Michael M Meguid

Michael M Meguid
State University of New York Upstate Medical University | SUNY Upstate Medical · Department of Surgery

MD, PhD, MFA, FACS

About

452
Publications
22,776
Reads
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13,647
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1984 - January 2009
Syracuse VA Medical Center
Position
  • CEO
September 1982 - September 2009
State University of New York Upstate Medical University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (452)
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives Obese Zucker rats display neurochemical modifications in the brain characteristic of dehydration, but are nevertheless hyperphagic. It suggests that the obese animals can be resistant to dehydration-induced anorexia. To test this hypothesis, we compared effects of dehydration on food intake and feeding pattern between obes...
Article
Full-text available
En agosto de 1976, un joven llamado LeRoy cayó desde una cornisa fracturándose el fémur. Se sospechó una hemorragia interna importante.Durante una laparotomía se comprobó que todos los órganos internos estaban intactos y los cirujanos ortopédicos arreglaron la fractura. Treinta días después, LeRoy murió. Había comido poco; diariamente, tan solo hab...
Article
En agosto de 1976, un joven llamado LeRoy cayó desde una cornisa fracturándose el fémur. Se sospechó una hemorragia interna importante. Durante una laparotomía se comprobó que todos los órganos internos estaban intactos y los cirujanos ortopédicos arreglaron la fractura. Treintadías después, LeRoy murió. Había comido poco; diariamente, tan solo hab...
Article
Full-text available
In August 1976, a young man named LeRoy fell from a ledge, fracturing his femur. Major internal bleeding was suspected. During a laparotomy, the trauma team ensured that all internal organs were intact and the orthopedic team set his fracture. Thirty days later, LeRoy died. He had eaten little; each day he only received three liters of glucose, the...
Article
We provide a practical approach to the complex management problem of chyle leaks that occur after surgical procedures or trauma, or when they occur spontaneously in association with malignancies. The volume of chyle loss causes significant problems due to loss of fluid, electrolytes, proteins, and lymphocytes, causing deleterious effects on wound h...
Article
Objectives: Obesity is a significant quality of life-impairing health problem affecting industrialized nations. However, despite carrying a large fat mass, some very obese individuals exhibit normal metabolic profiles (metabolically healthy obesity). The physiological factors underlying their protective and favorable metabolic profiles remain poor...
Article
Full-text available
In August 1976, a young man named LeRoy fell from a ledge, fracturing his femur. Major internal bleeding was suspected. During a laparotomy, the trauma team ensured that all internal organs were intact and the orthopedic team set his fracture. Thirty days later, LeRoy died. He had eaten little; each day he only received three liters of glucose, the...
Article
Parenteral nutrition that includes lipid emulsion is considered to increase central venous catheter related bloodstream infections, both bacterial and fungal. This concept is based on several erroneous metrics: reports in age-old literature at a time when preparing parenteral nutrition admixtures lacked stringent quality control, when its infusion,...
Article
There continues to be disagreements and confusion about optimal levels of vitamin D (Vit D), especially in the community, and the need to supplement and correct. With regard to critically illness, several publications have appeared in recent months about the association of Vit D levels and adverse outcomes. However, the actual pre-morbid levels wer...
Article
Conflict of Interest: This project was funded by Youngevity International, Inc., Chula Vista, CA, a manufactiurer of dietary supplements, and with whom Dr. Glade maintains a consultancy.
Article
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is the most common surgical intervention for long-term weight loss in morbidly obese patients. By decreasing obesity-associated hyperfiltration, diabetes, and hypertension, RYGB is touted to stabilize, if not prevent, progression of chronic renal disease. To test this, the renal histology of diet-induced obes...
Article
In the severely obese, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reverses diabetes before body weight loss occurs. We determined changes in protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), its substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), and their phosphorylated state (p-IR and p-IRS1/2) in skeletal muscle (SM), liver and adipose tissue (AT), and GLUT4 in SM and AT, 14 and 28 d...
Article
To determine if central serotonin (5-HT)-induced satiety is altered in obesity. Obese and lean Zucker rats received infusion of 5-HT (5 microg/0.5 microl/h) or saline into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) for 2 weeks. In lean rats, 5-HT decreased body weight (7%) and total food intake (15%) which was due to a decreased meal size d...
Article
Refeeding syndrome (RFS) represents a group of clinical findings that occur in severely malnourished individuals undergoing nutritional support. Cardiac arrhythmias, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death are the most severe symptoms observed. As the cachectic body attempts to reverse its adaptation to the starved state in response to the nutriti...
Article
Cancer cachexia is reported to be a major cause of cancer-related death. Since the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, only few effective therapies have been established. Since myriad tumors produce parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), plasma concentrations of PTHrP are increased in cancer cachexia. We measured the food intake, gastric...
Article
Wasting diseases are characterized by progressive deterioration of nutritional status that negatively influences patients' outcome. The better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of wasting may lead to effective therapies. Tryptophan metabolism has unique features suggesting a critical role in influencing human metabolism under normal and pa...
Article
This review presents some difficulties encountered to develop and translate immunonutrition into clinical practice, and suggests moving forward to a pharmaconutrition approach. Immunonutrition suffers from inconclusive and contradictory data due to the design of many of experiments and clinical studies conducted so far. The concept of a single immu...
Article
curious headline of a column in the January 2, 2007 issue of USA Today read: "Omega-3 pours into cereal, orange juice, eggs, and pet food." It stated that 'Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapen- taenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in fish, some nuts, and oils were the hottest food additive in 2007, because of their health and immuno-m...
Article
Food intake is modulated mainly within the hypothalamus, which continuously regulates the energy status of the body by directly sensing the presence of nutrients in the blood stream and by receiving afferent input from the periphery (oronasal, gut, liver, adipose tissue). Also, monoamines and neuropeptides produced in the brain and the gastrointest...
Article
Cancer anorexia frequently characterizes the clinical journey of patients with cancer and affects patients' morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. A constellation of symptoms concur to the diagnosis of anorexia, and early satiety, changes in taste/smell, and nausea are the more frequently reported. The pathogenesis of cancer anorexia is multifa...
Article
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) produces rapid and dramatic weight loss in very heavy obese patients. Up to 20% cannot sustain their weight loss beyond 2 to 3 y after surgery. To identify putative etiologic factors producing post-RYGB weight regain, a literature survey of metabolic changes in very obese and a review of our diet-induced obese RYGB r...
Article
Full-text available
The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is a debilitating clinical condition characterizing the course of chronic diseases, which heavily impacts on patients' morbidity and quality of life, ultimately accelerating death. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and reflects the complexity and redundancy of the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis under physi...
Article
Full-text available
Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic neuropeptide produced by neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that is a key component of central neural circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure. Disorders in energy homeostasis, characterized by hypophagia and increased metabolic rate, frequently develop in animals with ei...
Article
To determine the physiologic importance of endocannabinoids and mitochondrial function in the long-term outcome using a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Sixteen million people are morbidly obese and RYGB surgery is the most effective treatment. Endocannabinoids are implicated in appetite stimulation and regulation of peripheral...
Article
Full-text available
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity, but it has a approximately 20% failure rate. To test our hypothesis that outcome depends on differential modifications of several energy-related systems, we used our established RYGB model in Sprague-Dawley diet-induced obese (DIO) rats to determine mechanisms contrib...
Article
Recent advances in the development of new therapeutic strategies combining conventional adjuvant radio/chemotherapy with nutritional manipulations with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are presented. Studies in cell culture and tumour-bearing animals have reported the ability of long-chain n-3 PUFAs to enhance the cytotoxicity of several ant...
Article
Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome is becoming a critical component in the comprehensive approach to cancer patients because it influences morbidity, mortality and quality of life. Consequently, pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated to facilitate development of better therapies. Reported findings indicate that increased production of reactive o...
Article
In the USA, approximately 3% of adults are morbidly obese, in whom behavior modification and drug therapy is ineffective in inducing major weight loss. Surgery is their only reliable option. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass accounts for 90% of all bariatric surgeries because it achieves the best weight loss results. Many studies describe weight loss an...
Article
Full-text available
Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones play an important role in GI secretion, motility, and eating behaviors. It was recently suggested that GI hormones may have a trophic role in GI tract. Here we demonstrate that two principal GI hormones, anorexigenic peptide YY (PYY) and orexigenic ghrelin, affect neural tube development. Chronic administration into t...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer cachexia is a debilitating syndrome of anorexia and loss of lean body mass that accompanies many malignancies. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone with a short half-life that has been shown to improve food intake and weight gain in human and animal subjects with cancer cachexia. We used a rat model of cancer cachexia and administered human ghre...
Article
In the USA, 8-10 million people are morbidly obese, which is associated with a high frequency of comorbidities. The most effective treatment is surgery. Of around 180,000 bariatric operations performed in 2005, 80% were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, consisting of a small gastric pouch to minimize food intake and a Roux-en-Y of distal small bowel bypass...
Article
The clinical course of most chronic diseases is associated with declined energy intake and nutrient-resistant progressive myopathy, characterized by accelerated proteolysis and impaired function. This anorexia/cachexia syndrome leads to deterioration of quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. The clinical efficacy of currently avail...
Article
Melanocytes have not been described in the pituitary of mammals or in the meninges of the rat. In this paper, we report the presence of the cluster of melanocytes in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary and around the median eminence of the hypothalamus forming an ‘infundibulo-hypophysial circle’, and also describe the characteristics of meningea...
Article
Malignant tumors induce anorexia and decrease spontaneous food intake and weight loss. Whether these effects are in part due to the tumor's physical size was investigated by inducing a benign cystic tumor mass with carrageenan in rats and then studying them for 21 days. Forty-two control rats were given subcutaneous injection of 3 ml of normal sali...
Article
European ethical and legal positions with regard to EN vary slightly from country to country but are based on a common tradition derived from Graeco Roman ideas, religious thought and events of the 20th century. The Hippocratic tradition is based on 'beneficience' (do good) and 'non-maleficience' (do no harm). Religious thinking is based upon the p...
Article
Tumor growth leads to cancer anorexia that is ameliorated using omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3FA). We hypothesize that omega-3FA modulates up-regulation of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and down-regulation of anorexigenic alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and serotonin 1B receptors (5-HT(1B)-receptors) in tumor-bearing r...
Article
Full-text available
The immune and neuroendocrine systems are closely involved in the regulation of metabolism at peripheral and central hypothalamic levels. In both physiological (meals) and pathological (infections, traumas and tumors) conditions immune cells are activated responding with the release of cytokines and other immune mediators (afferent signals). In the...
Chapter
In medicine, specific combinations of symptoms and signs contribute to establishing a diagnosis. However, symptoms or constellations of symptoms (i.e., syndromes) per se may not be specific for a single disease; rather, they are observed during the clinical course of a number of acute and chronic diseases. Among them, anorexia is a highly prevalent...
Chapter
A number of novel pathways and mediators controlling food intake, body weight, and energy expenditure have been identified using molecular and genetic techniques [1, 2]. It is now accepted that body weight is regulated by a feedback loop, in which peripheral signals from the gut, liver, and fat provide nutritional information via hormones and affer...
Chapter
Cachexia is pervasive among patients suffering from chronic diseases, including cancer, liver cirrhosis and chronic renal failure. The development of cachexia dramatically impacts on the clinical course of the underlying disease, by increasing morbidity and mortality, and impinging on patients’ quality of life. Also, weight loss influences outcome...
Chapter
Approximately 80% of patients with advanced-stage cancer have cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS), in which one of the main manifestations is malnutrition [1]. CACS is characterised by anorexia, decreased food intake, tissue wasting, and body weight loss. It is also associated with changes in lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, leadin...
Article
Nguyen et al1 have brought to light informative data concerning the recent progress made in marshaling our surgical workforce resources to meet the tsunami of morbid obesity, which is at the leading edge of morbidity and mortality in the national obesity epidemic. Surgical intervention has proved to be the most effective method in achieving prolong...
Article
We determined whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-induced protracted weight loss is associated with an increase in anorectic peptide YY (PYY) and decreased gastrointestinal (GI) motility. RYGB and control sham-operated GI intact obese (SO Obese) and sham-operated GI intact pair-fed (PF) rats were studied. Postoperatively, body weight (BW) and f...
Article
Tumor growth leads to anorexia and decreased food intake, the regulation of which is via the integrated hypothalamic peptidergic and monoaminergic system. Serotonin (5-HT), an anorectic monoamine acts primarily via 5-HT 1B-receptors in hypothalamic nuclei while neuropeptide Y (NPY) acts an orexigenic peptide. We previously reported that 5-HT 1B-rec...
Article
Malnutrition of cancer patients is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. The contributory factors in cancers anatomically involving the gastrointestinal tract are self-evident. However, how non-gastrointestinal malignancies affect gastrointestinal structure and function is not clear. The aim of this paper is to review the relationship bet...
Article
To review the mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the brain, as well as their therapeutic implications in anorexia. Recent studies have demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids modulate changes in the concentrations and actions of several orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the brain, including neuropeptide Y, alpha-...
Article
In cancer anorexia, a decrease in food intake (FI) occurs concomitant with changes in orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic peptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. omega-3 Fatty acid (omega-3FA) inhibits cytokine synthesis, and delays tumor appearance...
Article
Full-text available
Tumor growth is associated with profound metabolic and neurochemical alterations, which can lead to the onset of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Anorexia is defined as the loss of the desire to eat, while cachexia results from progressive wasting of skeletal muscle mass--and to a lesser extent adipose tissue--occurring even before weight loss becomes a...
Article
Serotonin (5-HT) is an anorectic monoamine and its regulatory effects on feeding are mediated primarily via 5-HT1B-receptors localized in the hypothalamic nuclei, which, apart from the brain stem, are among the most crucial areas of food intake regulation. The distribution of 5-HT1B-receptors in the hypothalamic nuclei was studied in tumor-bearing...
Article
Obesity is increasing in severity and prevalence in the United States and represents a major public health issue. No effective pharmacologic treatment leading to sustained weight loss currently exists. The growing interest in the regulation of food intake stems from the current drug treatments for obesity, almost all of which interfere with the mon...