Michael J Rohrbaugh

Michael J Rohrbaugh
The University of Arizona | UA · Department of Psychology

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94
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Publications

Publications (94)
Article
Gemeenschappelijke coping ontstaat als relatiepartners een stressvol gezondheidsprobleem zien als iets “van ons”, in plaats van iets “van mij” en zij er gezamenlijk mee omgaan. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat linguïstische coping (praten in de wij-vorm) en andere vormen van gemeenschappelijke coping zinvol zijn bij verschillende chronische ziekten, maar d...
Article
Communal coping occurs when relationship partners view a stressful health problem as "ours," rather than yours or mine, and take collaborative action to deal with it. Although research employing linguistic (we-talk) and other measures of communal coping demonstrates relevance to a variety of chronic illnesses, the literature offers little about how...
Article
Prevailing views of adolescent self-regulation (ASR) as a relatively stable disposition or skill that an individual possesses in various degrees stand in contrast to a complementary, situational perspective from family systems theory casting ASR as intertwined with ongoing family processes and malleable depending on interpersonal interactions. Usin...
Article
As evidence-based family treatments for adolescent substance use and conduct problems gain traction, cutting edge research moves beyond randomized efficacy trials to address questions such as how these treatments work and how best to disseminate them to community settings. A key factor in effective dissemination is treatment fidelity, which refers...
Article
Key practitioner message: Incorporating spouses into interventions for problematic alcohol use is associated with increased efficacy; yet, little is known about the specific therapeutic processes that may explain these effects. Findings from this study suggest that semantic themes such as drinks and alcohol in partner speech during therapy session...
Article
Communal coping-a process in which romantic partners view a problem as ours rather than yours or mine, and take collaborative action to address it -has emerged as an important predictor of health and treatment outcomes. In a study of partners' pronoun use prior to and during couple-focused alcohol interventions, we examined first-person plural (we-...
Article
Background Young adult drug use and law-breaking behaviors often have roots in adolescence. These behaviors are predicted by early drug use, parental substance use disorders, and disrupted and conflict-ridden family environments.AimTo examine long-term outcomes of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in the rat...
Article
Full-text available
Regulating emotions in interpersonal contexts requires managing one's own emotion, a partner's emotion, and the emotional tone of the relationship (e. g., conflict and intimacy). This multifaceted regulatory challenge, often referred to as "relationship-focused coping,'' has been associated with health outcomes, but the real-time emotional processe...
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Full-text available
Social cybernetic (systemic) ideas from the early Family Process era, though emanating from qualitative clinical observation, have underappreciated heuristic potential for guiding quantitative empirical research on problem maintenance and change. The old conceptual wines we have attempted to repackage in new, science-friendly bottles include ironic...
Article
The Delaware Project, initiated in a conference at the University of Delaware, aims to redefine psychological clinical science training in ways that emphasize continuity across a spectrum of intervention development activities ranging from basic research to implementation and dissemination. The project generated specific recommendations for elevati...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research links first-person plural pronoun use (we-talk) by individual romantic partners to adaptive relationship functioning and individual health outcomes. To examine a possible boundary condition of adaptive we-talk in couples coping with health problems, we correlated asymmetric couple-level we/I-ratios (more we-talk relative to I-talk b...
Article
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Three groups of rats received different patterns of reinforcement-nonreinforcement (RR, RU, UR) in GB1 of an Amsel-type double runway. On the basis of a previous observation, it was predicted that UR trained animals would show less frustration effect (i.e., less increment in running speed in Section II) when tested following frustrative non-reward...
Article
Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw...
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Full-text available
Introduction: Quit rates are lower and relapse rates are higher for people in close relationships with a partner who smokes. Although desire to quit is often related to health concerns for one's self, much less is known about psychosocial factors associated with quitting in dual-smoker couples. This study investigated relations among beliefs about...
Article
We describe a social cybernetic view of health behavior problems and a team-based family consultation (FAMCON) format for strategic intervention based on that view. This approach takes relationships rather than individuals as the primary unit of analysis and attaches more importance to problem maintenance than to etiology. Treatment aims to interru...
Article
We investigated first-person plural pronoun use (we-talk) by health-compromised smokers and their spouses as a possible implicit marker of adaptive, problem-resolving communal processes. Twenty couples in which one or both partners used tobacco despite one of them having a heart or lung problem participated in up to 10 sessions of a smoking cessati...
Article
Full-text available
Among smokers, the desire to quit smoking is often related to one's health concerns. However, much less is known about how perceptions of health concerns are related in couples in which both partners smoke (i.e., dual smoker couples) and their associations with desire to quit for self. We explored these issues using baseline survey data collected f...
Article
WWe describe a social-cybernetic view of health behavior problems and a family consultation (FAMCON) intervention based on that view. Resurrecting foundational ideas from cybernetic family systems theory, this approach takes relationships rather than individuals as a primary unit of analysis, attaches more importance to problem maintenance than to...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs. A randomized effectiveness trial in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network compared BSFT to TAU with a multiethnic...
Article
Strategies and tactics in apparent opposition to desired therapeutic goals are discussed in the context of brief problem-focused therapy. Two types of paradoxical intervention are differentiated: in one, change follows from attempted compliance with a therapeutic directive; in the other, change follows from defiance. Brehm's reactance theory and th...
Chapter
Paradoxical interventions are psychotherapeutic tactics that seem to contradict the goals they are designed to achieve. For example, a therapist may prescribe that clients deliberately have an unwanted symptom or restrain them from changing. In the classic definition of a therapeutic double-bind or paradox, “an injunction is so structured that it (...
Article
Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with psychologic distress for patients and their spouses. Although research indicates that a patient's distress can influence the course of illness, less is known about possible effects of a spouse's distress on the patient or of a patient's distress on the health of the spouse. Baseline home interviews of 6...
Article
Couples in which one or both partners smoked despite one of them having a heart or lung problem discussed a health-related disagreement before and during a period of laboratory smoking. Immediately afterwards, the partners in these 25 couples used independent joysticks to recall their continuous emotional experience during the interaction while wat...
Article
Full-text available
In a study of spousal support for smoking cessation, 34 couples in which one partner continued to smoke despite having a heart or lung problem used an adaptation of Cohen & Lichtenstein's (1990) Partner Interaction Questionnaire to describe the spouse's attempts to help the primary (ill) smoker quit. Female smokers received less support for quittin...
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Full-text available
Recent research suggests that marital quality predicts the survival of patients with heart failure (HF), and it is hypothesized that a communal orientation to coping marked by first-person plural pronoun use (we talk) may be a factor in this. During a home interview, 57 HF patients (46 men and 16 women) and their spouses discussed how they coped wi...
Article
Full-text available
In a laboratory smoking experiment, 25 couples in which 1 or both partners continued to smoke despite 1 of them having heart or lung disease discussed a health-related disagreement before and during a period of smoking. Immediately afterward, the partners used independent joysticks to recall their continuous emotional experience during the interact...
Article
Although spousal support predicts the success of a smoker's cessation efforts, "social-support" interventions based on teaching partners better support skills have had consistently disappointing results. We examined the potential utility of a family consultation (FAMCON) intervention based on family-systems principles in a treatment-development pro...
Article
Recent evidence suggests that psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, psychological distress, perceived social support, and marital quality have prognostic significance for morbidity and mortality after heart failure. Previously, we reported that interview and observational measures of marital quality obtained from 189 patients with heart failu...
Article
Findings of investigator allegiance bias underscore the limited scientific value of comparative outcome designs, especially those that compare broad therapy approaches or treatment packages. Luborsky et al.'s contribution will be diminished, however, if it leads researchers to search for common factors at the expense of studying how and for whom sp...
Article
Ratings of patient efficacy to manage illness, made by 191 congestive heart failure patients and their spouses, were examined as predictors of patients' survival over the next 4 years. When considered alone, both the patient's self-efficacy and the spouse's confidence ratings predicted survival, but only spouse confidence remained significant when...
Article
Full-text available
In a daily-process study of 58 heart-failure patients and their spouses, protective buffering (avoiding conflict, hiding feelings) was associated with decreased emotional well-being by both the protecting spouse (actor effect) and the protected spouse (partner effect). Interpersonal consequences of PB were greater when the spouse protected the pati...
Article
The family genogram is sometimes used to aid diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive care decisions. This study evaluated the efficacy of genograms for predicting health risk in comparison to predictions made using demographic and chart review data. Six physicians with expertise in using genograms were asked to evaluate 20 actual patient cases and...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological distress and marital quality were assessed with male (n = 128) and female (n = 49) congestive-heart-failure (CHF) patients and their spouses. Hopkins Symptom Check List--25 scores were in the distressed range for 57% of patients and 40% of spouses. This role difference was greater for men than for women, and a gender difference (more...
Article
Recent reviews of empirically supported psychosocial treatments indicate that the best efficacy evidence so far available for outpatient alcohol treatment comes from approaches that include spouses or significant others. This chapter describes an integrative systemic-strategic couple therapy that (1) focuses on the relational context of drinking, n...
Article
Mounting evidence indicates that social support is associated with better outcomes of cardiovascular disease and reduced all-cause mortality. Much less is known about the specific contribution of marital functioning to these outcomes, and the potential prognostic significance of marital quality for congestive heart failure (CHF) has not been explor...
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Full-text available
The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic interve...
Article
Smoking is North America's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Although effective cessation treatments exist, their overall effect is modest, and they rarely reach the high-risk, health-compromised smokers who need them most. Surprisingly, despite evidence that marital relationship variables predict the success of cessation effort...
Article
Individually focused Attribute × Treatment interaction (ATI) research has neglected attributes of couple and family relationships that may moderate response to different treatments. Sixty-three couples with a male alcoholic partner participated in up to 20 sessions of either cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) or family-systems therapy (FST). As hyp...
Article
Research on ironic menial control processes makes the underappreciated point that attempts to solve problems sometimes make them worse. Social scientists now know much about what ironic processes look like, less about why they occur, and too little about how to change them. Features of the exacerbation process itself suggest parsimonious approaches...
Article
Proponents of psychotherapy integration have more to gain than to lose by embracing the movement toward identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs). EST research is fully compatible with theoretical integration, essential to technical eclecticism, and at least partially compatible with most common-factors approaches to integration. The EST...
Article
outlines 2 closely related but distinct models of brief therapy, each applicable to many problems, including couple problems / deals primarily with applications of problem- and solution-focused brief therapy to couple complaints / describe . . . the problem-focused (MRI) and solution-focused (Milwaukee) brief therapy models / review the background...
Article
A serendipitous finding in a study of routine clinical encounters was that physicians and patients frequently gave discrepant reports of what had happened during a clinic visit. This report examines the conditions under which these discrepant perceptions occurred. Five experienced physicians and 189 patients completed postencounter questionnaires i...
Article
In the field of alcoholism treatment, as in mental health treatment more generally, no one treatment model is equally effective for all patients and problem types. Literature in both alcohol treatment and in psychotherapy research suggests some relationships in common between treatment efficacy and patient coping style, drinking patterns, and famil...
Article
Reviews the books, Navigating the Marital Journey: MAP: A Corporate Support Program for Couples by Gary L. Bowen (see record 1991-98930-000 ) and Growing Together, Staying Together: Preserving Marriage and Family in the Face of Personal Change by Jurg Willi, Vivien Blandford, and Tony Hafliger (1992). These two books about marriage and change could...
Article
Six physicians and 6 family therapists each read 18–20 genograms drawn for 58 patients in an academic family practice. After predicting health risk from each genogram, the Ss rated the extent to which each of 26 categories of genogram information had contributed to their prediction. Seven categories (medical condition of patient, medical condition...
Article
Despite enthusiastic promotion of family genograms, the impact of routine use of this tool on clinical practice has not been systematically examined. The present study investigated whether doing a genogram, or having one available, makes physicians more sensitive to psychosocial issues or in other ways affects the physician-patient relationship or...
Article
Criticizes the work of E. L. Holloway et al (see record 1990-29009-001) on the use of paradoxical interventions with couples. Focus is on (1) poor treatment of the literature, (2) lack of procedural detail, (3) use of the lesser-known Penman coding scheme, and (4) insufficient information regarding the utility of the methods used.
Article
Criticizes the work of E. L. Holloway et al (see record 1990-29009-001) on the use of paradoxical interventions with couples. Focus is on (1) poor treatment of the literature, (2) lack of procedural detail, (3) use of the lesser-known Penman coding scheme, and (4) insufficient information regarding the utility of the methods used. (PsycINFO Databas...
Article
Full-text available
The genogram, or family diagram, is an assessment tool widely used by clinicians to study family members and their relationships over several generations. The standard genogram format is limited, however, because it does not show temporal patterns directly. An alternative, the Time-Line Genogram (TLG), which plots time on the vertical axis to displ...
Article
Pre-discharge psychoeducation workshops for relatives of psychiatric inpatients, conducted with and without the patient present, were compared to hospital-tour and no-contact control groups. Despite highly positive evaluations of the workshops, there were no group differences in patient relapse or family involvement in treatment after discharge; no...
Article
Ethnic stereotypes in the family therapy literature make intuitive sense, but are based on surprisingly little empirical data. In a questionnaire survey of the family experiences of 220 mental health professionals representing eight American ethnic groups, most items differentiated the groups as predicted. A smaller, partial replication study compa...
Article
Q-sorts by experts were used to compare four structural/strategic/systemic therapy models. Results suggest that the models share a practical, strategic orientation to change, emphasizing reframing, but attach different importance to history, inference, abstraction, and contextual breadth.
Article
Theories of family structure have proposed that in healthy families, the parents' marital alliance is primary (MAP), while in dysfunctional families the primary alliance is not marital (MANP) but crosses generational boundaries. Some family alliances involve triangulation, drawing a third person into a dyadic relationship to mediate tension. Family...
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Full-text available
Contends that the hazards of integrating structural, strategic, and systemic therapy models—for clients, therapists, and systemic therapy theorists—outweigh the benefits. At the conceptual level, the therapies are not epistemologically consistent. A case example of a 16-yr-old Black male referred because of poor grades, truancy, and marihuana smoki...
Article
The current investigation was designed to determine how cancer patients, medical students, medical residents, nononcologically oriented physicians, and cancer educators differ with respect to attitudes towards cancer. A total of 372 individuals completed the Cancer Attitude Survey. Cancer educators displayed more confidence in the patient's ability...
Article
Strategies and tactics in apparent opposition to desired therapeutic goals are discussed in the context of brief problems-focused therapy. Two types of paradoxical intervention are differentiated: in one, change follows from attempted compliance with a therapeutic directive; in the other, change follows from defiance. Brehm's reactance theory and t...
Article
Instances of noncompliance or resistance to influence in psychotherapy have been interpreted as "reactance phenomena" that derive from a motive to restore threatened behavioral freedoms. While reactance is commonly seen as a negative, complicating factor in therapy, reactance phenomena can be used, even mobilized in the service of therapeutic chang...
Article
Yalom's Q-sort questionnaire was administered to 13 groups and then item analized. Factor analysis identified seven major "curative" factors. Analysis of variance and correlation techniques showed that part of the variation in curative factor perception is related to characteristics of groups and/or their participants. (SE)
Article
The MMPI and Moos' Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) were administered to 60 undergraduate women. Partial correlations between MMPI clinical scales and menstrual and premenstrual MDQ symptom scales were computed with intermenstrual (baseline) symptom reports and response set (Gough's F-K index) statistically controlled MMPI variables tended to...
Article
Emotional arousal, defined by Anxiety, Depression, and Hostility scores on the Zuckerman-Lubin Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL), was monitored during week-long laboratory training seminars for government employees. Lab participants (N = 52) were compared to control Ss (N = 33) who completed the MAACL on each of 5 workdays. Results sugge...
Article
Data from three samples of active duty servicemen (total n = 1743) surveyed in 1971 at a midwestern military installation provided only limited evidence that service in Southeast Asia affected subsequent drug use. Reported incidence of opiate use in the presurvey month was higher for Vietnam returnees than for nonreturnee controls from the same uni...
Article
Groups of rats were given Pavlovian pairings of tone (CS) and electric shock, followed by 15-sec, 10-min, or no exposure to the CS without shock. In a subsequent test, rats in the 15-sec exposure group showed more suppression of licking behavior in the presence of the CS than other subjects (i.e. greater CER than non-exposed controls). This “parado...
Article
Following acquisition by 15 male albino Holtzman rats of shuttle-avoidance responding to a tonal CS, 6 Ss were given stimulus generalization tests under each of 3 conditions: (a) variation of frequency, (b) variation of intensity, and (c) concurrent variation of both frequency and intensity. Resulting generalization gradients for the frequency-alon...
Article
Rats which were prevented (blocked) from making an instrumental avoidance response extinguished much more rapidly than non-blocked animals. In a subsequent test, however, passive avoidance of the former shock chamber was much greater in the blocked Ss. When no regular extinction trials were permitted, blocking (per se) reduced residual “fear” below...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments to demonstrate that presentation of the CS alone, after conditioning, can enhance learned fear. In Exp. I, groups of 12 Holtzman albino rats received 0-, 1/2-, 5-, 15-, or 50-min postconditioning exposure to the apparatus (the CS) in which they had previously been shocked. Results suggest that the 5-min exposure group was mo...
Article
In Exp. I 40 23-day-old male albino Holtzman rats received classical fear conditioning in the black compartment of a spatial avoidance box. At weekly intervals following conditioning Ss received either a brief reenactment of the initial training or exposure to the learned fear cues. Additional controls received either original training alone or rei...
Article
describes a systemic couples therapy for problem drinking [moderate to severe alcohol dependence] / the therapy is systemic because it (1) focuses on the relational context of problem drinking, not solely on the individual who drinks; (2) assumes that drinking problems are maintained by ongoing cycles of social interaction; (3) adapts treatment to...
Article
Full-text available
Observers rated positive and negative emotional expression by dual-smoker (n=19) and single- smoker couples (n=15) discussing a disagreement. Although affective expression varied by role (e.g., primary smoker were less positive than their partners), changes from baseline (non-smoking) to smoking did not depend on whether both partners smoked. The p...
Article
Full-text available
Consistent with the "social structure" hypothesis, demand and withdraw roles of partners in 88 heterosexual couples reversed symmetrically according to whether the problem they discussed was more salient to the woman or the man. Reversal was robust across age, marital status, and relationship duration, but appeared more pronounced in couples report...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological distress reported by the spouses of 60 heart failure patients predicted changes in the patients' physical health over the next six months independent of baseline illness severity and the patient's own distress. Negative spouse emotion also had a marginally significant effect on patient survival. Background Chronic heart disease is a p...
Article
Full-text available
For a multi-site clinical trial testing the efficacy of Szapocznik et al.'s Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) in community settings, we developed a Views of Adolescent Drug Abuse Q-sort (VADA-Q) to study therapists' theoretical orientation. Q-methodology helps define how the BSFT model differs from other views of adolescent drug abuse and provi...
Article
Full-text available
In a study of couples coping with heart failure, associations between marital quality and medical adherence were stronger for women patients than for men. The association was clearest for a self-report measure of general marital quality and an observational measure of husband-demand/wife-withdraw interaction. Background Adherence to medical regimen...
Article
Full-text available
Observers' ratings of communal coping (cooperative problem solving) based on interviews with 20 heart-failure patients and their spouses predicted the patient's survival 4 years later. Although the measure was not highly stable across patient-spouse roles and two stressful situations, a communal orientation by women (both patients and spouses) had...
Article
Administered 10 inescapable shocks to 38 male Holtzman infant and adult albino rats in the presence of a 450-cps tone (CS) while Ss were confined in 1 compartment of a double-compartment shuttle box. Each S subsequently received 20 4-min trials (without shocks) in which a 230-, 450-, or 1000-cps tone, or no-tone, was made contingent upon S's presen...
Article
Groups of 18, 23, or 90-120 day old rats received inescapable shocks during confinements in the black compartment of a double compartment (black-white) shuttle box. Each S was tested for spatial avoidance of black in the same apparatus and in a similarly constructed, yet different, apparatus. Cross-box generalization decrements in fear strength occ...
Article
In Experiment 1, groups of rats 16, 19, 25, 32, and 90 to 120 days of age, were tested for retention of a passive avoidance response 2 min or 24 hr following a single training trial. Passive avoidance learning improved markedly with age, and retention over a 24-hr interval was complete for all age groups. In Experiment 2, rats 19, 25, 32, and 90 to...
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Full-text available
IN AN ATTEMPT TO PROVIDE SUGGESTIVE SUPPORT FOR MOWRER'S "AUTISTIC" THEORY OF IMITATIVE SPEECH, FOOD REWARD WAS DIFFERENTIALLY PAIRED WITH TAPED PRESENTATIONS OF VERBAL PHRASES (RESPONSE-CORRELATED STIMULI) FROM THE VOCABULARIES OF 2 TALKING MYNAH BIRDS. MONITORING OF FREE SPEECH SUBSEQUENT TO DAILY EXPERIMENTAL SESSIONS INDICATED THAT VERBAL RESPO...