Michael P Milham

Michael P Milham
Child Mind Institute

MD, PhD

About

391
Publications
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42,138
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Publications

Publications (391)
Preprint
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to differences in brain structure and psychiatric risk across the lifespan. Despite many neuropsychiatric disorders emerging in childhood, few studies have examined the influence of SES on brain aging and psychopathology in youth. We re-analyzed relative brain age (RBA) data from the Healthy Brain Network...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Although studies of adults show that pre-existing mental disorders increase risk for COVID-19 infection and severity, there is limited information about this association among youth. Mental disorders in general as well as specific types of disorders may influence their ability to comply with risk-mitigation strategies to reduce COVID-19...
Article
The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) is a specification accompanied by a software ecosystem that was designed to create reproducible and automated workflows for processing neuroimaging data. BIDS Apps flexibly build workflows based on the metadata detected in a dataset. However, even BIDS valid metadata can include incorrect values or omissions...
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Full-text available
Most psychiatric disorders are chronic, associated with high levels of disability and distress, and present during pediatric development. Scientific innovation increasingly allows researchers to probe brain-behavior relationships in the developing human. As a result, ambitions to (1) establish normative pediatric brain development trajectories akin...
Article
Full-text available
The brain is organized into networks at multiple resolutions, or scales, yet studies of functional network development typically focus on a single scale. Here, we derive personalized functional networks across 29 scales in a large sample of youths (n = 693, ages 8–23 years) to identify multi-scale patterns of network re-organization related to neur...
Preprint
The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) is a specification accompanied by a software ecosystem that was designed to create reproducible and automated workflows for processing neuroimaging data. BIDS Apps flexibly build workflows based on the metadata detected in a dataset. However, even BIDS valid metadata can include incorrect values or omissions...
Preprint
Importance Heterogeneous mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic are recognized in the general population, but it has not been systematically assessed in youth with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), including autism spectrum (ASD). Objective Identify subgroups of youth with ASD/NDD based on the pandemic impact on symptoms and service...
Article
Early psychosocial adversities exist at many levels, including caregiving-related, extrafamilial, and sociodemographic, which despite their high interrelatedness may have unique impacts on development. In this paper, we focus on caregiving-related early adversities (crEAs) and parse the heterogeneity of crEAs via data reduction techniques that iden...
Preprint
Characterizing individual variations is central to interpreting individual differences in neuroscience and clinical studies. While the field has examined multifaceted individual differences in brain functional organization, it is only in recent years that neuroimaging researchers have begun to place a priority on its quantification and optimization...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety disorders (ANX) are common neurodevelopmental conditions with several overlapping symptoms. Notably, many children and adolescents with ASD also have an ANX diagnosis, suggesting shared pathological mechanisms. Here, we leveraged structural imaging and phenotypic data from 112 youth (33 ASD, 37 ANX, 42 typ...
Article
Developmental cognitive neuroscience is being pulled in new directions by network science and big data. Brain imaging [e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional connectivity MRI], analytical advances (e.g., graph theory, machine learning), and access to large computing resources have empowered us to collect and process neurobeh...
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When fields lack consensus standards and ground truths for their analytic methods, reproducibility tends to be more of an ideal than a reality. Such has been the case for functional neuroimaging, where there exists a sprawling space of tools from which scientists can construct processing pipelines and draw interpretations. We provide a critical eva...
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Connectomics-the study of brain networks-provides a unique and valuable opportunity to study the brain. However, research in human connectomics, accomplished via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is a resource-intensive practice: typical analysis routines require impactful decision making and significant computational capabilities. Mitigating these...
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Characterization of the interwoven complexities of early cortical thickness development has been an ongoing undertaking in neuroscience research. Longitudinal studies of Non-Human Primates (NHP) offer unique advantages to categorizing the diverse patterns of cortical growth trajectories. Here, we used latent growth models to characterize the trajec...
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Full-text available
Pediatric brain imaging holds significant promise for understanding neurodevelopment. However, the requirement to remain still inside a noisy, enclosed scanner remains a challenge. Verbal or visual descriptions of the process, and/or practice in MRI simulators are the norm in preparing children. Yet, the factors predictive of successfully obtaining...
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Full-text available
A notable characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is co-occurring deficits in low-level sensory processing and high-order social interaction. While there is evidence indicating detrimental cascading effects of sensory anomalies on the high-order cognitive functions in ASD, the exact pathological mechanism underlying their atypical function...
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Full-text available
The brain is organized into networks at multiple resolutions, or scales, yet studies of functional network development typically focus on a single scale. Here, we derived personalized functional networks across 29 scales in a large sample of youths (n=693, ages 8-23 years) to identify multi-scale patterns of network re-organization related to neuro...
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Full-text available
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is the primary method for noninvasively studying the organization of white matter in the human brain. Here we introduce QSIPrep, an integrative software platform for the processing of diffusion images that is compatible with nearly all dMRI sampling schemes. Drawing on a diverse set of software s...
Article
The human brain undergoes a prolonged period of cortical development that spans multiple decades. During childhood and adolescence, cortical development progresses from lower-order, primary and unimodal cortices with sensory and motor functions to higher-order, transmodal association cortices subserving executive, socioemotional, and mentalizing fu...
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Full-text available
Structural and functional neuroimaging have been widely used to track and predict demographic and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes. However, it is challenging to establish and compare the respective weights and contributions of brain structure and function in prediction studies. The present study aimed to directly investigate the re...
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Full-text available
The pathophysiology of autism has been suggested to involve a combination of both macroscale connectome miswiring and microcircuit anomalies. Here, we combine connectome-wide manifold learning with biophysical simulation models to understand associations between global network perturbations and microcircuit dysfunctions in autism. We studied neuroi...
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Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have significantly enhanced our understanding of the striatal system of both humans and non-human primates (NHP) over the last few decades. However, its circuit-level functional anatomy remains poorly understood, partly because in-vivo fMRI cannot directly perturb a brain system and map its c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most psychiatric disorders are chronic, associated with high levels of disability and distress, and present during pediatric development. Scientific innovation increasingly allows researchers to probe brain-behavior relationships in the developing human. As a result, ambitions to (1) establish normative pediatric brain development trajectories akin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Marked sex differences in autism prevalence accentuate the need to understand the role of biological sex-related factors in autism. Efforts to unravel sex differences in the brain organization of autism have, however, been challenged by the limited availability of female data. Methods: We addressed this gap by using a large sample of...
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Full-text available
Brain extraction (a.k.a. skull stripping) is a fundamental step in the neuroimaging pipeline as it can affect the accuracy of downstream preprocess such as image registration, tissue classification, etc. Most brain extraction tools have been designed for and applied to human data and are often challenged by non-human primates (NHP) data. Amongst re...
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Full-text available
Patterns of functional connectivity are unique at the individual level, enabling test-retest matching algorithms to identify a subject from among a group using only their functional connectome. Recent findings show that accuracies of these algorithms in children increase with age. Relatedly, the persistence of functional connectivity (FC) patterns...
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Full-text available
Compelling evidence suggests the need for more data per individual to reliably map the functional organization of the human connectome. As the notion that ‘more data is better’ emerges as a golden rule for functional connectomics, researchers find themselves grappling with the challenges of how to obtain the desired amounts of data per participant...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pediatric brain imaging holds significant promise for understanding neurodevelopment. However, the requirement to remain still inside a noisy, enclosed scanner remains a challenge. Verbal or visual descriptions of the process, and/or practice in MRI simulators are the norm in preparing children. Yet, the factors predictive of successfully obtaining...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that the gene encoding the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3 (ADGRL3; formerly latrophilin 3, LPHN3) is associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Conversely, no studies have investigated the anatomical or functional brain substrates of ADGRL3 risk variants. We examined here whether individuals...
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Childhood experiences play a profound role in conferring risk and resilience for brain and behavioral development. However, how different facets of the environment shape neurodevelopment remains largely unknown. Here we sought to decompose heterogeneous relationships between environmental factors and brain structure in 989 school-aged children from...
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Full-text available
Multilayer network models have been proposed as an effective means of capturing the dynamic configuration of distributed neural circuits and quantitatively describing how communities vary over time. Beyond general insights into brain function, a growing number of studies have begun to employ these methods for the study of individual differences. Ho...
Article
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research seeks to inform psychiatric clinical practice. First, it seeks to improve scientific understanding of normative brain development, the perturbations that lead to mental illness, and the outcomes of interventions. Second, it seeks to develop clinical applications to guide individual-specific deci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain extraction (a.k.a. skull stripping) is a fundamental step in the neuroimaging pipeline as it can affect the accuracy of downstream preprocess such as image registration, tissue classification, etc. Most brain extraction tools have been mainly orientated for human data and are often challenging for non-human primates (NHP). In recent attempts...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Universal access to assessment and treatment of mental health and learning disorders remains a significant and unmet need. There is a vast number of people without access to care because of economic, geographic, and cultural barriers as well as limited availability of clinical experts who could help advance our understanding of mental he...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Universal access to assessment and treatment of mental health and learning disorders remains a significant and unmet need. There is a vast number of people without access to care because of economic, geographic, and cultural barriers as well as limited availability of clinical experts who could help advance our understanding of mental he...
Article
Background Universal access to assessment and treatment of mental health and learning disorders remains a significant and unmet need. There are many people without access to care because of economic, geographic, and cultural barriers, as well as the limited availability of clinical experts who could help advance our understanding and treatment of m...
Article
Neuroimaging studies of basic achievement skills – reading and arithmetic – often control for the effect of IQ to identify unique neural correlates of each skill. This may underestimate possible effects of common factors between achievement and IQ measures on neuroimaging results. Here, we simultaneously examined achievement (reading and arithmetic...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of medication treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been systematically reviewed. Systematically identify, assess and summarize within-patient R-fMRI studies of pharmacological-induced changes in patients with ADHD. We critically appraised strengt...
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Full-text available
Evolution provides an important window into how cortical organization shapes function and vice versa. The complex mosaic of changes in brain morphology and functional organization that have shaped the mammalian cortex during evolution, complicates attempts to chart cortical differences across species. It limits our ability to fully appreciate how e...
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Full-text available
Humans often face sequential decision-making problems, in which information about the environmental reward structure is detached from rewards for a subset of actions. For example, a medicated patient may consider partaking in a clinical trial on the effectiveness of a new drug. Taking part in the trial can provide the patient with information about...
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Full-text available
Despite myriad demonstrations of feasibility, the high dimensionality of fMRI data remains a critical barrier to its utility for reproducible biomarker discovery. Recent efforts to address this challenge have capitalized on dimensionality reduction techniques applied to resting-state fMRI, identifying principal components of intrinsic connectivity...
Preprint
Structural and functional neuroimaging have been widely used to track and predict demographic and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes. However, it is often difficult to directly establish and compare the respective weights and contributions of brain structure and function in prediction studies. The present study aimed to directly inves...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and its social and economic consequences have had adverse impacts on physical and mental health worldwide and exposed all segments of the population to protracted uncertainty and daily disruptions. The CoRonavIruS health and Impact Survey (CRISIS) was developed for use as an easy to implement and robust questionnaire covering...
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Full-text available
A common coordinate space enabling comparison across individuals is vital to understanding human brain organization and individual differences. By leveraging dimensionality reduction algorithms, high-dimensional fMRI data can be represented in a low-dimensional space to characterize individual features. Such a representative space encodes the funct...
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Full-text available
Brain growth charts and age-normed brain templates are essential resources for researchers to eventually contribute to the care of individuals with atypical developmental trajectories. The present work generates age-normed brain templates for children and adolescents at one-year intervals and the corresponding growth charts to investigate the influ...
Article
Objective: To present initial validity data on three web-based computerized versions of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS-COMP). Method: The sample for evaluating the validity of the clinician-administered KSADS-COMP included 511 youths 6-18 years of age who were participants in the Child Mind Institute Healthy Br...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Problematic internet use (PIU) is an increasingly worrisome issue, as youth population studies are establishing links with internalizing and externalizing problems. There is a need for a better understanding of psychiatric diagnostic profiles associated with this issue, as well as its unique contributions to impairment. Here, we levera...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuroimaging studies of basic achievement skills, reading and arithmetic, often control for the effect of IQ to identify unique neural correlates of each skill. This may underestimate possible effects of common factors between achievement and IQ measures on neuroimaging results. Here, we simultaneously examined achievement (reading and arithmetic)...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of psychiatric, behavioral and cognitive phenotypes have been linked to brain ‘’functional connectivity’’ -- the pattern of correlation observed between different brain regions. Most commonly assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), here, we investigate the connectivity-phenotype associations with functional connectivi...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in visual-spatial processing but not in reading or verbal ability; in addition, problems in math calculation, visual executive functioning, fine-motor skills, and social skills are often present. To our knowledge, there are no population-based...
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Full-text available
There is a general consensus that substantial heterogeneity underlies the neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As such, it has become increasingly clear that a dissection of variation at the molecular, cellular, and brain-network domains is a prerequisite for identifying biomarkers. Neuroimaging has been widely used to characterize atypi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Problematic internet use (PIU) is an increasingly worrisome issue, as youth population studies are establishing links with internalizing and externalizing problems. There is a need for a better understanding of psychiatric diagnostic profiles associated with this issue, as well as its unique contributions to impairment. Here, we leverag...
Article
Accurate psychiatric diagnosis is critical for both sound clinical interventions and valid research methodology. Over the years, attempts to improve diagnostic reliability and accuracy led to the development of more explicit operationalized diagnostic criteria, starting with DSM-III, and subsequently fully structured and semistructured diagnostic i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multilayer network models have been proposed as an effective means of capturing the dynamic configuration of distributed neural circuits and quantitatively describing how communities vary over time. Beyond general insights into brain function, a growing number of studies have begun to employ these methods for the study of individual differences. Ho...