Black Lives Movement (BLM) gathered from 4,947 demographically diverse American adults sampled between June 15 and June 19, 2020. The...
Article
Although dreams are very private, dreaming has also social components, i.e., dreams are shared quite often. We studied the frequency of how often the dreamer deliberately contacted another person because s/he dreamed about this person, as this might intensify the waking-life bonds with this person. Overall, 2929 participants completed the dream sur...
Article
Full-text available
Many dream content analytic studies focus on dream characters, animals, social interactions and so on, but they rarely analyze the frequency of everyday objects in dreams. In the present paper, the frequency and phenomenology of clock dreams in a dream series of 12,476 dreams of a single male dreamer was analyzed. The clock dreams (0.74% of all dre...
Article
Full-text available
Background Since people with nightmares rarely seek help, low-threshold interventions and self-help methods are needed. Among different treatment approaches for nightmares, imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT) is the method of choice. Objective In the current study, the authors tested whether IRT is also effective when applied in a short version, withi...
Chapter
Even if parasomnias do not directly impair the quality of sleep and recovery, they may represent an important stress factor for the affected individuals. Nightmares may have a negative impact on the daytime mood; pavor nocturnus and sleepwalking are often experienced as embarrassing by adults, and furthermore even damage or injuries may occur. It i...
Chapter
Sleep disorders may be secondary as a symptom of organic or psychic or psychiatric diseases. These disorders can appear as accompanying or temporary symptoms; however, in the context of chronic diseases, they contribute significantly to the morbidity and maintenance of the disease. In those cases, the treatment of the sleep disorder may have a posi...
Chapter
In contrast to wakefulness, sleep is characterized by very low motor activity and responsiveness. Body functions and hormone secretion are modulated during sleep. Core body temperature and cortisol secretion are markers of the endogenous rhythm that is synchronized by the suprachiasmatic nucleus with a 24-h-day rhythm. The change of sleep and wakef...
Chapter
An increased likelihood to fall asleep during the daytime is a frequent symptom in a series of widespread sleep medical diseases, for example, sleep-related breathing disorders. Hypersomnia, such as narcolepsy, and idiopathic (primary) hypersomnia as independent diseases are rather rarely observed. The symptom of excessive daytime sleepiness, howev...
Article
Sharing dreams is a common practice and several motives like emotional relief, entertainment, understanding the dream for doing so have been identified. However, little is known about factors associated with these motives. The present online survey (N = 1585) investigated the associations of the Big5 personality factors with motives for sharing a s...
Article
Social interactions with close persons are very important and one would expect – according to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming – that the dreamer's own children would show up in dreams quite frequently. So far the extent to which dreams include the dreamer’s own children has not been studied systematically. Overall, 1695 persons (960 women, 73...
Article
Full-text available
Romantic relationships are an important part of human life and thus, according to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, one’s romantic partner should show up in dreams quite frequently. The present study is based on 1612 dream reports provided by 425 students. The findings confirmed the hypothesis that partner dreams are more frequent than ex-part...
Article
Full-text available
According to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming and contemporary psychodynamic approaches, dreams reflect waking life. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and dreaming in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Italy, Romania and Croatia involving 2,105 secondary school studen...
Article
Full-text available
Dream lucidity, or being aware that one is dreaming while dreaming, is not an all-or-none phenomenon. Often, subjects report being some variant of “a little lucid” as opposed to completely or not at all. As recent neuroimaging work begins to elucidate the neural underpinnings of lucid experience, understanding subtle phenomenological variation with...
Article
Animal dreams have fascinated mankind for ages. Empirical research indicated that children dream more often about animals than adults and dogs, cats, and horses are the most frequent animals that appear within dreams. Moreover, most dreamer-animal interactions are negative. The present study included 4849 participants (6 to 90 yrs. old) reporting 2...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Hintergrund und Fragestellung Schlafbezogene Kognitionen, aber auch schlafbezogene Metakognitionen (Umgang mit Gedanken) spielen in der Ätiologie der Insomnie, vor allem bei der Aufrechterhaltung, eine Rolle. Bisher liegt nur ein englischsprachiger Fragebogen (MCQ-I) mit 60 Items zur Erfassung schlafbezogener Metakognitionen vor. Z...
Article
Full-text available
Anecdotal evidence that lucid dreaming might contribute to mental and physical health has been widely reported in the literature. Empirical research, though, is scarce. A brief questionnaire eliciting self-perceived benefits of lucid dreaming on mental and physical health had been completed by 386 participants who had lucid dream experiences. About...
Article
The book of Josie Malinowksi is a well-written and informative introduction into psychological dream research. After definitions and a brief review of the history of dreaming, the author integrates many of the current theories about dream function, e.g., processing of emotions, Social Simulation theory, or dreaming as playing. In addition, clinical...
Article
The book provides an overview of the entire field of sleep medicine, from the basics of sleep physiology to the diagnosis and treatment of specific sleep disorders. It offers a valuable introduction to the field of sleep medicine, but also serves as a reference work on all aspects of clinical practice, including diagnosis, differential diagnosis an...
Chapter
About 5% of the adult population report that they suffer from nightmares. Nightmares defined as distressing dreams that often result in awakenings should be differentiated from night terrors, post-traumatic re-enactments, and nocturnal panic attacks. Nightmare etiology is best described by an interaction between disposition and current stressors. F...
Article
Previous studies have reported an association between sleep-related factors such as sleep duration, sleep quality and time of awakening with the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Preliminary evidence suggests that frequent nightmares are associated with a blunted CAR. In the present pilot study we investigated the effect of acute nightmares on the...
Article
Full-text available
Central nervous hyperarousal is as a key component of current pathophysiological concepts of chronic insomnia disorder. However, there are still open questions regarding its exact nature and the mechanisms linking hyperarousal to sleep disturbance. Here, we aimed at studying waking state hyperarousal in insomnia by the perspective of resting-state...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs have been close human companions for millennia and one would expect—according to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming—that dogs are also quite common in dreams. Previous studies showed that the percentages of dreams that include dogs range from about 1.5% to 5%, but studies relating waking-life experiences with dogs with dreams about dogs hav...
Article
Lucid nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming but is unable to change the terrifying plot of the dream and/or is unable to deliberately wake up from it. So far, very little is known about lucid nightmare content. A subsample of a representative survey consisting of 408...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives Occasional nightmares (distressing dreams that awaking the sleeper) and bad dreams (distressing dreams that do not awaking the sleeper) are very common in children and adolescents. About 5% of children experience frequent nightmares (once a week or more often) and the question arises as to what factors contribute to signif...
Article
Study objectives: The diagnosis of a nightmare disorder is based on clinically significant distress caused by the nightmares, e.g., sleep or mood disturbances during the day. The question what factors might be associated with nightmare distress in addition to nightmares frequency is not well studied. Methods: Overall, 1474 persons (893 women, 58...
Article
Full-text available
Chronotype refers to individual differences in sleep timing (“owls” and “larks”) and “eveningness” has been associated with nightmares. However, it has not been tested as to whether neuroticism mediates this relationship. Urbanicity refers to being raised in an urban region and/or currently living in an urban region and is associated with heightene...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectiveNightmares are typically underdiagnosed and undertreated, even though frequent nightmares are quite common in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. Based on a previous study, we investigated whether patients would respond if they were specifically asked whether they would be interested in telephone counselling abo...
Article
Lucid dreaming is a unique phenomenon with potential applications for therapeutic interventions. Few studies have investigated the effects of lucidity on an individual’s waking mood, which could have valuable implications for improving psychological wellbeing. The current experiment aims to investigate whether the experience of lucidity enhances po...
Article
Full-text available
Disrupted circadian rhythms and sleep patterns are frequently observed features of psychiatric disorders, and especially mood disorders. Sleep deprivation treatment (SD) exerts rapid but transient antidepressant effects in depressed patients and has gained recognition as a model to study quick-acting antidepressant effects. It is of interest how lo...
Article
Full-text available
Professional work is an integral part of modern life. According to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, which states that dreams reflect waking life, work-related dreams should be quite common. As most dream content analytic studies are carried out in student samples, the topic of work in dreams is understudied. A few small studies indicate that...
Article
A variety of factors contribute to nightmare distress; in addition to nightmare frequency also beliefs about nightmares can be associated with heightened nightmare distress. The study investigated the personality correlates of beliefs about nightmares and whether these beliefs mediate the relationship between gender, neuroticism, and nightmare dist...
Preprint
Dream lucidity, or the real-time awareness of a dream, is not an all-or-none phenomenon. Often, subjects report being some variant of “a little lucid” as opposed to completely or not at all. As recent neuroimaging work begins to elucidate the neural underpinnings of lucid experience, understanding subtle phenomenological variation within lucid drea...
Article
Models of nightmare aetiology postulate an interaction between trait and state factors. However, most of the studies that support these models have been cross‐sectional and longitudinal studies are scarce. The present data were obtained from N = 888 participants completing two online dream studies carried out independently with the same online pane...
Article
Introduction Lucid dreaming (being aware that one is dreaming) is typically a positive experience that may enhance positive mood even after waking. There is concern, however, that lucid dreaming may interfere with sleep quality. In the current experiment, participants practiced common lucid dream induction techniques over the course of a week, and...
Article
Since the formulation of the continuity hypothesis in 1971, research findings have supported the thematic and emotional continuity between waking and dreaming. However, dreams that include experiences that never occurred in the dreamer’s waking life, this is, discontinuous dreams, have not been studied extensively. In a long series ( N = 11,575 dre...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to a large variety of somatic symptoms, fever also affects cognition, sleep, and mood. In an online survey with 164 participants, 100 fever dream reports were submitted. Fever dreams were more bizarre and more negatively toned and included more references to health and temperature perception compared to “normal” most recent dreams – fin...
Article
Being something or someone else or being younger in dreams are quite rare topics. In this study, the relationship between boundary thinness and these topics was studied. A sample of 444 students completed the Typical Dream Questionnaire and the Boundary Questionnaire. As expected, persons with thin boundaries dreamed more often being something or s...
Article
A fascinating area of dream research is the analysis of long dream series. However, research regarding differences between long-term journalists and normal persons is lacking. The present online survey (N = 2,492) focused on the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and frequency of recording dreams. As expected, dream recall fre...
Article
As dreaming is a universal phenomenon, it seems natural that everyone has a more or less explicitly defined attitude toward dreams. Recent studies indicate that positive and negative attitude toward dream scales—even given there is considerable overlap—might not be related to the same variables. The findings of the present online survey (N = 2,056)...
Article
Full-text available
Social media consumption plays an important role in everyday life and, thus, one would expect that this topic is reflected in dreams. This online survey included 1,349 participants (763 women, 586 men) completing questions about social media use in waking, percentage of social media dreams, and the Big Five personality dimensions. Social media drea...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to review scientific studies of music dreams and also touch the area of creative music dreams, i.e., dreams inspiring new music. Different types of music dream categories will be defined. In large sample, the percentage of music dreams in relation to all remembered dreams ranges from 4% to 8%. The literature indicates t...
Article
Full-text available
The current paper aimed to look into whether Rapid Eye movement (REM) sleep and narcolepsy would have an influence on dream recall frequency after a nap within the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) procedure. Overall, 146 patients with a large variety of diagnoses were included. Patients completed a scale measuring dream recall frequency prior to...
Article
Study objectives: In nightmare etiology, trait and state factors play important roles. However, the interaction of state and trait factors has never been studied in a longitudinal design. Methods: The current sample included 406 pregnant women who were followed up approximately 6 months after giving birth (n = 375) and 4 years later (n = 302). A...
Article
The present study reports about the frequency, content and emotional tone of erotic dreams based on dream diary reports of a German college student sample. Four hundred and twenty-five students provided 1612 dreams, of which about 6% contained erotic themes, a figure which is in line with previous research. As for the dream content, kissing was the...
Article
Résumé La présente étude rend compte de la fréquence, du contenu et du ton émotionnel des rêves érotiques en se basant sur le journal intime des rêves d’un échantillon d’étudiants allemands. Quatre cent vingt-cinq élèves ont transmis 1612 rêves, dont environ 6 % portaient sur des thèmes érotiques, un chiffre conforme aux recherches antérieures. Qua...
Article
Erotic topics are common in dreams. This study’s objective was to find and explain factors influencing the frequency of these erotic dreams using an online survey in a German sample with a broad age range. 2907 participants estimated what percentage of their recalled dreams contained erotic motifs and provided both demographic and dream related inf...
Article
The diagnosis of a nightmare disorder is based on clinically significant distress caused by the nightmares, e.g., sleep or mood disturbances. In order to understand nightmare etiology better empirical research should focus on studying factors that affect nightmare distress in addition to nightmare frequency. Overall, 2492 persons (1437 woman, 1055...
Article
In every culture and nation music has been mentioned as a sort of natural language. While the existence of dreams including music in musicians has been anecdotally reported, music in dreams have been rarely studied empirically. In the present study, 425 participants, mostly psychology students, reported their dreams in a dream diary for 14 days as...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nightmares are a widespread phenomenon. In comparison to the general population, they occur in mentally ill and especially in traumatized individuals with an increased frequency. Despite the high prevalence, there is no short questionnaire in the German language that is able to characterize nightmares, to differentiate between different...
Article
Individuals who frequently experience nightmares report compromised sleep quality, poor daytime mood, and functioning. Previous research has aimed at linking these impairments with altered sleep architecture, but results were inconclusive. One plausible explanation is that only a few studies recorded markers of autonomic nervous system activity. Fo...
Article
Background and objectives Sleep and dreaming are inseparable. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether the presence of specific sleep disorders affects dreaming. Materials and methods The present study included 1467 patients with sleep-related breathing disorders who completed a dream questionnaire. Results Dream life in these pati...
Article
In recent years, the interest in lucid dreaming (dreaming with the conscious knowledge that one is dreaming) was stimulated by blockbuster films like "Inception" and the media interest in studies indicating that lucid dreaming can be beneficial. However, systematic studies regarding the attitude toward lucid dreams are lacking. An online survey was...
Article
Albträume werden von vielen Menschen zumindest gelegentlich erlebt. Allerdings ist auch die Albtraumstörung, bei der Albträume so häufig auftreten, dass sie das Wachleben klinisch signifikant beeinträchtigen, mit etwa 5 % recht häufig in der Allgemeinbevölkerung. Zur Erklärung der Albträume wird ein Veranlagungs-Stress-Modell herangezogen. Auch das...
Article
Full-text available
This consensus paper provides an overview of the state of the art in research on the aetiology and treatment of nightmare disorder and outlines further perspectives on these issues. It presents a definition of nightmares and nightmare disorder followed by epidemiological findings, and then explains existing models of nightmare aetiology in traumati...