Michael J. Loughlin

Michael J. Loughlin
ITER · CIO

BSc (Hons), PhD

About

152
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Critical electronics of ITER Tokamak, hosted in the shielded corners (SC) of the Tokamak Building (B11), must operate under acceptable neutronic flux conditions (≤10 n·cm⁻²·s ⁻ ¹) to minimize single event effects. During machine operation and at lower level (B1), both the Torus Cryopumps (TCP) ports location within B11 and their pumping efficiency...
Article
During the plasma pulses, the neutron-induced activation of the cooling water will produce an important contribution to the radiation levels in the ITER Tokamak Complex. The resulting radiation field has a complex spatial distribution due to the combination of decay and production of radioisotopes in the intricate cooling lines that feed the numero...
Article
Full-text available
ITER is the flagship fusion project, conceived as an experiment to select and develop the technologies for the first demonstration reactor, DEMO. Nuclear analysis is a core discipline in support of the design, commissioning and operation of the machine. To date, it has been conducted with increasingly detailed partial models, which represented toro...
Article
Full-text available
The future of nuclear energy in the energy mix faces a permanent scrutiny of safety aspects in conciliation with bridled costs, either fission‐ or fusion‐based. This affects to all the exciting milestones pursued in XXIst. To name few in the field of fission, the deployment of the IVth generation reactors is expected or the definitive solution to t...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the synthetic diagnostics (SD) of the preliminary design of divertor neutron flux monitor (DNFM) dedicated for simulations of the neutron flux measurements in ITER. It is based on the technique developed for fast simulation of plasma evolution keeping the accuracy of comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The developed technique is a...
Article
ITER neutronics model (Tokamak Complex) keeps evolving, and each development requires comprehensive transport analysis for verification and validation. The tokamak complex’s bio-shield plugs are the main shielding barriers between the tokamak and the port cells. Therefore, shielding analysis and optimization for the bio-shield plugs are part of the...
Article
The ITER Tokamak Complex is the civil structure that will host the ITER Tokamak and the largest part of the associated systems. The dimensions are 120 m × 80 m × 60 m, built mostly of concrete, with over one thousand penetrations. During ITER operation, a radiation field will spread throughout the complex from diverse radiation sources. It must be...
Article
The planned in situ maintenance tasks in the ITER port interspace are fundamental to ensure the operation of equipment to control, evaluate and optimize the plasma performance during the entire facility lifetime. They are subject to a limit of shutdown dose rates (SDDR) of 100 μSv h⁻¹ after 10⁶ s of cooling time, which is nowadays a design driver f...
Article
The ITER Organization maintains neutronics reference models for nuclear analysis. The “lite” series of tokamak sector models has progressed over many years to the C-lite V1 model released at the end of 2013. Since then several model updates have been continuously implemented in various C-lite V2 models. The latest release, C-Model represents the 40...
Article
Considering to reduce the filling factor of Be pebble bed from 80% to 62% in preliminary design phase, preliminary neutronics design and optimization for conceptual design of China ITER helium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (HCCB TBM) have been performed and the optimized HCCB TBM design has been proposed with modifying the material and...
Article
The EU fusion roadmap defines as one of its goals the development of a Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor (DEMO) to follow ITER. This device shall be tritium self-sufficient, produce net electricity, and acts as a component test facility to demonstrate fusion power plant relevant technologies, e.g. those of the breeding blanket. This article identi...
Article
ITER will be the first fusion device able to maintain fusion for long periods of time and therefore suitable to test integrated technologies, materials, and physics regimes necessary for the commercial production of fusion-based electricity. Therefore, ITER provides a harsh radiation environment that represents an important challenge for diagnostic...
Article
Detailed spatial distributions of the biological dose rate due to a variety of sources are required for the design of the ITER tokamak facility to ensure that all radiological zoning limits are met. During operation, water in the Integrated loop of Blanket, Edge-localized mode and vertical stabilization coils, and Divertor (IBED) cooling system wil...
Article
Using the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP and the European inventory code FISPACT-2007, activation calculation analysis for China helium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (CN HCCB TBM) and its ancillary systems (together called HCCB TBS) has been carried out based on the latest design of HCCB TBM and neutronic C-lite model provide...
Article
The ITER main vacuum system consists of six torus exhaust pumps integrated in the Cryostat through dedicated housings at the building B1 level. The Port Cell area outside the cryopump plug is affected by neutrons streaming through the housing structure and diagnostics penetrations. The aim of the study presented in this paper is to perform a comple...
Article
Because the superconductivity of the ITER toroidal field coils (TFC) must be protected against local overheating, detailed spatial distribution of the TFC nuclear heating is needed to assess the acceptability of the designs of the blanket, vacuum vessel (VV), and VV thermal shield. Accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions of the TFC n...
Article
The Applied Radiation Physics Group at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, United Kingdom, has developed and applied state-of-the-art radiation mapping methods and tools. The tools enable complex shielding calculations in and around fusion devices, both during and after plasma operations, to inform on associated radiation fields for operational, maint...
Article
The paper describes the organization of the Test Blanket Module (TBM) program, its overall objective and schedule and the status of the technical activities within the ITER Organization-Central Team (IO-CT). The latter include the design integration of the Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) into the nuclear buildings, ensuring all interfaces with other IT...
Article
ITER port cells are located outside the bio-shield of the Tokamak. During shutdown, the shielding blanket may be replaced and the radioactive blankets will be transported through equatorial port cells, increasing the radiation exposure in the gallery. To examine the dose rate in the gallery with respect to the dose limitation specified by ITER, the...
Article
The ITER machine will be equipped with 6 torus Cryopumps (TCP) that are positioned in their housings (TCPH) and integrated into the cryostat walls at B1 level in the port cells. A comprehensive nuclear analysis of the Cryopump Ports #4 and #12 has been carried out by means of the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code in a full 3-D geometry, providing guidelines...
Article
Extensive neutronics and 3-D activation simulations were carried out to assess the levels of radiation throughout the ITER tokamak complex. The simulated radiation sources included D–T fusion neutrons exiting the cryostat and gamma rays arising from the activation of cooling water, activated pipe chases and cask transfers. Resultant biological dose...
Article
Nuclear analyses have been performed for the ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug (TBM PP) using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code. A detailed 3D model of the TBM Port Plug with dummy TBM has been integrated into the ITER MCNP model (B-lite v.3). Neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, helium production and neutron damage have been calculated in all the TBM PP co...
Article
A new MCNP geometry model of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) ports was developed starting from the latest engineering CAD models provided by ITER. The model includes 3 heating (HNBI) ports and one diagnostic port (DNBI), and extends up to the bio-shield. The engineering CAD models were simplified on the CATIA platform according to the neutron...
Article
The hot cell building is a part of the hot cell complex which is located to the north of the main ITER tokamak building. It would provide a controlled area for the preparation, transfer and repair-refurbishment of the in-vessel parts of the tokamak machine. During transfer of the activated parts and plasma operation, high radiation would be produce...
Article
The In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) units proposed for ITER are deployed to perform in-vessel examination. During plasma operations, the IVVS is located beyond the vacuum vessel, with shielding blocks envisaged to protect components from neutron damage and reduce shutdown dose rate (SDR) levels. Analyses were conducted to determine the effectivenes...
Article
The paper summarizes the current status of neutronics at ITER and a first set of proposals for experimental programmes to be conducted in the early operational life-time of ITER are described for the more crucial areas. These include a TF coils heating benchmark, a streaming benchmark and streaming measurements by activation on ITER itself. Also on...
Article
Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case of fusion technology in current experiments, ITER, next-step devices and power plant studies. Calculations are intricate and computer-intensive, typically requiring detailed geometry models, sophisticated acceleration algorithms, high-perfor...
Article
The external walls of the Tokamak building, made of thick concrete, provide the nuclear shielding for operators working in adjacent buildings and for the environment. There are a series of openings to these external walls, devoted to ducts or pipes for ventilation, waveguides and transmission lines for heating systems and diagnostics, cooling pipes...
Article
Neutronic considerations in ITER have such importance that they drive the design of many diagnostics and components of the machine, and bolometers are not an exception. Bolometer cameras will be installed on the vacuum vessel, viewing the plasma through the gaps between blanket modules, divertor, equatorial and upper port plugs. The ITER reference...
Article
The ITER in-vessel components have experienced a major redesign since the ITER Design Review of 2007. A set of in-vessel vertical stabilization (VS) coils and a set of in-vessel Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control coils have been implemented. The blanket system has been redesigned to include first wall (FW) shaping, to upgrade the FW heat removal cap...
Article
This paper presents the nuclear analysis performed for the ITER full-tungsten divertor using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code in a 3-D geometry. A detailed model of the geometry of the divertor based on the last design specifications has been integrated into the latest ITER MCNP model. Nuclear heating, damage and helium production have been calculated....
Article
Shutdown dose rate (SDDR) inside and around the diagnostics ports of ITER is performed at PPPL/UCLA using the 3-D, FEM, Discrete Ordinates code, ATTILA, along with its updated FORNAX transmutation/decay gamma library. Other ITER partners assess SDDR using codes based on the Monte Carlo (MC) approach (e.g. MCNP code) for transport calculation and th...
Article
A mock-up of ITER including the inboard shield, the vacuum vessel and the coil region, was set up at ENEA Frascati and irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). The mock-up dimensions and materials composition are consistent with the current ITER design. The primary objective of the experiment was to validate...
Article
Full-text available
ITER equatorial port cell outside the bio-shield plug is a place to allow personnel access after shutdown that accommodates various sensitive equipment and pipes. Gamma dose rate after shutdown of 1 day in the port cell should be within 10 μSv/h for occupational safety which is one order of magnitude less than that in the port interspace by the shi...
Article
The complexity of nuclear analysis on the design components of ITER is discussed. These analyses include the determination of several nuclear responses and it is shown that these results are not only relevant to the component under examination but have implications for the design of many other, often remote, systems. The contribution of nuclear ana...
Article
A study is reported which computes the radiation transport and activation response throughout the ITER machine and updates the ITER radioactive waste assessment using modern 3D models and up-to-date methods. The latest information on component design, maintenance, replacement schedules and materials is adopted. The radwaste classification is revise...
Article
The three dimensional (3D) neutronics reference model of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) only defines the tokamak machine and extends to the bio-shield. In order to meet further 3D neutronics analysis needs, it is necessary to create a 3D reference model of the ITER building. Monte Carlo Automatic Modeling Program for Radiat...
Article
Coolant water in blankets and divertor cassettes will be activated by neutrons during ITER operation. 16N and 17N are determined to be the most important activation products in the coolant water in terms of their impact on ITER design and performance. In this study, the geometry of cooling channels in blanket module 4 was described precisely in the...
Article
A mock-up of the inboard shield and vacuum vessel of ITER was set up at ENEA Frascati and irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The mock-up includes the coil region, and its dimensions and materials composition are consistent with the latest ITER design. The objective of the experiment is to validate the calcul...
Article
The scope, methodology, and preliminary results are presented of a series of neutron transport and activation analyses aimed at updating the ITER radioactive inventory assessment and assisting the waste management planning. Calculations are performed using stateof-the-art three-dimensional models, codes, and data libraries and thereby overcoming ea...
Article
There is increasing demand for fast and accurate neutronics analysis to be conducted on specific ITER components. The ATLAS (accelerated torus-like angular source) algorithm has been developed to accelerate such neutronics calculations by approximating the 3-D plasma volume source as a surface source at the first-wall region of interest. The ATLAS...
Article
A complete neutronic analysis has been performed for the design of the in-vessel coil systems using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo Code in a full 3-D geometry. A detailed geometry of ELM and VS coils based on the latest design specifications has been integrated into the latest version of 40° sector of ITER MCNP model. Nuclear heating and helium production i...
Article
As the main interface components between plasma and vacuum vessel, the divertor is foreseen to be removed to the hot cell for refurbishment during the 20 years of ITER operation. During this process, the activated divertor will cause a large increase of radiation in the ITER building. 3D analysis has been performed to assess the radiation maps thro...
Article
Neutronic analyses have been performed assessing the performance of the new radiation shielding design of the upper ports in the Neutral Beam (NB) cell of ITER. The scope of the work includes neutron and gamma spectra and nuclear heating calculations inside the port, as well as assessments of fluences, nuclear heating, and insulator radiation doses...
Article
The nuclear fusion devices using the principle of magnetic plasma confinement such as the ITER tokamak are going to consist of a variety of highly heterogeneous, nuclear-radiation-sensitive components. The compactness of the ITER tokamak makes it difficult to rely on large safety margins. Under these circumstances the use of reasonably heterogeneou...
Conference Paper
The ITER Tokamak will be the largest magnetic confinement fusion device ever built. Confinement will be achieved by a combination of magnetic fields generated by a plasma current of 15MA and externally applied toroidal field of 5.4T. The toroidal field will be generated in 18 superconducting coils which must be protected from the radiation from the...
Article
The ITER Tokamak will be the largest magnetic confinement fusion device ever built. Confinement will be achieved by a combination of magnetic fields generated by a plasma current of 15MA and externally applied toroidal field of 5.4T. The toroidal field will be generated in 18 superconducting coils which must be protected from the radiation from the...
Article
The concentration of deuterium in JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration, has been determined using eight different methods, four of which involve neutron detection. The results from these various methods are found to be consistent within their experimental errors. The ratio nD/ne, measured at the moment of peak neutron...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Since the last IAEA Conference JET has been in operation for one year with a programmatic focus on the qualification of ITER operating scenarios, the consolidation of ITER design choices and preparation for plasma operation with the ITER-like wall presently being installed in JET. Good progress has been achieved, including stationary ELMy...
Article
The ITER Vacuum Vessel has upper, equatorial, and lower ports used for equipment installation, diagnostics, heating and current drive systems, cryo-vacuum pumping, and access inside the vessel for maintenance.At the level of the divertor, the nine lower ports for remote handling, cryo-vacuum pumping and diagnostic are inclined downwards and toroida...
Article
The concept of lost alpha measurement by 4.44 MeV gamma ray detection produced by the nuclear reaction ! 9 Be ",n# () 12 C was examined for ITER. A MCNP calculation was carried out to evaluate the neutron flux in the port plug, where a gamma-ray detector is supposed to be located. The results showed the total neutron flux was at least 10 11 ~ 10 12...
Article
Full-text available
An extensive benchmark exercise has been conducted on ITER with the objective to test and validate different approaches for the use of CAD generated geometry data for Monte Carlo transport calculations with the MCNP code. The exercise encompassed the generation of a dedicated neutronics CATIA model based on available engineering CAD design data, th...
Article
The principle needs of ITER with regard to nuclear analysis can be divided into the broad categories of safety and licensing, plant operation, and decommissioning although there is much overlap and interdependence within these categories. This paper reviews the status of the methods applied to date and recommends the future strategy which ITER shou...
Conference Paper
Systematic analysis of the radiation fields throughout the ITER core LIDAR diagnostic system were performed to support the design optimisation and assessment process, aiming at achieving the required performance in terms of reliability, occupational safety and interface with neighboring systems. Neutron, photon, nuclear heat and material activation...
Article
The ITER Vacuum Vessel has upper, equatorial and lower port structures. The bottom ports are dedicated to the divertor replacement (five ports) and to vacuum pumping by means of cryopumps (four ports). The latest cryopump port design is more complex as it has a pump with a direct view of the vessel (upper cryopump) and a second pump at the end of a...
Article
Accurate calculation of the neutron transport through the shielding of the IFMIF test cell, defined by CAD, is a difficult task for several reasons. The ability of the powerful deterministic radiation transport code Attila, to do this rapidly and reliably has been studied. Three models of increasing geometrical complexity were produced from the CAD...
Article
The principle needs of ITER with regard to nuclear analysis can be divided into the broad categories of safety and licensing, plant operation, and decommissioning although there is much overlap and interdependence within these categories. This paper reviews the status of the methods applied to date and recommends the future strategy which ITER sho...
Article
A small steady state spherical tokamak (ST) offers an attractive system for producing simultaneously the neutron, particle and heat fluxes necessary to effectively test and optimise blanket modules, first wall structures and other components under the required fusion power plant conditions. This component test facility (CTF) would complement and ex...
Article
Recent advances in radiation transport simulation tools enable an increased fidelity and accuracy in modeling complex geometries in fusion systems. Future neutronics calculations will increasingly be based directly on these 3-D CAD-based geometries, allowing enhanced model complexity and improved quality assurance. Improvements have been made in bo...
Article
The operation of the proposed ITER neutral beam test facility involves the firing of a beam of deuterons into a calorimeter. The deuterons will become embedded in the calorimeter and subsequent particles can be involved in deuterium fusion reactions and the production of tritium. Complete tritium monitoring must encompass accurate measurement of th...
Article
The demanding neutronic environment in a future fusion power plant will require a thorough understanding of the mechanisms at work in producing displacement damage, their magnitudes, and their effects on the materials and their properties. It is a pre-requisite to have a precise understanding of the Primary Knock-on Atom (PKA) energy spectra caused...
Article
ATTILA™ is a three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport tool providing a fast and consistent analysis capability for neutron transport problems in technology design. The main advantages over Monte Carlo methods are (i) the solution is provided throughout the entire spatial domain, and (ii) the analysis process is simplified through di...
Article
The materials for future fusion devices such as DEMO require testing to high neutron fluence. Such testing is planned to be carried out in IFMIF, an accelerator based facility where the neutrons will have maximum energy of about 55 MeV, but with a broad peak near 14 MeV. In order that activation calculations for IFMIF can be carried out, the nuclea...
Article
Full-text available
The maximum temperature expected in ITER is in the region of 40 keV and the minimum average density of approximately 3×10<sup>19</sup> m <sup>-3</sup> is also expected. The proven capability, convenience, and port occupancy of the LIDAR Thomson scattering approach, demonstrated on JET, makes it an excellent candidate for ITER. Nonetheless, there ar...
Article
Within the framework of the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS), evaluation of activation inventories and temperature excursions in structures following hypothetical worst-case accident scenarios was performed for the four plant models considered. An improved, three-dimensional computational tool was developed and extensively used to assis...
Article
Both global and thermal energy confinement improve in high-temperature supershot plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) when deuterium beam heating is partially or wholly replaced by tritium beam heating. For the same heating power, the tritium-rich plasmas obtain up to 22% higher total energy, 30% higher thermal ion energy, and 20-25% h...
Article
Several neutron detectors have been installed on MAST to monitor the temporal production of neutrons during neutral beam injection. This paper describes the detectors, their calibration and applications of the data. The main neutron diagnostic is a guarded fission chamber, with processing electronics that allow data collection in three modes of ope...
Article
Full-text available
A local mixing model (LMM) (H.-D. Falter et al 1992 Proc. 17th Symp. on Fusion Technology (Rome, 1992) p 481) has been utilized to compute the evolution of the hydrogen isotope content within the implantation zone of the CuCrZr target material of the beam-stopping elements of the ITER neutral beam test facility (NBTF), together with the beam–target...
Article
The reliable assessment of dose rates is one of the key issues in operating nuclear machines. For fusion technology applications, two different computational methods have been recently developed to this end, the so-called R2S and the D1S approach. First experimental and computational benchmarks showed good results and promising prospective in appli...
Article
Full-text available
5 Association EURATOM-IPP.CR. Institue of Plasma Physics AS CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 21 6 Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR ENEA Milan, Italy 7 Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, Greece 8 See annex of Pamela J et al 2003 Overview of recent JET results Nucl.Fusion 43. Fusion is preparing for and moving towards reactor scale plasma exper...
Article
The neutron dose arising during the operation of the ITER neutral beam test bed was calculated using the Monte-Carlo code MCNP. The activation of the injector components was determined using the inventory code FISPACT and the resultant gamma ray doses at the end of the test programme were determined. It is found that there would be a neutron dose d...
Article
The paper describes the automatic generation of a JET 3D neutronics model from data of computer aided design (CAD) system for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. The applied method converts suitable CAD data into a representation appropriate for MC codes. The converted geometry is fully equivalent to the CAD geometry.
Article
The calculation of dose rates after shutdown is an important issue for operating nuclear reactors. A validated computational tool is needed for reliable dose rate calculations. In fusion reactors neutrons induce high levels of radioactivity and presumably high doses. The complex geometries of the devices require the use of sophisticated geometry mo...