Michael Pietrusewsky

Michael Pietrusewsky
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa | UH Manoa · Department of Anthropology

Ph.D.
Ikehara-Quebral R.M., Douglas M.T. (2021) Pietrusewsky, Michael. In: Smith C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology.

About

215
Publications
44,366
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,601
Citations
Introduction
Michael Pietrusewsky is currently Professor Emeritus at the Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Michael does research in Bioarchaeology and Biological Anthropology. His current project is 'Bioarchaeology of Taiwan (East Asia) and the Mariana Islands (Western Pacific). He also has long-term interests in the physical/biological anthropology and bioarchaeology of the Pacific, Southeast Asia, and East Asia.
Additional affiliations
February 2012 - March 2012
University of Otago
Position
  • Visiting Professor/Researcher
Description
  • Workshop on biological distance studies and study of late Lapita skeletons from Watom Island, New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
March 2005 - August 2005
University of Auckland
Position
  • Visiting Professor
Description
  • Teaching a course, Human Biology of the Pacific.
August 1997 - August 1998
International Research Center for Japanese Studies
Position
  • Visiting Professor
Description
  • Conducting research in Japan for one year (1997-1998) on topic, "Origin of the Japanese".
Education
September 1966 - June 1969
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Anthropology
September 1962 - May 1966

Publications

Publications (215)
Article
Full-text available
Examining several indicators of oral/dental (dental caries, antemortem tooth loss - AMTL, alveolar defects, dental calculus, and dental attrition) and physiological (linear enamel hypoplasia-LEH) health, this study investigates biocultural implications of changes in subsistence in the earliest Neolithic and later Iron Age Taiwan. Two human archaeol...
Article
Full-text available
Previous investigations of health and lifestyle in the Mariana Islands indicated that the prehistoric inhabitants living on the smaller islands of this archipelago experienced more stress than those living on the larger islands. This paper expands on previous research by using one of the largest datasets (N = 385) now available for examining the he...
Article
Full-text available
Biological distance studies, especially those based on cranial and skeletal morphology, continue to provide physical anthropologists and bioarchaeologists with an exceptional set of mathematically based methods for understanding population relatedness and population history. Because of the demonstrated correlation between phenotypic and genotypic s...
Article
Full-text available
Sublime expression of three ectocranial occipital superstructures (OSSs)—occipital torus tubercles (TOTs), retromastoid processes (PRs), and posterior supramastoid tubercles (TSPs)—is virtually restricted to Oceania, with epicenters in the Mariana Islands, Tonga, Mocha Island, and perhaps other Oceanic locales such as the West Sepik Coast of New Gu...
Article
Skeletal and dental indicators (e.g., stature, linear enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, trauma, dental pathologies, and other evidence of disease) recorded in 45 subadult and 36 adult skeletons from the NHaa 1 site at Ha'atuatua, Nuku Hiva, northern Marquesas, are used to examine the health, diet, and lifestyle of precontact Marquesans during th...
Article
Angkor Borei is a protohistoric (ca. 500 BCE − 500 CE) site in southern Cambodia (Takeo Province), on the western edge of the Mekong Delta. Cambodia’s protohistoric period, concurrent with the Iron Age elsewhere in mainland Southeast Asia, is a period characterised by major socio-political transformation: early state formation, incorporation into t...
Article
DNA recovery from ancient human remains has revolutionized our ability to reconstruct the genetic landscape of the past. Ancient DNA research has benefited from the identification of skeletal elements, such as the cochlear part of the osseous inner ear, that provide optimal contexts for DNA preservation; however, the rich genetic information obtain...
Article
Using a variety of skeletal and dental indicators (e.g., stature, linear enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, infection, trauma, dental path-ologies) recorded in 33 adult and 11 subadult skeletons from the To-At-36 site at Ha'ateiho, Tongatapu, this study examines the health, diet, and lifestyle of precontact Tongans during the Tongan Chiefdom Peri...
Preprint
Full-text available
DNA recovery from ancient human remains has revolutionized our ability to reconstruct the genetic landscape of the past. Ancient DNA research has benefited from the identification of skeletal elements, such as the cochlear part of the osseous inner ear, that provide optimal contexts for DNA preservation; however, the rich genetic information obtain...
Article
Using a variety of skeletal and dental indicators (e.g., stature, linear enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, infection, trauma, dental pathologies) recorded in 33 adult and 11 subadult skeletons from the To-At-36 site at Ha‘ateiho, Tongatapu, this study examines the health, diet, and lifestyle of precontact Tongans during the Tongan Chiefdom Perio...
Chapter
Traditional morphometrics and the use of measurements have a long history in physical/biological anthropology. The application of multivariate statistical procedures, such as stepwise discriminant function (canonical) analysis and Mahalanobis distance, to traditional morphometric data, using either model-free or model-bound approaches, allows resea...
Article
Human cranial morphology, the study of the size and shape of the human skull, has a long history in biological anthropology, with applications to the subfields of paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, and forensic anthropology. These subfields have evolved from descriptive and historical sciences, preoccupied with racial classification, to studies bas...
Chapter
Biological distance, or biodistance, is a measure of relatedness or divergence among groups separated by time and/or geography based on morphological variation (Buikstra et al. 1990). Biological distance studies, which are undertaken to reconstruct population history and to assess ancestry, dominated bioarchaeological research during the nineteenth...
Article
Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100–1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Viet...
Article
Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100–1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Viet...
Preprint
Full-text available
Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from thirteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100–1700 years ago). Early agriculturalists from Man Ba...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although varied in its expression, the intentional removal of teeth during life has been documented in the living and in archaeological skeletal record worldwide. Several earlier studies indicate that tooth ablation was relatively common in Taiwan as well as in the Chinese mainland beginning with the Neolithic Age continuing into the Iron Age in th...
Chapter
This chapter documents tooth ablation in early Neolithic skeletons (ca. 5000–4200 BP) from the Nankuanli East (NKLE) site in southwestern Taiwan and makes comparisons to Iron Age skeletons (1800–500 BP) from Shihsanhang (SSH) in northwest Taiwan and other groups from Taiwan and surrounding regions. The most common pattern of tooth ablation in the N...
Chapter
Intentional dental modification was observed in Pre-Latte and Latte Period bioarchaeological samples from western Micronesia. These purposeful cultural alterations include multilinear incisions and horizontal abrading of labial tooth surfaces in the Mariana Islands and tooth blackening in Palau. To understand the biological impacts of intentional m...
Poster
Full-text available
Intentional modification of human teeth during life, a cultural phenomenon that has been practiced worldwide for several millennia, includes the purposeful alteration of a tooth’s shape or color. Some tooth modifications observed in the bioarchaeological record are readily discerned as deliberate (e.g., intricate patterns carved into the enamel sur...
Chapter
Full-text available
Don Francisco de Paula Marin was born in Jerez, Spain, November 28, 1774. After deserting the Spanish Navy in Nootka in the American Northwest, Marin, known to Hawaiians as Manini, found his way to Hawaii in 1793 or 1794. Soon after his arrival in Hawaii, he became interpreter, friend, and advisor to King Kamehameha I, who was in the process of con...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine the health, diet, and lifestyle of the early inhabitants of Fiji using non-specific and specific indicators of health recorded in 42 adult and six subadult skeletons excavated at the Sigatoka Sand Dunes site, VL 16/1, on Viti Levu, one of the largest samples of prehistoric skeletons from Fiji. Because the dates of the Siga...
Article
Full-text available
Mainland Southeast Asia underwent dramatic changes after the mid-first millennium B.C.E., as its populations embraced new metallurgical and agricultural technologies. Southeast Asians transformed their physical and social environments further through their participation in international maritime trade networks. Early state formation characterized m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two multivariate statistical procedures, stepwise discriminant function analysis and Mahalanobis' distance, are applied to nine mandibular measurements recorded in Neolithic (Nankuanli East site) and Iron Age (Shihsanhang) Taiwanese and comparative series from East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific for assessing the population history of Taiwan an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this talk, I briefly discuss how I became involved with Ban Chiang and what we have learned, in the decades since, from our studies of the approximately 142 human skeletons (2100 B.C. - 200 A.D.) excavated in 1974 and 1975 by the Thai Fine Arts Department and University of Pennsylvania. Specifically, I discuss what we know about health, diet, li...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating stature from skeletonized remains is one of the essential parameters in the development of a biological profile. A new procedure for determining skeletal height (SKH) incorporating the vertical space height (VSH) from the anterior margin of the sacral promontory to the superior margins of the acetabulae for use in the anatomical method o...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two multivariate statistical procedures, stepwise discriminant function analysis and Mahalanobis’ distance, are applied to nine mandibular measurements recorded in Neolithic (Nankuanli East site) and Iron Age (Shihsanhang) Taiwanese and comparative series from East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific for assessing the population history of Taiwan an...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the health and lifestyle of some of Taiwan’s earliest Neolithic inhabitants using skeletons from the Nankuanli East site (c. 5000–4200 BP) from the Tainan Science Park in southwestern Taiwan. Two indicators of health, cribra orbitalia and adult stature, and evidence of dental staining are reported for the first time. Comparisons...
Article
The early inhabitants of the Mariana Islands encountered numerous challenges that likely affected their health, including island size, vulnerability to natural disasters, availability of resources, and shifts in climate. Other factors that can lead to differences in health include biological sex, social status, diet, and genetic factors (e.g. host...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two multivariate statistical procedures, stepwise discriminant function analysis and Mahalanobis’ distance, are applied to nine mandibular measurements recorded in Neolithic (Nankuanli East site) and Iron Age (Shihsanhang) Taiwanese and comparative series from East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific for assessing the population history of Taiwan an...
Article
Full-text available
The invention and development of next or second generation sequencing methods has resulted in a dramatic transformation of ancient DNA research and allowed shotgun sequencing of entire genomes from fossil specimens. However, although there are exceptions, most fossil specimens contain only low (~ 1% or less) percentages of endogenous DNA. The only...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, we examine the health and way of life of some of Taiwan's earliest Neolithic peoples through studies of skeletons from the Nankuanli East (NKLE) site. The NKLE site is one of three oldest sites (ca. 4500-5000 BP) identified during salvage excavations in 2002-2003 in the Tainan Science Park (TSP) in Shanhua District, Tainan City, in s...
Article
Full-text available
Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning heal...
Technical Report
Full-text available
At the request of the Hawai‘i Department of Education and Scientific Consultant Services, Inc. (SCS), I examined the skeletons of two individuals (SIHP# 50-10-69-29501) placed in a lava tube under, what is now, the Ka‘ū High and Pāhala Elementary School Campus in Pā‘au‘au 1 Ahupua‘a, Ka‘ū District, Island of Hawai‘i [TMK: (3) 9-6-005:008 por.]. The...
Data
A preliminary assessment of the health and disease of 23 (15 males and eight females) of the most complete and best preserved adult skeletons from the Shi San Hang site (ca 1800-500 B.P.), Taipei Prefecture, Taiwan, is made. Overall, the prehistoric inhabitants of Shi San Hang were relatively healthy. Adult mean statures indicate that the Shi San H...
Data
Archaeologists have long debated the origins and mode of dispersal of the immediate predecessors of all Polynesians and many populations in Island Melanesia. Such debates are inextricably linked to a chronological framework provided, in part, by radiocarbon dates. Human remains have the greatest potential for providing answers to many questions per...
Chapter
A brief summary of studies in physical anthropology and skeletal biology of the Pacific and Polynesia is presented. Commencing with early studies in physical anthropology in the mid-nineteenth century, which included studies of living as well as prehistoric inhabitants of the Pacific, this survey focuses mainly on two topics: What studies of skelet...
Article
Archaeologists have long debated the origins and mode of dispersal of the immediate predecessors of all Polynesians and many populations in Island Melanesia. Such debates are inextricably linked to a chronological framework provided, in part, by radiocarbon dates. Human remains have the greatest potential for providing answers to many questions per...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Disarticulated human skeletal remains discovered in December 2009 during archaeological monitoring as part of the Reconstruction of Route 201 with Drainage Improvements Projects on Tinian, CNMI, are described. The remains are likely from a prehistoric site located near the House of Taga that was impacted several times during the Historic Period. Al...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Human skeletal remains from eleven burials selected from a total of twenty-one burials of prehistoric (Chamorro) cultural origin discovered during archaeological monitoring associated with the Reconstruction of Route 202 with Drainage Improvements Project (Tinian Route 202 Project) on Tinian Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Island are d...