Michael Minkov

Michael Minkov
Varna University of Management · No department

About

51
Publications
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6,330
Citations
Citations since 2016
22 Research Items
3984 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies have shown that national cultural traits, such as collectivism–individualism and tightness–looseness, are associated with COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. However, although East Asian countries have outperformed other countries in containing COVID-19 infections and lowering mortality in the first pandemic waves, n...
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Objectives This three-level meta-analysis aimed at examining the correlation between self-compassion and depression using culturally diverse samples. We also analyzed self-compassion into its sub-components and checked the cross-cultural consistency of the findings.Methods We reviewed 271 articles that measured self-compassion according to Neff’s c...
Article
Purpose It is often believed that the type of religion that a group of people follow (Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.) can account for significant and important cultural differences, with implications for business ethics, corporate and social responsibility, and other business-related variables. The alternative...
Article
Decades ago, Hofstede claimed that dimensions of culture are entirely subjective creations. In this study, we claim that some measures of culture have an objective element. We focus on Hofstede's classic model, reduced to just two dimensions: individualism-collectivism (IDV-COLL) and long-term orientation, renamed “flexibility-monumentalism” (FLX-M...
Article
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Etic psychometric tools work less well in non-Western than in Western cultures, whereas data collected online in the former societies tend to be of superior quality to those from face-to-face interviews. This represents a challenge to the study of the universality of models of personality and other constructs. If one wishes to uncover the true stru...
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Full-text available
Background Obesity rates have been rising steeply across the globe in recent decades, posing a major threat to global human health. Despite this almost universal increase, differences between countries remain striking, even among equally developed societies. Methods We test if two cultural dimensions derived from a revised Hofstede model of cultur...
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There is a need for a simple and graspable model of culture covering the main cultural differences across modern nations. A two-dimensional model might be a reasonable choice. We analyzed data from the World Values Survey and the European Values Study to test whether different two-dimensional models are factor rotations of each other. We took into...
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Nations have been questioned as meaningful units for analyzing culture due to their allegedly limited variance-capturing power and large internal heterogeneity. Against this skepticism, we argue that culture is by definition a collective phenomenon and focusing on individual differences contradicts the very concept of culture. Through the “miracle...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nations have been questioned as meaningful units for analyzing culture due to their limited variance-capturing power and large internal heterogeneity. Against this skepticism, we argue that culture is by definition a collective phenomenon and focusing on individual differences contradicts the very concept of culture. Through the “miracle of aggrega...
Article
The nation-building literature of the early 1960s argued that decolonized countries need to overcome pre-colonial ethnic identities and generate national cultures. Africa is the most critical test case of this aspect of modernization theory as it has by far the largest ethnolinguistic fractionalization. We use data from the Afrobarometer to compare...
Article
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Numerous studies have reported a positive individual-level association between happiness and two psychologically distinct states of mind: religious faith and subjective freedom (a feeling of life control). Although the strength of these relationships varies across countries, no general pattern driving this variation has been shown so far. After sur...
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Few short Big Five instruments have been tested for invariance across samples from a large number of countries. To fill this gap, we measured the Big Five personality traits in probability samples (n > 1000 in each country) from Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Tha...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the replicability of Hofstede’s value-based dimensions – masculinity–femininity (MAS–FEM) and individualism–collectivism (IDV–COLL) – in the field of consumer behavior, and to compare cultural prioritizations with respect to disposable income budgets across the world. Design/methodology/approach The a...
Article
Studies of happiness or subjective well-being (SWB) employ a variety of conceptualizations and item formats. Some authorities prefer to focus on the cognitive or evaluative component of SWB in studies of national happiness, and consider the affective component a lesser priority. However, we show that the latter component has unique and important pr...
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There are few large-scale studies that compare how parents socialize children across the globe and the implications of the different types of socialization. To fill this gap, the authors used data from a new study across 52,300 probabilistically selected respondents from 54 countries. They were asked what advice they would give to their children to...
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Hofstede’s “long-term orientation” (LTO) may be one of the most important dimensions of national culture, as it highlights differences on a continuum from East Asia to Africa and Latin America, strongly associated with differences in educational achievement. However, LTO’s structure lacks theoretical coherence. We show that a statistically similar,...
Article
Response style - the tendency to provide uniform answers to questionnaire items regardless of item content - is seen as a challenge in psychology and sociology studies. It is an especially serious issue in cross-cultural research as different cultures exhibit different response styles, compromising construct comparability. Response styles have been...
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National differences in subjective well-being (SWB) have been attributed to socioeconomic, climatic, and genetic factors. We focus on one particular facet of SWB—happiness or positive affect—measured by the nationally representative World Values Survey (WVS). We find that national percentages of very happy people across the three latest WVS waves (...
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Proponents of life history strategy (LHS) theory propose that it is an explanation of intra-societal non-political violence, such as homicide and assault. Criminologists usually prefer a different explanation: variation in national violent crime rates is a function of differences in social–structural characteristics, such as absolute or relative po...
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This study finds that road death tolls, occupational fatality rates, and airline safety are strongly correlated across 92 countries, yielding a common factor: national societal accident proneness. It is independently predicted by national differences in transparency versus corruption and differences in education. This finding has important practica...
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Purpose – Cross-national studies of employees’ values and beliefs have extracted dimensions of national culture from diverse samples of employees. The purpose of this paper is to find out if this sample diversity impacts the nature of the extracted dimensions: is a given dimension replicable across diverse samples (such as managers vs skilled worke...
Article
The existence of a genetic factor behind group-level differences in life history strategy (LHS) has long been disputed. A number of recent studies suggest that some polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene AR, the dopamine receptor gene DRD4, and the 5-HTTLPR VNTR of the serotonin transporter gene are associated with risk acceptance versus prude...
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The World Values Survey allows a comparison of the relative contribution of nations versus global religions on the cultural values of nations and in-country religious groups. We analyzed the answers to 16 questions from 2005–2008 about personal values and values for children at the level of 121 in-country religious groups from 56 nations. We found...
Article
A number of studies have used national behavior-related statistics to propose measures of a so-called “K factor”, or societal “hypometropia”. The reported variants of this dimension reflect societal differences in mating strategies, risk-acceptance, and aspects of time orientation, such as delay of gratification. Until now, no clear analog to this...
Article
Despite the great interest in Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture, some of them have not been replicated with nationally representative samples. In this study, we use 2010 European Social Survey data for 25 European countries and Israel and obtain a close replication of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance (r = 0.81, p < 0.001, n = 17) with stron...
Article
In this article, we ask ‘is there an Asian management culture?’. This question is of significant practical and methodological relevance. Our conclusion, based on a wide review of the literature at hand, is quite unequivocal: we argue that there is no one single Asian management culture that distinguishes the Asian countries from those of the rest o...
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We offer a critical overview of studies associating genetic differences in the 5-HTTLPR VNTR in the serotonin-transporter gene with societal differences. We also highlight recent findings from individual-level research on 5-HTTLPR generating new hypotheses concerning the effect of genes on culture. We provide an expanded national index reflecting 5...
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The cross-cultural literature contains many examples of cultural maps of the world, showing proximities and distances between multiple countries in a two-dimensional cultural space. As a rule, these maps are drawn on the basis of results of paper-and-pencil studies: values, beliefs, and other self-reports. Our map represents an innovation as it is...
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Cultural phenomena are usually viewed as possessing some temporal stability. Measured properly, the dimensions that they yield have convincing predictive properties and create clear geographic or economic clusters of countries. Using these criteria, we assess the nature of 10 World Values Survey items that address societal norms. We find that they...
Article
The use of nations as units of analysis in cross-cultural studies is a controversial approach as nations may not be culturally homogeneous. However, a recent study by Minkov and Hofstede found that African, Asian, Latin American, and Anglo in-country regions tended to form homogeneous and distinct national clusters on World Values Survey (WVS) item...
Article
Although many cross-cultural studies have used nations as the units of analysis, the concept of national culture has been challenged on various grounds. One objection is that there may be significant cultural diversity within some countries and similarities across national borders, compromising the concept of national culture. This objection has li...
Article
There is an ongoing controversy about what Project GLOBE's cultural dimensions measure. GLOBE's work has been criticized by various authors, most recently by McCrae and associates, who view some of GLOBE's scales as unfounded national stereotypes. Further, GLOBE has disregarded the difference between personal values and prescribed norms for others....
Article
Based on research with Bond’s Chinese Values Survey (CVS) across 23 countries, Hofstede added a fifth dimension, Long- versus Short-Term Orientation (LTO), to his earlier four IBM-based dimensions of national cultures. The authors attempted to replicate this dimension by analyzing World Values Survey (WVS) items that seemed to capture the concept o...
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Purpose The purpose of the paper is to provide a mature reflection upon the work of Hofstede by tracking various subtleties in the evolution of his thought and dispelling prevalent misconceptions. Design/methodology/approach The goal of the paper is achieved by analyzing Hofstede's output from 1970 to the present day in parallel with contemporary...
Article
The goal of this study is to examine the most salient changes in consumer behavior patterns in Bulgaria during the ongoing economic crisis and provide an explanation of those patterns from a psychological and cultural perspective.
Article
Long- versus short-term orientation, a national value dimension originally found by Bond among students in 23 countries, became Hofstede's (19915. Hofstede , G. 1991 . Cultures and organizations: software of the mind , London : McGraw-Hill . View all references) fifth dimension of national cultures. Recent analyses by Minkov (200712. Minkov , M. 20...
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Voracek (2004, 2006a, 2006b, 2009) reported that cognitive ability predicts national suicide rates, even after plausible controls. Yet, national IQs were not a significant predictor of suicide rates when regressed with indices of national religiousness and perceptions of personal health.
Article
Kultur er de grundfæstede og ofte ubevidste værdier vi er vokset op med. Det er de kulturelle forskelle der adskiller os fra de andre. Bogen afdækker de værdier, der kendetegner de forskellige kulturer - såvel de nationale og regionale som de organisatoriske. Forfatterne redegør for disse værdier via kulturelle dimensioner som forholdet mellem magt...
Article
La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professionnels en management interculturel, sociologie des...
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This study shows that nations whose members are less likely to dissociate pleasant and unpleasant emotions (an established measure of individual-level dialecticism) are also less likely to exhibit strong and polarized quality judgments (very good vs. very bad) in life appraisals or in assessments of current domestic social issues as measured by the...
Article
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The relationship between cultural values and economic growth has been the subject of much controversy. A few studies have shown statistical correlations between measurements of national cultural values and previous growth but this is a dubious approach to the question of whether culture is the cause or the result of such growth. This study uses Wor...
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This study analyzes national differences in various facets of subjective well-being as measured by the World Values Survey, including the most recent wave (2005-2007), across a sample of 97 nations. The main predictor of the cognitive facet (life satisfaction) is a perception of life control, followed by wealth. The hedonic facet (happiness) is exp...
Article
This article presents evidence that national murder rates are not well explained as a function of socioeconomic inequality; risk-taking reproductive competition (RTRC) provides a better explanation. RTRC is a single nation-level dimension, measurable through national road death tolls, adolescent fertility rates, and Gini coefficients (thus, socioec...
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Discussions of the causes and consequences of the crisis (see for example: Mandel, 2008; Bogoslaw, 2009; Damast and Macsai, 2008) conspicuously omit the issue of national culture. On the other hand, marketing theory (Robertson, Zielinski and Ward, 1984; Nicosia, 1964; Blagoev, 2003, to mention only a few sources) has claimed for decades that consum...
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This article uses as a starting point S. Heine's hypothesis that higher self-enhancement correlates with self-stability and the combination of the two may predict lower interest in some types of self-improvement. This hypothesis is tested at the ecological level. World Values Survey items are used to demonstrate that there exists a bipolar cultural...

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