# Michael RaymerUniversity of Oregon | UO · Department of Physics

Michael Raymer

## About

256

Publications

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11,798

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Introduction

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September 1988 - present

## Publications

Publications (256)

Photonic time-frequency entanglement is a promising resource for quantum information processing technologies. We investigate swapping of continuous-variable entanglement in the time-frequency degree of freedom using three-wave mixing in the low-gain regime with the aim of producing heralded biphoton states with high purity and low multipair probabi...

Temporal modes (TMs) are field-orthogonal broadband wave-packet states of light occupying a common frequency band, and they can encode information in a higher-dimensional alphabet compared to, say, photon polarization. The key—yet still missing—ingredient for the full implementation of a system deploying TMs is a highly selective quantum pulse gate...

Understanding the properties of electronically interacting molecular chromophores, which involve internally coupled electronic-vibrational motions, is important to the spectroscopy of many biologically relevant systems. Here we apply linear absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2DFS) to study the polari...

Single-photon wave packets can carry quantum information between nodes of a quantum network. An important general operation in photon-based quantum information systems is blind reversal of a photon's temporal wave-packet envelope, that is, the ability to reverse an envelope without knowing the temporal state of the photon. We present an all-optical...

Temporal modes (TM) are a new basis for storage and retrieval of quantum information in states of light. The full TM manipulation toolkit requires a practical quantum pulse gate (QPG), which is a device that unitarily maps any given TM component of the optical input field onto a different, easily separable subspace or degree of freedom. An ideal QP...

Photon pair states and multiple-photon squeezed states have many applications in quantum information science. In this paper, Green functions are derived for spontaneous four-wave mixing in the low- and high-gain regimes. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent medium generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only...

Orthogonal temporal modes (TMs) form a field-orthogonal, continuous-variable degree of freedom that is in principle infinite dimensional, and create a promising resource for quantum information science and technology. The ideal quantum pulse gate (QPG) is a device that multiplexes and demultiplexes temporally orthogonal optical pulses that have the...

We correct typographical errors in four equations showing the integral forms of the equations of motion and the corresponding perturbative approximation. Subsequently presented derivations, results, and conclusions remain unchanged.

The interaction of spin and intrinsic orbital angular momentum of light is observed, as evidenced by length-dependent rotations of both spatial patterns and optical polarization in a cylindrically symmetric isotropic optical fiber. Such rotations occur in a straight few-mode fiber when superpositions of two modes with parallel and antiparallel orie...

Quantum frequency conversion in nonlinear optical media is a powerful tool for temporal-mode selective manipulation of light. Recent attempts at achieving high mode selectivities and/or fidelities have had to resort to multi-dimensional optimization schemes to determine the system's natural Schmidt modes. Certain combinations of relative-group velo...

In quantum optics experiments, heralding, a form of conditional state preparation, is a useful tool for creating photon-number states from nonlinear optical sources for quantum-information science experiments. Heralding occurs when one photon from a correlated pair is detected to herald the presence of the other photon, labeled the signal photon. H...

We present an experimental method for creating and verifying photon-number states created by non-degenerate, third-order nonlinearoptical photon-pair sources. By using spatially multiplexed, thresholding single-photon detectors and inverting a conditional probability matrix, we determine the photon-number probabilities created through heralded spon...

Quantum memories, capable of storing single photons or other quantum states
of light, to be retrieved on-demand, offer a route to large-scale quantum
information processing with light. A promising class of memories is based on
far-off-resonant Raman absorption in ensembles of $\Lambda$-type atoms. However
at room temperature these systems exhibit u...

A nonlinear-optical waveguide with distributed optical feedback serves as a compact, high-brightness, narrowband SPDC source if the losses are low enough. A new theoretical formalism shows how to include distributed loss in such systems.

br /> Interaction between spin and intrinsic orbital angular momentum of light in a straight few-mode fiber is observed to generate rotation for both polarization and spatial profiles, in agreement with recent prediction.

The temporal shape of single photons provides a high-dimensional basis of temporal modes, and can therefore support quantum computing schemes that go beyond the qubit. However, the lack of linear optical components to act as quantum gates has made it challenging to efficiently address specific temporal-mode components from an arbitrary superpositio...

Temporal modes (TMs) of photonic quantum states provide promising bases for
quantum information science (QIS), because they intrinsically span a
high-dimensional Hilbert space and lend themselves to integration into existing
single-mode fiber communication networks. We show that the three main
requirements to construct a valid framework for QIS - t...

All classical and quantum technologies that encode in and retrieve
information from optical fields rely on the ability to selectively manipulate
orthogonal field modes of light. Such manipulation can be achieved with high
selectivity for polarization modes and transverse-spatial modes. For the
time-frequency degree of freedom, this could efficientl...

We propose an experimental method for measuring two-photon Fock states using a gang of detectors and demonstrate the creation of heralded, two-photon Fock states of light.

We propose a highly efficient method to decompose and analyze photons into copolarized, transverse-mode matched, temporally and spectrally overlapping, but field-orthogonal, longitudinal temporal modes. The method uses cascaded nonlinear-optical quantum frequency conversion.

We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM.

Long-distance quantum communication relies on storing and retrieving photonic
qubits in orthogonal field modes. The available degrees of freedom for photons
are polarization, spatial-mode profile, and temporal/spectral profile. To date,
methods exist for decomposing, manipulating, and analyzing photons into
orthogonal polarization modes and spatial...

We develop quantum-optical input-output theory for resonators with arbitrary
coupling strength, and for input fields whose spectrum can be wider than the
cavity free-spectral range, while ensuring that the field-operator commutator
relations in space-time variables are correct. The cavity-field commutator
exhibits a series of space-time echoes, rep...

We introduce a new method, called entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS), to sensitively probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method incorporates a separated two-photon ('Franson') interferometer, which generates time-frequency-entangled photon pairs, into the framework of a fluoresce...

We consider quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering and the prospects for multi-plexing using the temporal modes. We find that there is an optimal strength parameter, but that the fiber length is less critical.

We investigate the applicability of temporal multiplexing using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering for quantum frequency conversion. Various pump shapes are considered and we find that a large selectivity is possible for all the pump shapes.

We demonstrate that filling a hollow-core photonic-bandgap fiber with supercritical xenon creates a medium with a controllable density up to several hundred times that at STP, while working at room temperature. The high compressibility of the supercritical fluid allows rapid tuning of the spectral guidance window by making small changes of gas pres...

We explore theoretically the feasibility of using frequency conversion by sum- or difference-frequency generation, enabled by three-wave-mixing, for selectively multiplexing orthogonal input waveforms that overlap in time and frequency. Such a process would enable a drop device for use in a transparent optical network using temporally orthogonal wa...

Three-or four-wave mixing can convert a single-photon wave packet to a new frequency. By tailoring the shapes of the pump(s), one can achieve add/drop functionality for different temporally orthogonal wave packets.

We propose supercritical xenon in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber as a
highly nonlinear medium, and demonstrate 200 nm control over the guidance
window of the fiber as the xenon goes through its supercritical phase
transition. The large optical polarizability and monoatomic nature of xenon are
predicted to allow large optical nonlinearity, on...

In a future quantum internet, individual photons might well be the agents that carry information between different kinds of devices. But physicists must first learn to tailor some of their essential features.

The creation of supercritical xenon within a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber as a novel platform for nonlinear optics is shown by observing changes in the fiber’s guidance properties with increasing pressure of xenon.

We present theoretical evidence for phase locking in the sidebands of a Raman frequency comb created spontaneously by two laser pump pulses. The mechanism for the phase locking is argued to be spontaneous three-phonon scattering.

Two theoretical models for frequency conversion (FC) using nondegenerate four-wave mixing are compared, and their range of validity are discussed. Quantum-state preserving FC allows for arbitrary reshaping of states for an appropriate pump selection.

Nondegenerate four-wave mixing driven by two pulsed pumps transfers the quantum state of an input signal pulse to an output idler pulse, which is a frequency-converted and reshaped version of the signal. By varying the pump shapes appropriately, one can connect signal and idler pulses with arbitrary durations and shapes. This process enables a vari...

Nondegenerate four-wave mixing driven by two pulsed pumps transfers the quantum state of an input signal pulse to an output idler pulse, which is a frequency-translated and reshaped version of the signal. By varying the pump shapes appropriately, one can connect signal and idler pulses with arbitrary durations and shapes. This process enables a var...

In this paper we consider frequency translation enabled by Bragg scattering, a four-wave mixing process. First we introduce the theoretical background of the Green function formalism and the Schmidt decomposition. Next the Green functions for the low-conversion regime are derived perturbatively in the frequency domain, using the methods developed f...

Exciting work is being done in quantum information theory and the detection of low light levels.

We demonstrate interaction between spin and orbital angular momentum of light in a straight few-mode fiber, evidenced by rotation of output intensity patterns controlled by input spin handedness.

Two photons having different colors can exhibit the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effect if the usual beam splitter is replaced by Bragg scattering via four-wave mixing in an optical fiber, which acts as a frequency shifter.

We study quantum frequency translation and two-color photon interference enabled by the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process in optical fiber. Using realistic model parameters, we computationally and analytically determine the Green function and Schmidt modes for cases with various pump-pulse lengths. These cases can be categorized as either "...

The authors consider, experimentally and theoretically, the quantum frequency translation (i.e., noiseless conversion) of quantum states of light, including single-photon states. This process is useful for allowing quantum optical systems (atoms, ions, cavities, fibers, detectors) operating at different wavelengths to communicate with each other. T...

Two photons having different colors can undergo the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effect if the usual beam splitter is replaced by Bragg scattering via four-wave mixing in an optical fiber, which acts as a frequency shifter.

Wideband optical wavelength translation across a record range from the near-infrared to the visible based on the Bragg scattering four-wave-mixing process has been demonstrated in birefringent photonic crystal fiber. The process was vectorial in nature, where the pumps and the signal and idler fields were polarized on orthogonal axes. Bragg scatter...

We explore theoretically the phase correlation between multiple
generated sidebands in a Raman optical frequency comb under conditions
of spontaneous initiation from quantum zero-point noise. We show that
there is a near-deterministic correlation between sideband phases in
each laser shot which may lead to synthesis of attosecond pulse trains.

We show experimentally and theoretically that the spectral components of a multioctave frequency comb spontaneously created by stimulated Raman scattering in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber exhibit strong self-coherence and mutual coherence within each 12 ns driving laser pulse. This coherence arises in spite of the field's ini...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.119901

We experimentally demonstrate frequency translation of a nonclassical optical field via four-wave mixing (Bragg-scattering process) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The high nonlinearity and the ability to control dispersion in PCF enable efficient translation between nearby photon channels within the visible to-near-infrared spectral range, usef...

We study the effect of frequency translation of single-photon states in optical fiber through use of the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process. Preliminary evidence shows that this goal has been achieved.

We theoretically investigate and experimentally demonstrate the spontaneous phase anti-correlation between Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands in Raman frequency comb generation. This anti-correlation suggests a new way to stabilize the comb and synthesize sub-femtosecond pulse trains.

We consider the interference of two photons with different colors in the context of a Hong–Ou–Mandel experiment, in which single photons enter each of the input ports of a beam splitter, and exit together in the same, albeit undetermined, output port. Such interference is possible if one uses an active (energy-non-conserving) beam splitter. We find...

We propose and provide experimental evidence in support of a theory for the remote preparation of a complex spatial state of a single photon. An entangled two-photon source was obtained by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and a double slit was placed in the path of the signal photon as a scattering object. The signal photon was detected afte...

We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, its spin angular momentum (SAM) and its orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact. Remarkably, we find that the dynamics resulting from this spin-orbit interaction are quantitatively described by a single expression applying to both electrons and photons. This...

We describe a mode sorter for two-dimensional parity of transverse spatial states of light based on an out-of-plane Sagnac interferometer. Both Hermite-Gauss (HG) and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes can be guided into one of two output ports according to the two-dimensional parity of the mode in question. Our interferometer sorts HG(nm) input modes depen...

There is a constraining relation between the reliability of a quantum measurement and the extent to which the measurement process is, in principle, reversible. The greater the information that is gained, the less reversible the measurement dynamics become. To illustrate this relation, we develop a simple physical model for quantum measurement, as w...

In the past few years experimenters have learned how to determine the
complete quantum state of an ensemble of particles or fields which have
been prepared according to some unknown procedure. Through these
experiments they have answered a question posed by W. Pauli in the
1930s. The methods used involve measuring statistical distributions of a
wel...

Solution of the Dirac equation predicts that when an electron with non-zero orbital angular momentum propagates in a cylindrically symmetric potential, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom interact, causing the electron's phase velocity to depend on whether its spin and orbital angular momenta vectors are oriented parallel or anti-parallel with...

When a photon propagates in an inhomogeneous medium, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom are coupled. We explore consequences of this effect for fiber-based cluster state linear optical quantum computing (LOQC).

A 3-octave spectral comb is generated in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic-crystal-fiber. The spectrum consists of up to 45 high-order Stokes and anti-Stokes lines generated by coherent stimulated Raman scattering in the transient regime of amplification.

Multipartite entanglement is a resource for quantum communication and computation. Vector four-wave mixing (FWM) in a fiber, driven by two strong optical pumps, couples the evolution of four weak optical sidebands (modes). Depending on the fiber dispersion and pump frequencies, the mode frequencies can be similar (separated by less than 1 THz) or d...

Ultrabroad coherent comb-like optical spectra spanning several octaves are a chief ingredient in the emerging field of attoscience. We demonstrate generation and guidance of a three-octave spectral comb, spanning wavelengths from 325 to 2300 nanometers, in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The waveguidance results not from a pho...

We study theoretically the generation of photon pairs by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in photonic crystal optical fiber. We show that it is possible to engineer two-photon states with specific spectral correlation ("entanglement") properties suitable for quantum information processing applications. We focus on the case exhibiting no spectral...

The monochromatic Dirac and polychromatic Titulaer-Glauber quantized field theories (QFTs) of electromagnetism are derived from a photon-energy wave function in much the same way that one derives QFT for electrons, that is, by quantization of a single-particle wave function. The photon wave function and its equation of motion are established from t...

We present a scheme for cluster state linear optical quantum computation using Hermite-Gauss (HG) transverse spatial modes. We describe HG fusion gate elements, an HG-entangled biphoton source, and multi-photon spatial cluster state characterization.

Phase-sensitive amplification (PSA), which is produced by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in a randomly-birefringent fiber, has the potential to improve the performance of optical communication systems. Scalar FWM, which is driven by parallel pumps, is impaired by the generation of pump-pump and pump-signal harmonics, which limit the level, and m...

We analyze a quantum optical memory based on the off-resonant Raman interaction of a single broadband photon, copropagating with a classical control pulse, with an atomic ensemble. The conditions under which the memory can perform optimally are found, by means of a universal mode decomposition. This enables the memory efficiency to be specified in...

We have used the recently demonstrated method of optical homodyne tomography (OHT) to measure the Wigner quasiprobability distribution (Wigner function) and the density matrix for both a squeezed-vacuum and a vacuum state of a single spatial-temporal mode of the electromagnetic field. This method consists of measuring a set of probability distribut...

We propose a scheme of generating and verifying mesoscopic-level entanglement between two atomic ensembles using non-resonant stimulated Raman scattering. Entanglement can be generated by direct detection or balanced homodyne detection of the Stokes fields from the two cells, after they interfere on a beam splitter. The entanglement of the collecti...

The quantum wave function for two photons is a tensor field obeying a generalized Maxwell equation. Duality between the two-photon detection amplitude and the Wolf equations of coherence theory follows from the two-photon Maxwell equation. Article not available.