Michael Maes

Michael Maes
King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital · Department of Psychiatry

M.D., Ph.D. Professor

About

1,364
Publications
306,415
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Introduction
Current projects are: * Western Psychiatry: a far-right pseudoscience * False dogmas in current ME/CFS research * It's something in the water" peer reviews: from nonsense to unlawful competition

Publications

Publications (1,364)
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) with melancholia and psychotic features and suicidal behaviors are accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways which may stimulate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway resulting...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) with melancholia and psychotic features and suicidal behaviors are accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways which may stimulate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway resulting...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims: This study aims to examine the associations between paraoxonase 1 (PON)1 status and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and consequent disabilities. Methods: This study recruited 122 patients with AIS and 40 healthy controls and assessed the Q192R gene variants, arylesterase (AREase) and chloromethyl phenylacetate (CMPAase) activities, and high-densi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to describe how to use the precision nomothetic psychiatry approach to a) delineate the associations between schizophrenia symptom domains, including negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, formal thought disorders, psychomotor retardation (PHEMFP), and cognitive dysfunctions and neuroimmunotoxic...
Article
Full-text available
The immune-inflammatory response is associated with increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aim of this mechanistic review is to examine: a) the role of redox sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production, and the activity of cellular antioxidants in the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cell...
Preprint
Full-text available
The physio-affective phenome of Long COVID-19 is predicted by a) immune-inflammatory biomarkers of the acute infectious phase, including peak body temperature (PBT) and oxygen saturation (SpO2), and b) the subsequent activation of immune and oxidative stress pathways during Long COVID. The purpose of this study was to delineate the effects of PBT a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress, which both induce indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme of the tryptophan (TRP) catabolite (TRY CAT) pathway. The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the status of the TRY CAT pathway,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by elevated activity of peripheral neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways, which may cause neuro-affective toxicity by disrupting neuronal circuits in the brain. No study has explored peripheral indicators of neuroaxis damage in MDD in relation to serum inflammatory and insulin resista...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Long-term coronavirus disease 2019 (Long COVID) is associated with physio-somatic (chronic fatigue syndrome and somatic symptoms) and affective (depression and anxiety) symptoms. The severity of the Long COVID physio-affective phenome is largely predicted by peak body temperature (BT) and lowered oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the acute...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Long-term coronavirus disease 2019 (Long COVID) is associated with physio-somatic (chronic fatigue syndrome and somatic symptoms) and affective (depression and anxiety) symptoms. The severity of the Long COVID physio-affective phenome is largely predicted by peak body temperature (BT) and lowered oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the acut...
Presentation
Full-text available
ACUTE AND LONG-COVID (CHRONIC) FATIGUE SYNDROME AND AFFECTIVE SYMPTOMS ARE NOT THE CONSEQUENCE OF FOLK-PSYCHOLOGY DOGMAS INCLUDING: IT IS IN THE MIND DUE TO BEDREST BOOM AND BUST ACTIVITY REDUCED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY NEGATIVE COGNITIONS PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS DUE TO A MEDICAL ILLNESS CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS A DISORDER OF PERCEPTION PATIENTS THINK THE SYMPT...
Article
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by progressive brain dysfunction and memory loss, is one of the most significant global health concerns for older adults. Neuroinflammation and increased oxidative stress contribute to the pathophysiology of AD, thereby presumably inducing tryptophan (TRP) degradation through the TRP cat...
Article
Full-text available
Stress that can occur at different levels of a person’s life can cause and exacerbate various diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation underlie this process at the cellular level. There is an urgent need to identify new and more effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-induced behavioral disorders and specific drugs that affect...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reactivity to neural tissue epitopes, aquaporin 4 and heat shock protein 60 is associated with activated immune-inflammatory pathways and the onset of delirium following hip fracture surgery.
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Antenatal depression (AD) is the commonest morbidity during pregnancy. There is evidence that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and AD share common immune-inflammatory pathways. Few studies have assessed the relation between the affective symptoms of PMS and AD. The present study aims to evaluate the association between the severity of depress...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is now evidence that affective disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are mediated by immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative pathways. Activation of these pathways may be associated with activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway leading to depletion of tryptophan (TRP) and inc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) rating scale is frequently used to assess cognitive impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objectives: The aims of this study were to a) evaluate the construct validity of the MoCA and its subdomains or whether the MoCA can be improved by feature...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: In older adults with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) probes indicated cognitive impairments most frequently in memory. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate a) the cognitive features of aMCI using memory CANTAB tests and b) whether the clinical diagnosis o...
Article
Background Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) show disorders in calcium metabolism. The α-klotho protein is predominantly expressed in tissues that are involved in calcium homeostasis, and lowered levels are associated with bone disease. The aim of the study is to examine the associations between low α-klotho status and calcium m...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the reciprocal associations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and immune-inflammatory pathways and how these links may explain the involvement of this neurotrophin in the immune pathophysiology of mood disorders and schizophrenia. Toward this end, we delineate...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of the endocannabinoid ligands anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylgycerol (2-AG), their target cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the enzymes involved in their synthesis and metabolism (N-acyltransferase and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the case of AEA and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) and mo...
Article
Full-text available
Background The objectives of this study were to delineate whether delirium in older adults is associated with activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) as indicated by activation of M1, T helper (Th)1, and Th17 profiles, and/or by reduced activities of the compensatory immunoregulatory system (CIRS), including Th2 and T regulatory...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Recent precision medicine publications show that the prevailing conceptualizations of schizophrenia, negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and deficit schizophrenia are founded on false Anglo-Saxon dogmas which were never validated using precision medicine techniques (Maes and Anderson, 2021). Aims: Using our novel precision nomothetic te...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present study aims to explain how to use the precision nomothetic approach to analyze the interconnections between the negative symptoms, cognitive dysfunctions and biomarkers of schizophrenia. We review our data obtained in different study groups of patients with (deficit) schizophrenia and show, using examples extracted from these studies, ho...
Article
Full-text available
The current understanding of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) is plagued by a cacophony of controversies as evidenced by competing schools to understand MDD/BD. The DSM/ICD taxonomies have cemented their status as the gold standard for diagnosing MDD/BD. The aim of this review is to discuss the false dogmas that reign in cu...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyze the nitro-oxidative stress (O&NS)/antioxidant (ANTIOX) ratio in the peripheral blood of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science for articles published from inception until July 31, 2021. Forty-six studies on 3.798 MCI indivi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) rating scale is frequently used to assess cognitive impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objectives: The aims of this study are to a) evaluate the construct validity of the MoCA and its subdomains or whether the MoCA can be improved by feature red...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) enhance pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant responses. In affective disorders, recent precision nomothetic psychiatry studies disclosed new pathway pheno-types, including an ROI—reoccurrence of illness (ROI)—oxidative stress latent construct. The aim of the present study is to delineate a) whether ACEs sensitize th...
Preprint
The immune-inflammatory response during the acute phase of COVID-19, as assessed using peak body temperature (PBT) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), predicts the severity of chronic fatigue, depression and anxiety (“physio-affective”) symptoms three to four months later. The present study was performed to characterize whether the effects of...
Preprint
The immune-inflammatory response during the acute phase of COVID-19, as assessed using peak body temperature (PBT) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), predicts the severity of chronic fatigue, depression and anxiety (“physio-affective”) symptoms three to four months later. The present study was performed to characterize whether the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that chronic fatigue spectrum disorders (CFAS-Ds), including myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and chronic fatigue with physiosomatic symptoms including when due to comorbid medical disease, are characterized by neuroimmune and neuro-oxidative biomarkers. This study was performed to delineate the prot...
Preprint
Full-text available
The immune-inflammatory response during the acute phase of COVID-19, as assessed using peak body temperature (PBT) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), predicts the severity of chronic fatigue, depression and anxiety (“physio-affective”) symptoms three to four months later. The present study was performed to characterize whether the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
The current understanding of major depressive (MDD) and bipolar (BD) disorder is plagued by a cacophony of controversies, as evidenced by competing schools to understand MDD/BD. The DSM/ICD taxonomies have cemented their status as the gold standard for diagnosing MDD/BD. The aim of this review is to discuss the false dogmas that reign in current MD...
Article
Full-text available
No precision medicine models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and associated mental comorbidities have been developed to date. This observational study aimed to develop a precision nomothetic, data-driven comorbid TLE model with endophenotype classes and pathway phenotypes that may have prognostic and therapeutical implications. We recruited forty h...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread globally despite the discovery of vaccines. Many people die due to COVID-19 as a result of catastrophic consequences, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by a cytokine storm. Immunopathology and immunogenetic resear...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Long coronavirus disease 2019 (LC) is a chronic sequel of acute COVID-19. The exact pathophysiology of the affective, chronic fatigue and physiosomatic symptoms (labeled as “physio-affective phenome”) of LC has remained elusive. Objective The current study aims to delineate the effects of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and body temperature du...
Preprint
Full-text available
Schizophrenia patients show increased disabilities and lower quality of life (DisQoL). Nevertheless, there are no data whether, in schizophrenia, activation of the interleukin (IL)-6, IL-23, T helper (Th)-17 axis and lowered magnesium and calcium levels impact DisQoL scores. This study recruited 90 patients with schizophrenia (including 40 with def...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Long coronavirus disease 2019 (LC) is a chronic sequel of acute COVID-19. The exact pathophysiology of the affective, chronic fatigue and physiosomatic symptoms (labeled as “physio-affective phenome”) of LC has remained elusive. Objective: The current study aims to delineate the effects of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and body temperature d...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Only 60–70% of depressed patients respond to standard antidepressant treatments. Hence, it is essential to search for new, effective and safe therapies for unmet clinical needs of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Agents targeting the components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway have been shown to be relevant in immunology and a...
Article
Full-text available
In coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Acute infections are accompanied by a sickness symptom complex (SSC) which is highly conserved and protec...
Article
Full-text available
Background End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. Objective To delineate the associations between severity of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms and glomerular filtration rate, inflammatory biomarkers, and Wnt/catenin-pathway proteins. Methods The Wnt-pathway related proteins β-catenin, Dickkopf-re...
Article
The tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) since the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine-dioxygenase (IDO) may be induced by inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators. This systematic review searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for papers published from inception until August...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To delineate the effects of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) as measured by Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and infarction volume as measured by Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on post-stroke depression symptoms. Methods Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) and Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores,...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder and a major depressive episode (MDD/MDE) are characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune- regulatory system (CIRS). In MDD/MDE, recent precision nomothetic psychiatry studies discovered a new endophenotype class, namely major dysmood disorder (MDMD), a new pathway...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder and major depressive episodes (MDD/MDE) are characterized by the activation of the immune–inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune–regulatory system (CIRS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid isolated from the cannabis plant, which is reported to have antidepressant-like and anti-inflammatory eff...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) enhance pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant responses. In affective disorders, recent precision nomothetic psychiatry studies disclosed new pathway phenotypes including a ROI - reoccurrence of illness (ROI) – oxidative stress latent construct. The aim of the present study is to delineate a) whether ACEs sensitize M...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder and major depressive episodes (MDD/MDE) are characterized by the activation of the immune–inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune–regulatory system (CIRS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid isolated from the cannabis plant, which is reported to have antidepressant-like and anti-inflammatory effe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), characterized by gradual brain dysfunction and memory loss, is one of the major elderly health issues worldwide. Neuroinflammation and increased oxidative stress contribute to the pathophysiology of AD, thereby presumably inducing tryptophan (TRP) degradation through the TRP catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. Objecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), characterized by gradual brain dysfunction and memory loss, is one of the major elderly health issues worldwide. Neuroinflammation and increased oxidative stress contribute to the pathophysiology of AD, thereby presumably inducing tryptophan (TRP) degradation through the TRP catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. Objecti...
Article
Background The characterization of new biomarkers that could help to externally validate the diagnosis of COVID-19 and to optimize treatments is extremely important. Many studies established changes in immune-inflammatory and antibody levels, but few studies measured the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (sRAGE), angiotensin-conve...
Article
Full-text available
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which affects the joints in the wrists, fingers, and knees. RA is often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like symptoms. This paper examines the association between depressive symptoms (measured with the Beck Depressio...
Preprint
Background: The objectives of this study were to delineate whether delirium is associated with activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) as indicated by activation of M1, Thelper (Th)1, and Th17 profiles, and/or by reduced activities of the compensatory immunoregulatory system (CIRS), including Th2 and Tregulatory profiles. Method...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning approaches, such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and pathway analysis, were introduced in depression research in the 1990s (Maes et al.) to construct neuroimmune endophenotype classes. The goal of this paper is to examine the promise of precision psychiatry to use information about a depressed person's own pan...
Article
Neuroimaging findings in people at either genetic risk or at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) or bipolar disorder (CHR-B) remain unclear. A meta-analytic review of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in individuals with genetic risk or CHR-P or CHR-B and controls identified 94 d...
Preprint
The objectives of this study were to delineate whether delirium is associated with activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) as indicated by activation of M1, Thelper (Th)1, and Th17 profiles, and/or by reduced activities of the compensatory immunoregulatory system (CIRS), including Th2 and Tregulatory profiles. We recruited 65 el...
Article
Background: There have been no standard protocols of oral exercises for maintaining and improving oral function for people with dementia. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of home-based oral exercises on the oral function of people with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: Twenty-two participants at King Chulalongkorn Memoria...
Preprint
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress, which both may induce indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme of the tryptophan (TRP) catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. The aim of the current study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the TRYCAT pathway status...
Preprint
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to delineate whether delirium is associated with activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) as indicated by activation of M1, Thelper (Th)1, and Th17 profiles, and/or by reduced activities of the compensatory immunoregulatory system (CIRS), including Th2 and Tregulatory profiles. We recruited 65 el...
Preprint
Major depressive disorder and a major depressive episode (MDD/MDE) are characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS). In MDD/MDE, recent precision nomothetic psychiatry studies discovered a new endophenotype class namely Major Dysmood Disorder, a new pathway phenoty...
Preprint
Full-text available
Schizophrenia and especially defcit schizophrenia (DSCZ)) are characterized by highly significantly increased activities of neuroimmunotoxic pathways and a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). There are no data whether the interleukin(IL)-6/IL-23/Thelper-17 (IL6/IL23/Th17)-axis is more associated with DSCZ than with non-deficit schizophrenia (ND...
Preprint
Full-text available
Schizophrenia and especially defcit schizophrenia (DSCZ)) are characterized by highly significantly increased activities of neuroimmunotoxic pathways and a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). There are no data whether the interleukin(IL)-6/IL-23/Thelper-17 (IL6/IL23/Th17)-axis is more associated with DSCZ than with non-deficit schizophrenia (ND...
Preprint
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder and a major depressive episode (MDD/MDE) are characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS). In MDD/MDE, recent precision nomothetic psychiatry studies discovered a new endophenotype class namely Major Dysmood Disorder, a new pathway phenoty...
Article
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal epilepsy subtype in adults and is frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety and psychosis. Aberrations in total paraoxonase 1 (PON1) status may occur in TLE and these psychiatric conditions. Aim: To examine PON1 status, namely Q192R PON1 genotypes and PON1 enzymatic activities...
Article
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are tiny vesicles used by cells as means of cellular communication, through which the function and state of a given cell can be changed. A body of evidence has suggested that EVs could be culprits in the development and progression of various types of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Scler...
Article
Background: . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed. Methods: . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/re...
Preprint
Full-text available
No precision medicine models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and associated mental comorbidities were developed to date. This observational 11study aimed to develop a precision nomothetic, data driven comorbid TLE model with endophenotype classes and pathways phenotypes that may have prognostic and therapeutical implications. We recruited forty hea...
Preprint
Background Major depressive disorder and a major depressive episode (MDD/MDE) are characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid isolated from the cannabis plant which was reported to have antidepressant-like and anti- inflamm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Major depressive disorder and a major depressive episode (MDD/MDE) are characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid isolated from the cannabis plant which was reported to have antidepressant-like and anti-inflamma...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by activated immune- inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress, which both may induce indoleamine-2,3- dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme of the tryptophan (TRP) catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. The aim of the current study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the TRYCAT pathway status inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Some clinical, imaging, and laboratory biomarkers have been identified as predictors of prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of a combination of clinical, imaging, and laboratory biomarkers in predicting 1-year mortality of IS. We evaluated 103 patients with IS within 24 h of their h...
Article
Full-text available
Most previous studies in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) focused on fecal samples, which limit the identification of the gut mucosal and luminal microbiome in depression. Here, we address this knowledge gap. Male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were randomly assigned to a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) gro...