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Michael Aaron Nielsen

Michael Aaron Nielsen
Web of Open Science

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155
Publications
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Publications

Publications (155)
Preprint
Accurate soil mapping is critical for a highly-automated agricultural vehicle to successfully accomplish important tasks including seeding, ploughing, fertilising and controlled traffic, with limited human supervision, ensuring at the same time high safety standards. In this research, a multi-sensor ground mapping and characterisation approach is p...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the last few years, robotic technology has been increasingly employed in agriculture to develop intelligent vehicles that can improve productivity and competitiveness. Accurate and robust environmental perception is a critical requirement to address unsolved issues including safe interaction with field workers and animals, obstacle detection in...
Chapter
We revisit the framework of Commodity-based Cryptography presented by Beaver (STOC’97) with a focus on updating the framework to fit with modern multiparty computation (MPC) protocols. We study the possibility of replacing the well-known preprocessing model with a commodity-based setting, where a set of independent servers (some of which may be cor...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate soil mapping is critical for a highly-automated agricultural vehicle to successfully accomplish important tasks including seeding, ploughing, fertilising and controlled traffic, with limited human supervision, ensuring at the same time high safety standards. In this research, a multi-sensor ground mapping and characterisation approach is p...
Article
Full-text available
In eukaryotes, GTP-bound ARF GTPases promote intracellular membrane traffic by mediating the recruitment of coat proteins, which in turn sort cargo proteins into the forming membrane vesicles. Mammals employ several classes of ARF GTPases which are activated by different ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In contrast, flowering pla...
Data
ARF1 but not ARFA is essential for secretion, ER morphology and endocytosis. Expression of activation-impaired YFP-tagged (T31N; TN; green) variants of ARF1 and ARFA was induced with 20μM estradiol for 5-6h and trafficking markers (magenta) were analyzed in live-cell imaging (A-I; R-E1) or immunostaining (J-Q). (A, B) N-ST-YFP localized at the Golg...
Data
Numerical data related to Fig 2R. (XLSX)
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Numerical data related to Fig 6K. (XLSX)
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Numerical data related to S4L Fig. (XLSX)
Data
Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic ARF GTPase superfamily and Arabidopsis ARF-GEF family. (A) Genome sequences of 16 species representing the five major clades of Eukaryotes ([64]; see S2 Table) were phylogenetically analyzed for the presence of ARF, ARF-like (ARL), ARF-related protein (ARFRP) and SAR1 GTPases. Arabidopsis sequences (asterisks) we...
Data
Phenotypic analysis of ARFA-T31N,Q71L double mutant protein expression. (A-I) Subcellular localization of ARFA-TN-YFP (A), ARFA-QL-YFP (D) and ARFA-TN,QL-YFP (G) expressed from the Estradiol (Est)-inducible system and the endocytic tracer FM4-64 after 6h Estradiol treatment (B, E, H). ARFA-TN-YFP partially colocalizes with FM4-64 in a punctate patt...
Data
Interaction of ARF1, ARFA and ARFB with different ARF-GEFs and localization of ARFA-YFP in big5 mutant. (A) The α-ARF1 antiserum did not recognize ARFA and ARFB. Total protein from wild-type (Col-0) and the transgenic plants expressing ARF1-YFP, ARFA-YFP and ARFB-YFP were separated on SDS-PAGE followed by western blot using α-ARF1 (IB: α-ARF1) or α...
Data
Eukaryotic ARF GTPase family proteins, accession numbers and relatedness to Arabidopsis and human homologs. (XLSX)
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Numerical data related to Fig 2A. (XLSX)
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Numerical data related to Fig 7. (XLSX)
Data
ARF1 is crucial for embryo development whereas inactivation of ARFA or ARFB does not affect seedling development. (A-X) Activation-impaired (T31N; TN) or hydrolysis-impaired (Q71L; QL) variants of ARF1 and ARFA were expressed in the Gal4>>UAS two-component system from the RPS5a promoter. Embryos were analyzed 5 days (A-C, G-I, M-R, V-X) or 3 days (...
Data
Loss of ARFA and ARFB does not affect plant development. One RPS5A::amiR(ARFB) (B1a) expressing line was crossed into arfA (B1b B1c) double mutant background. (A) Flowers from two arfA (B1b B1c) double mutant plants (deriving from the same cross) that contained the artificial microRNA against ARFB (#2–1*, #2–2*), one arfA double mutant plant (#1) a...
Data
Numerical data related to Fig 2Q. (XLSX)
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Numerical data related to S4J Fig. (XLSX)
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Numerical data related to S9 Fig. (XLSX)
Data
Secretion of xyloglucan to the extracellular space is affected by interference with ARF1 function. Xyloglucan immuno-labelling in root cells, using ultrathin resin sections from high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and Lowicryl-embedded seedling root tips. Xyloglucan serves as a secretory marker. Ultrathin resin sections were double labelled wi...
Data
Expression of ARF1-Q71L and ARFA-Q71L interferes with secretion but not with ER morphology and endocytosis. Expression of hydrolysis-impaired, YFP-tagged (Q71L; QL; green) variants of ARF1 and ARFA was induced by 20μM estradiol for 5-6h and trafficking markers (magenta) were analyzed in live-cell imaging (A-G; P-C1) or immunostaining (H-O). (A-G) T...
Data
Expression of recombinant proteins and in vitro exchange assay. (A-B) Effect of catalytic SEC7 domain of BIG5 (SEC7BIG5) on nucleotide exchange rate of ARF1 (ARFA1c) isoforms (A) and ARFA (ARFB1b) isoforms (B). The increase in tryptophan fluorescence over time reflects a conformational change from GDP-bound state to GTPγS-bound state. The blue line...
Data
Evolutionary distribution of ARFs and ARLs within the Archaeplastida: Isoform numbers and sequence identity to Arabidopsis proteins. (DOCX)
Data
Mass spectrometric analysis of ARF-interacting ARF-GEFs. Sheet 1 contains the relevant candidates taken from the complete list of identification in sheet 2. Sheet 2 contains identified protein groups sorted by gene names and presented together with their iBAQ (intensity based absolute quantification: sum of peak intensities of all peptides matching...
Data
Numerical data related to Fig 2S. (XLSX)
Data
Numerical data related to S1C Fig. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geocoded individual-level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic com...
Conference Paper
We study the complexity of securely evaluating an arithmetic circuit over a finite field \(\mathbb {F}\) in the setting of secure two-party computation with semi-honest adversaries. In all existing protocols, the number of arithmetic operations per multiplication gate grows either linearly with \(\log |\mathbb {F}|\) or polylogarithmically with the...
Conference Paper
We propose a new protocol, nicknamed TinyTable, for maliciously secure 2-party computation in the preprocessing model. One version of the protocol is useful in practice and allows, for instance, secure AES encryption with latency about 1 ms and amortized time about 0.5 \(\upmu \)s per AES block on a fast cloud set-up. Another version is interesting...
Article
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if a protein-enriched menu in conjunction with individualized dietary counseling would increase energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients at nutrition risk compared with providing the protein-enriched menu as a stand-alone intervention. Method: Data from medical and surgical hospitali...
Conference Paper
We propose a new zero-knowledge protocol applicable to additively homomorphic functions that map integer vectors to an Abelian group. The protocol demonstrates knowledge of a short preimage and achieves amortised efficiency comparable to the approach of Cramer and Damgård from Crypto 2010, but gives a much tighter bound on what we can extract from...
Article
Full-text available
In the last few years, robotic technology has been increasingly employed in agriculture to develop intelligent vehicles that can improve productivity and competitiveness. Accurate and robust environmental perception is a critical requirement to address unsolved issues including safe interaction with field workers and animals, obstacle detection in...
Conference Paper
Floating Wetland Treatment Systems (FWTS) have the potential to provide significantly greater stormwater pollution removal rates per unit area compared to constructed wetlands or other treatment systems. As FWTS do not require additional earthworks or land uptake, they can also offer this increased pollution removal performance at significantly low...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen is often formed in sulfidic environments where interference from hydrogen sulfide has prevented its analysis by amperometric hydrogen microsensors. Hydrogen microsensors were made insensitive to hydrogen sulfide by placing a sulfide trap (guard) containing solutions of heavy metal ions, sulfide-oxidizing ferricyanide, or alkaline chemicals...
Article
The strategic scale of urban planning and management is concerned with the planning and monitoring of general land use in a city, such as different types of residential, industrial and commercial areas. Because of the poor results of standard per-pixel-based classification methods in urban areas, visual interpretation of remote sensing data is ofte...
Article
Full-text available
We used a novel amperometric microsensor for measuring hydrogen gas production and consumption at high spatio-temporal resolution in cyanobacterial biofilms and mats dominated by non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes and Oscillatoria spp.). The new microsensor is based on the use of an organic electrolyte and a stab...
Patent
Full-text available
Method for classifying a two- or higher dimensional image, where each pixel is associated with M property measures, includes identifying firstly a certain predetermined, variable geometric structure, the extension of which in at least two of the N dimensions in the dataset is determined in relation to a single element in the dataset and by at least...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose ana...
Conference Paper
Hydrogen is a key intermediate in anaerobic degradation of organic matter, but it has been difficult to analyze its microscale distribution in microbial communities due to interferences from H2S and O2 on the commercially available H2 sensors. We have developed various versions of microsensors that exhibit no or little interference from H2S and O2...
Article
Since the 1980s, there has been an increase in the spruce bark beetle population in the Bavarian Forest National Park in southeastern Germany. There is a need for accurate and time-effective methods for monitoring the outbreak, because manual interpretation of image data is time-consuming and expensive. In this article, the window independent conte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Floating Wetland Treatments have the potential to provide significantly greater stormwater pollution removal rates per unit area compared to constructed wetlands or other treatment systems. As FWTs do not require additional earthworks or land uptake, they can also offer this increased pollution removal performance at significantly lower costs. In a...
Article
Information about the spatial and structural properties as well as different indicators of social and economic functions cannot be easily extracted from remote-sensing data in an urban milieu. This paper focuses on the extraction of information that is relevant to the strategic spatial level of urban planning management, i.e., more general land-use...
Patent
Full-text available
The method is characterized in that the method comprises the steps that a computer or several interconnected computers are caused to a) store, in the form of a pixel set in which set each pixel is associated with image information in at least one channel for light intensity, a first image to be classified onto a digital storage medium; b) carry out...
Article
Arthrodesis is a common procedure indicated for surgical treatment of end-stage degenerative joint disease of the foot and ankle. Many published studies have reviewed the union rate, focusing on specific technique or fixation. However, studies reporting on the average period required to achieve fusion, irrespective of the type of fixation or surgic...
Article
The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is seldom accounted for in economic geography cluster studies. This issue is particularly problematic as clusters play such a central role in regional development policy. In this study, we tested for the appearance of the MAUP when examining workplace category clusters over three different administrative sca...
Article
Full-text available
ATAF1, an Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor, plays important roles in plant adaptation to environmental stress and development. To search for ATAF1 target genes, we used protein binding microarrays and chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP). This identified T[A,C,G]CGT[A,G] and TT[A,C,G]CGT as ATAF1 consensus binding sequences. Co-express...
Patent
Method for classifying a two- or higher dimensional image, where each pixel is associated with M property measures, includes identifying firstly a certain predetermined, variable geometric structure, the extension of which in at least two of the N dimensions in the dataset is determined in relation to a single element in the dataset and by at least...
Data
Full-text available
Supplementary Fig. S1. Box plot of enrichment score (ES) distribution for all 8-mers containing the specific 6-mer identified as relevant for ATAF1. In each box plot, the central bar indicates the median, the edges of the box indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles. By “Others”, we define 6-mers not containing any relevant sequence.
Data
Full-text available
Supplementary Fig. S2. Plants over-expressing ATAF1 display decreased vegetative growth and delayed flowering compared to wild-type Col-0 plants. (A) 10-weeks old short-day grown ATAF1 over-expressing plants (Ox) are significantly smaller than wild-type and ataf1–2 mutant plants (** p < 0.01; n = 10). (B) ATAF1 over-expressing plants display delaye...
Data
Full-text available
Supplementary Fig. S3. ATAF1 and ATAF2 heterodimerize in yeast. Fusion proteins of Gal4-(DBD)–ATAF1(1–165), Gal4-(AD)–ATAF2(1–283), Gal4-(AD)–ATAF2(1–163), and empty Gal4-(DBD) were co-transformed, expressed in yeast, and screened after 7 days for transactivation activity of HIS3 and ADE2 reporter genes. Experiments were repeated two times and repr...
Article
Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Feder...
Article
A series of energy optimization options (EOOs) were identified for the Ejby Molle WWTP through the analysis of historical operational data, the use of an advanced mass/energy balance simulation tool, and the adoption of a collaborative workshop-based approach in identifying and evaluating alternatives. This biological nutrient removal facility is l...
Article
Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate int...
Article
Satellite images have enormous potential for qualitative land use analysis. This paper presents empirical results that demonstrate how normally invisible dimensions produced by land use can be identified by enriching satellite data with qualitative information from field studies.Land use can be defined as the intentional use of a specific piece of...
Patent
The method is characterised in that the method comprises the steps that a computer or several interconnected computers are caused to a) store, in the form of a pixel set in which set each pixel is associated with image information in at least one channel for light intensity, a first image to be classified onto a digital storage medium; b) carry out...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autonomous vehicles are being increasingly adopted in agriculture to improve productivity and efficiency. For an autonomous agricultural vehicle to operate safely, environment perception and interpretation capabilities are fundamental requirements. The Ambient Awareness for Autonomous Agricultural Vehicles (QUAD-AV) project explores a multi-sensory...
Article
In this study, a novel technology was developed to achieve efficient partial nitrification at moderately low temperature, which would save the aeration cost and have the capacity to treat a wide range of ammonium-rich wastewaters with low chemical oxygen demand-to-nitrogen (COD:N) ratios. At pH of 7.1–7.4 and a sludge retention time (SRT) of greate...
Conference Paper
Per-pixel based methods for spectral classification of remote-sensed images in urban areas are problematic because of the rather high spectral variability in urban materials and the fact that a specific spectral signature might appear in a number of different contexts in the urban landscape. It is by and large the specific contextual arrangement th...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is closely related to the problem of finding minimal length paths in a particular curved geometry [Nielsen et al, Science 311, 1133-1135 (2006)]. This paper investigates many of the basic geometric objects associated to this space, including the Levi-Civita connection, the geodesic e...
Article
One of the most cited books in physics of all time, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information remains the best textbook in this exciting field of science. This 10th anniversary edition includes an introduction from the authors setting the work in context. This comprehensive textbook describes such remarkable effects as fast quantum algorithms, qu...
Article
The 'Polymath Project' proved that many minds can work together to solve difficult mathematical problems. Timothy Gowers and Michael Nielsen reflect on the lessons learned for open-source science.
Article
The spatial distributions and activities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) were investigated for a novel laboratory-scale sequencing batch pumped-flow biofilm reactor (PFBR) system that was operated for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The PFBR comprised of two 16.5l tanks (Reactors 1 and 2)...
Article
In 1972, P.W.Anderson suggested that `More is Different', meaning that complex physical systems may exhibit behavior that cannot be understood only in terms of the laws governing their microscopic constituents. We strengthen this claim by proving that many macroscopic observable properties of a simple class of physical systems (the infinite periodi...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of the nitrogen intermediates N2O and NO 2- in estuarine sediments were studied along a salinity gradient in the eutrophied Weser Estuary (Germany) using microsensors for N 2O and NO2-, NOx-, and O2. During dark incubations in the laboratory of sediment samples from a freshwater site, a brackish water site with fluctuating salinity, an...
Conference Paper
Satellite images holds large possibilities to be used in analysis of land use, but still the use of this source to analyse social economic dimensions related to land use are restricted. By enriching data with qualitative information from field work and by focusing on local spatial dimension this paper presents empirical results which show how norma...
Chapter
This chapter begins with the foundation of gesture interfaces and how and where they are commonly used, followed by basic theory that will help to select and design a gesture interface and related advice and warnings. Gestures originate from natural interaction between people. They consist of movements of the body and face as nonverbal communicatio...
Article
We explicitly compute the optimal cost for a class of example problems in geometric quantum control. These problems are defined by a Cartan decomposition of $su(2^n)$ into orthogonal subspaces $\mathfrak{l}$ and $\mathfrak{p}$ such that $[\mathfrak{l},\mathfrak{l}] \subseteq \mathfrak{p}, [\mathfrak{p},\mathfrak{l}] = \mathfrak{p}, [\mathfrak{p},\m...
Article
Who is the blog written by? Michael Nielsen is a theoretical physicist who, up until June, was based at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. He is a pioneer of quantum computation, contributing significantly to the theory of entangled quantum states. Last year, however, he announced a major change in the focus of his...
Article
RF pulsewidth modulation (PWM) has been proposed as an efficiency improving technique for power amplifiers (PAs) handling varying envelope signals. The core idea is to modulate the varying envelope into a square-wave signal such that the width of each pulse is varied according to the envelope, and any phase information is contained in the timing of...
Article
Full-text available
The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate vesicle formation by activating ARF GTPases on speci...
Article
This brief presents a method of deploying RF switch-mode power amplification for varying envelope signals. Thereby the power amplifier can be operated as a switch with a high power efficiency as the result. The key idea is to transmit either a full RF period or none at all in such a way that the correct modulated RF signal is obtained after filteri...
Article
Operator quantum error correction is a technique for robustly storing quantum information in the presence of noise. It generalizes the standard theory of quantum error correction, and provides a unified framework for topics such as quantum error correction, decoherence-free subspaces, and noiseless subsystems. This paper develops (a) easily applied...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces a new concept within shadow segmentation for usage in shadow removal and augmentation through construction of a multiplicity alpha overlay shadow model. Previously, an image was considered to consist of shadow and non-shadow regions. This makes it difficult to seamlessly remove shadows and insert augmented shadows that overlap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new concept within shadow seg- mentation for usage in shadow removal and augmentation through con- struction of an alpha overlay shadow model. Previously, an image was considered to consist of shadow and non-shadow regions. We construct a model that accounts for sunlit, umbra and penumbra regions. The model is based on theor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the design of a RF pulse width modulator (RF-PWM) for switched-mode power amplification of varying envelope signals. The general idea is to modulate the varying envelope signal using squarewave signals with varying width and subsequently drive a class D-type power amplifier. The linearity in the modulator is ensured by a novel c...
Article
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins are small GTPases that undergo a GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange cycle. ARF proteins are important regulators of cellular trafficking. Knowledge of plant ARF proteins and their regulators is emerging from genetic and cellular studies. The Arabidopsis BIG2 ARF–guanine nucleotide exchange factor (...
Article
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins are small GTPases that undergo a GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange cycle. ARF proteins are important regulators of cellular trafficking. Knowledge of plant ARF proteins and their regulators is emerging from genetic and cellular studies. The Arabidopsis BIG2 ARF–guanine nucleotide exchange factor (...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a generalization of the cluster-state model of quantum computation to continuous-variable systems, along with a proposal for an optical implementation using squeezed-light sources, linear optics, and homodyne detection. For universal quantum computation, a nonlinear element is required. This can be satisfied by adding to the toolbox any...
Article
Full-text available
We prove upper and lower bounds relating the quantum gate complexity of a unitary operation, U, to the optimal control cost associated to the synthesis of U. These bounds apply for any optimal control problem, and can be used to show that the quantum gate complexity is essentially equivalent to the optimal control cost for a wide range of problems,...
Article
Central activation failure and muscular atrophy are common after knee joint injury. Thus, exercises that aim to stimulate muscular hypertrophy and increase neural drive to the muscle fibers should be used during rehabilitation. This study examined the level of knee joint neuromuscular activation during 4 conventional therapeutic exercises (quadrice...
Article
Full-text available
Quantum computers hold great promise for solving interesting computational problems, but it remains a challenge to find efficient quantum circuits that can perform these complicated tasks. Here we show that finding optimal quantum circuits is essentially equivalent to finding the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry. By rec...
Article
This article is a short introduction to and review of the cluster-state model of quantum computation, in which coherent quantum information processing is accomplished via a sequence of single-qubit measurements applied to a fixed quantum state known as a cluster state. We also discuss a few novel properties of the model, including a proof that the...
Article
In this Letter we numerically investigate the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computing. We allow both photon loss noise and depolarizing noise (as a general proxy for all local noise), and obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable opt...