Michael Pfeiffer

Michael Pfeiffer
Bosch · Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence - Research

DI Dr.

About

69
Publications
42,666
Reads
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5,545
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
5240 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
Additional affiliations
May 2010 - October 2016
University of Zurich
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2003 - April 2010
Graz University of Technology
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Benchmarks have played a vital role in the advancement of visual object recognition and other fields of computer vision (LeCun et al., 1998; Deng et al., 2009;). The challenges posed by these standard datasets have helped identify and overcome the shortcomings of existing approaches, and have led to great advances of the state of the art. Even the...
Article
Full-text available
Deep spiking neural networks (SNNs) hold great potential for improving the latency and energy efficiency of deep neural networks through event-based computation. However, training such networks is difficult due to the non-differentiable nature of asynchronous spike events. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique, which treats the membrane pot...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication ove...
Article
Full-text available
The generation of the primate cortex is characterized by the diversity of cortical precursors and the complexity of their lineage relationships. Recent studies have reported miscellaneous precursor types based on observer classification of cell biology features including morphology, stemness and proliferative behavior. Here we use an unsupervised m...
Conference Paper
Recent advances have allowed Deep Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) to perform at the same accuracy levels as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), but have also highlighted a unique property of SNNs: whereas in ANNs, every neuron needs to update once before an output can be created, the computational effort in an SNN depends on the number of spikes crea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Event-based vision sensors encode local pixel-wise brightness changes in streams of events rather than image frames and yield sparse, energy-efficient encodings of scenes, in addition to low latency, high dynamic range, and lack of motion blur. Recent progress in object recognition from event-based sensors has come from conversions of deep neural n...
Preprint
Object type classification for automotive radar has greatly improved with recent deep learning (DL) solutions, however these developments have mostly focused on the classification accuracy. Before employing DL solutions in safety-critical applications, such as automated driving, an indispensable prerequisite is the accurate quantification of the cl...
Preprint
Deep learning (DL) has recently attracted increasing interest to improve object type classification for automotive radar.In addition to high accuracy, it is crucial for decision making in autonomous vehicles to evaluate the reliability of the predictions; however, decisions of DL networks are non-transparent. Current DL research has investigated ho...
Chapter
Event-based vision sensors encode local pixel-wise brightness changes in streams of events rather than full image frames and yield sparse, energy-efficient encodings of scenes, in addition to low latency, high dynamic range, and lack of motion blur. Recent progress in object recognition from event-based sensors has come from conversions of successf...
Preprint
Full-text available
Post-hoc calibration is a common approach for providing high-quality confidence estimates of deep neural network predictions. Recent work has shown that widely used scaling methods underestimate their calibration error, while alternative Histogram Binning (HB) methods with verifiable calibration performance often fail to preserve classification acc...
Article
Full-text available
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) are potentially highly efficient models for inference on fully parallel neuromorphic hardware, but existing training methods that convert conventional artificial neural networks (ANNs) into SNNs are unable to exploit these advantages. Although ANN-to-SNN conversion has achieved state-of-the-art accuracy for static ima...
Chapter
Reliably detecting anomalies in a given set of images is a task of high practical relevance for visual quality inspection, surveillance, or medical image analysis. Autoencoder neural networks learn to reconstruct normal images, and hence can classify those images as anomalies, where the reconstruction error exceeds some threshold. Here we analyze a...
Article
The operations used for neural network computation map favorably onto simple analog circuits, which outshine their digital counterparts in terms of compactness and efficiency. Nevertheless, such implementations have been largely supplanted by digital designs, partly because of device mismatch effects due to material and fabrication imperfections. W...
Article
Full-text available
Axonal morphology displays large variability and complexity, yet the canonical regularities of the cortex suggest that such wiring is based on the repeated initiation of a small set of genetically encoded rules. Extracting underlying developmental principles can hence shed light on what genetically encoded instructions must be available during cort...
Preprint
Full-text available
Uncertainty estimates help to identify ambiguous, novel, or anomalous inputs, but the reliable quantification of uncertainty has proven to be challenging for modern deep networks. To improve uncertainty estimation, we propose On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation or OMADA, which specifically attempts to generate the most challenging examples by...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike synaptic strength, intrinsic excitability is assumed to be a stable property of neurons. For example, learning of somatic conductances is generally not incorporated into computational models, and the discharge pattern of neurons in response to test stimuli is frequently used as a basis for phenotypic classification. However, it is increasing...
Article
Full-text available
We consider the problem of learning to detect anomalous time series from an unlabeled data set, possibly contaminated with anomalies in the training data. This scenario is important for applications in medicine, economics, or industrial quality control, in which labeling is difficult and requires expensive expert knowledge, and anomalous data is di...
Article
Unlike synaptic strength, intrinsic excitability is assumed to be a stable property of neurons. For example, learning of somatic conductances is generally not incorporated into computational models, and the discharge pattern of neurons in response to test stimuli is frequently used as a basis for phenotypic classification. However, it is increasing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scene understanding for automated driving requires accurate detection and classification of objects and other traffic participants. Automotive radar has shown great potential as a sensor for driver assistance systems due to its robustness to weather and light conditions, but reliable classification of object types in real time has proved to be very...
Preprint
Reliably detecting anomalies in a given set of images is a task of high practical relevance for visual quality inspection, surveillance, or medical image analysis. Autoencoder neural networks learn to reconstruct normal images, and hence can classify those images as anomalies, where the reconstruction error exceeds some threshold. Here we analyze a...
Article
Full-text available
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) are inspired by information processing in biology, where sparse and asynchronous binary signals are communicated and processed in a massively parallel fashion. SNNs on neuromorphic hardware exhibit favorable properties such as low power consumption, fast inference, and event-driven information processing. This makes t...
Conference Paper
Data-driven approaches to sequence-to-sequence modelling have been successfully applied to short text summarization of news articles. Such models are typically trained on input-summary pairs consisting of only a single or a few sentences, partially due to limited availability of multi-sentence training data. Here, we propose to use scientific artic...
Article
Data-driven approaches to sequence-to-sequence modelling have been successfully applied to short text summarization of news articles. Such models are typically trained on input-summary pairs consisting of only a single or a few sentences, partially due to limited availability of multi-sentence training data. Here, we propose to use scientific artic...
Article
Full-text available
Looking at a person's hands one often can tell what the person is going to do next, how his/her hands are moving and where they will be, because an actor's intentions shape his/her movement kinematics during action execution. Similarly, active systems with real-time constraints must not simply rely on passive video-segment classification, but they...
Article
Full-text available
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) can potentially offer an efficient way of doing inference because the neurons in the networks are sparsely activated and computations are event-driven. Previous work showed that simple continuous-valued deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can be converted into accurate spiking equivalents. These networks did not...
Article
Full-text available
Segmentation of histopathology sections is a necessary preprocessing step for digital pathology. Due to the large variability of biological tissue, machine learning techniques have shown superior performance over conventional image processing methods. Here we present our deep neural network-based approach for segmentation and classification of glan...
Article
Full-text available
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown great potential for numerous real-world machine learning applications, but performing inference in large CNNs in real-time remains a challenge. We have previously demonstrated that traditional CNNs can be converted into deep spiking neural networks (SNNs), which exhibit similar accuracy while red...
Conference Paper
Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have become the state-of-the-art choice for extracting patterns from temporal sequences. However, current RNN models are ill-suited to process irregularly sampled data triggered by events generated in continuous time by sensors or other neurons. Such data can occur, for example, when the input comes from novel event...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their advantages in terms of computational resources, latency, and power consumption, event-based implementations of neural networks have not been able to achieve the same performance figures as their equivalent state-of-the-art deep network models. We propose counter neurons as minimal spiking neuron models which only require addition and...
Article
Full-text available
Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have become the state-of-the-art choice for extracting patterns from temporal sequences. However, current RNN models are ill-suited to process irregularly sampled data triggered by events generated in continuous time by sensors or other neurons. Such data can occur, for example, when the input comes from novel event...
Conference Paper
Solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) is a notoriously expensive computational task. Recently, it has been proposed that efficient stochastic solvers can be obtained through appropriately configured spiking neural networks performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The possibility to run such models on massively parallel, low-po...
Conference Paper
Spike-based neuromorphic learning circuits typically represent their synaptic weights as voltages, and convert them into post-synaptic currents so that they can be integrated by their afferent silicon neuron. This voltage-to-current conversion is often done using a single transistor. This results in an exponential (for weak-inversion) or quadratic...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal adenocarcinoma originating in intestinal glandular structures is the most common form of colon cancer. In clinical practice, the morphology of intestinal glands, including architectural appearance and glandular formation, is used by pathologists to inform prognosis and plan the treatment of individual patients. However, achieving good in...
Article
Full-text available
Deterministic behavior can be modeled conveniently in the framework of finite automata. We present a recurrent neural network model based on biologically plausible circuit motifs that can learn deterministic transition models from given input sequences. Furthermore, we introduce simple structural constraints on the connectivity that are inspired by...
Article
Full-text available
Segmentation of histopathology sections is an ubiquitous requirement in digital pathology and due to the large variability of biological tissue, machine learning techniques have shown superior performance over standard image processing methods. As part of the GlaS@MICCAI2015 colon gland segmentation challenge, we present a learning-based algorithm...
Article
Full-text available
Solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) is a notoriously expensive computational task. Recently, it has been proposed that efficient stochastic solvers can be obtained via appropriately configured spiking neural networks performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The possibility to run such models on massively parallel, low-power,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deep neural networks have become the state-of-the-art approach for classification in machine learning, and Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are one of its most successful representatives. DBNs consist of many neuron-like units, which are connected only to neurons in neighboring layers. Larger DBNs have been shown to perform better, but scaling-up poses...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deterministic behavior can be modeled conveniently in the framework of finite automata. We present a recurrent neural network model based on biologically plausible circuit motifs that can learn deterministic transition models from given input sequences. Furthermore, we introduce simple structural constraints on the connectivity that are inspired by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deep neural networks such as Convolutional Net­ works (ConvNets) and Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) represent the state-of-the-art for many machine learning and computer vision classification problems. To overcome the large computational cost of deep networks, spiking deep networks have recently been pro­ posed, given the specialized hardware now avai...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the application of an event-based dynamic and active pixel vision sensor (DAVIS) for racing human vs. computer on a slot car track. The DAVIS is mounted in "eye-of-god" view. The DAVIS image frames are only used for setup and are subsequently turned off because they are not needed. The dynamic vision sensor (DVS) events are the...
Article
Full-text available
Bio-inspired asynchronous event-based vision sensors are currently introducing a paradigm shift in visual information processing. These new sensors rely on a stimulus-driven principle of light acquisition similar to biological retinas. They are event-driven and fully asynchronous, thereby reducing redundancy and encoding exact times of input signal...
Article
Full-text available
Many of the precise biological mechanisms of synaptic plasticity remain elusive, but simulations of neural networks have greatly enhanced our understanding of how specific global functions arise from the massively parallel computation of neurons and local Hebbian or spike-timing dependent plasticity rules. For simulating large portions of neural ti...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary Models of learning in artificial neural networks generally assume that the neurons and approximate network are given, and then learning tunes the synaptic weights. By contrast, we address the question of how an entire functional neuronal network containing many differentiated neurons and connections can develop from only a single pro...
Article
Full-text available
Winner-Take-All (WTA) networks are recurrently connected populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons that represent promising candidate microcircuits for implementing cortical computation. WTAs can perform powerful computations, ranging from signal-restoration to state-dependent processing. However, such networks require fine-tuned connectivit...
Article
We propose a real-time hand gesture interface based on combining a stereo pair of biologically inspired event-based dynamic vision sensor (DVS) silicon retinas with neuromorphic event-driven postprocessing. Compared with conventional vision or 3-D sensors, the use of DVSs, which output asynchronous and sparse events in response to motion, eliminate...
Article
Full-text available
Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) have recently shown impressive performance on a broad range of classification problems. Their generative properties allow better understanding of the performance, and provide a simpler solution for sensor fusion tasks. However, because of their inherent need for feedback and parallel update of large numbers of units, DBN...
Conference Paper
Spike-based neuromorphic electronic architectures offer an attractive solution for implementing compact efficient sensory-motor neural processing systems for robotic applications. Such systems typically comprise event-based sensors and multi-neuron chips that encode, transmit, and process signals using spikes. For robotic applications, the ability...
Article
Full-text available
The principles by which networks of neurons compute, and how spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) of synaptic weights generates and maintains their computational function, are unknown. Preceding work has shown that soft winner-take-all (WTA) circuits, where pyramidal neurons inhibit each other via interneurons, are a common motif of cortical mi...
Article
Full-text available
The task of an organism to extract information about the external environment from sensory signals is based entirely on the analysis of ongoing afferent spike activity provided by the sense organs. We investigate the processing of auditory stimuli by an acoustic interneuron of insects. In contrast to most previous work we do this by using stimuli a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This demonstration shows a natural gesture interface for console entertainment devices using as input a stereo pair of dynamic vision sensors. The event-based processing of the sparse sensor output allows fluid interaction at a laptop processor load of less than 3%.
Article
Full-text available
The task of an organism to extract information about the external environment from sensory signals is based entirely on the analysis of ongoing afferent spike activity provided by the sense organs. We investigate the processing of auditory stimuli by an acoustic interneuron of insects. In contrast to most previous work we do this by using stimuli a...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the diversity of animal signals requires knowledge of factors which may influence the different stages of communication, from the production of a signal by the sender up to the detection, identification and final decision-making in the receiver. We studied a Neotropical katydid (Docidocercus gigliotosi) which uses airborne sound for l...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the diversity of animal signals requires knowledge of factors which may influence the different stages of communication, from the production of a signal by the sender up to the detection, identification and final decision-making in the receiver. We studied a Neotropical katydid (Docidocercus gigliotosi) which uses airborne sound for l...