Michael Leiter

Michael Leiter
Deakin University · School of Psychology

PhD

About

214
Publications
1,602,668
Reads
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43,313
Citations
Citations since 2016
66 Research Items
25029 Citations
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Additional affiliations
January 1992 - present
Acadia University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1991 - June 1992
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Sabbatical Year working with Tom Cox

Publications

Publications (214)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, teleworking affected the mental well-being of nearly all strata of the population. Teachers, who were employed to teach online courses during lockdown have been psychologically distressed. The primary aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and differences in the Burnout Syndrome (BOS) sym...
Chapter
The experience of job burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures and theoretical models have been developed, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of its causes and consequences. Based on this evidence, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially recognized job...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introducing new technology, such as an electronic medical record (EMR) into an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), can contribute to nurses’ stress and negative consequences for patient safety. The aim of this study was to explore ICU nurses’ perceptions of factors expected to influence their adoption of an EMR in their workplace. The objectives were to: 1)...
Chapter
Full-text available
The use of electronic medical record (EMR) systems is transforming health care delivery in hospitals. Perioperative nurses work in a unique high-risk health setting, hence require specific considerations for EMR implementation. This research explored perioperative nurses’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the implementation of an EMR in t...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Australia, almost 40% of nurses are aged 50 years and older. These nurses may be vulnerable to leaving the workforce due to challenges experienced during electronic medical record (EMR) implementations. This research explored older nurses’ perceptions of factors expected to influence their adoption of an EMR, to inform recommendations to support...
Article
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Introduction: Burnout syndrome (BOS) is a psychological syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion , depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. This umbrella review aimed to investigate BOS among healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning the prevalence of BOS among physici...
Article
Purpose/Objective(s) In 2018, the Canadian Medical Association acknowledged that physician health remains a significant threat to the viability of Canada's health care system. The prevalence of burnout among American oncologists was 44% in a 2014 survey. The purpose of this survey was to determine the national prevalence of burnout indicators and r...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased physician burnout beyond high baseline levels. We aimed to determine whether pandemic-related factors contribute to physician burnout beyond known organizational factors. This was a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians using a convenience sample. Eligible participants included any physician currently hol...
Article
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Humor studies are increasingly prevalent in workplace and leadership domains, it has shown significant development in the last 40 years. The multifaceted nature of humor means varied definitions and diverse measurement approaches have been approved. As a result, research methodologies and findings are not easily clarified, and have not been synthes...
Article
A cross-sectional province-wide survey study of 3,978 British Columbia (BC) nurses was conducted to explore the mental health state of the nursing workforce in BC. About one third of nurses reported depression and anxiety; about half reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and at least one third reported high levels of one or more dimen...
Article
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Background: Good social climate and high work engagement are important factors affecting outcomes in healthcare settings. This study observed the effects of a program called Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) on social climate and staff work engagement in a psychiatric ward of a Japanese hospital. Methods: The program comp...
Article
Objective: Clinician burnout in healthcare is extensive and of growing concern. In mental health and rehabilitation settings, research on interventions to improve burnout and work engagement is limited and rarely addresses organizational drivers of burnout. This study sought to elaborate on the organizational influence of burnout and work engagemen...
Article
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Employed people (N = 826) completed questionnaires including the Social Encounters Scale that assessed civility, incivility, and intimidation from supervisors, coworkers, and respondents on identical frequency scale. Factor analyses, correlations, and profile analysis addressed the first research question by demonstrating the benefits of assessing...
Article
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Journalists are at particular risk of work-related stress and burnout. The objective of this study is to describe and analyze the principal factors involved in the appearance of burnout in communication professionals, as well as the possible interactions between them and with self-reported health, and to observe whether the variables involved are t...
Article
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In the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, the combination of job demands, job control, and social support was hypothesized to lead to eight different constellations of job types. According to the model, these constellations are linked to wellbeing/health and learning outcomes. In the last three decades, these constellations of job types have...
Article
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The aim of the present study was twofold: First, to profile the long-term development of burnout symptoms (exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy), and second, to investigate the associations of developmental burnout profiles with job demands and resources. The study focused on Finnish white-collar professionals (N = 169) who partic...
Article
Many healthcare workers are “on the road” traveling to and from fixed sites (eg, patients’/clients’ homes). Qualitative interviews with nine Nova Scotian managers of mobile healthcare workers explored the conditions of workers’ travel. Findings highlight challenges such as changing schedules, as well as positive features including flexibility over...
Article
Several studies challenge the three-dimensional structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), citing alternative measurement models including bifactor models. While bifactor models have merit, if data sampling violates assumptions of Stochastic Measurement Theory (SMT) the bifactor model requires modification prior t...
Article
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There is growing interest on the relationship between attachment and work- or career-related decisions. However, to this date, there are no scientific reports assessing adult attachment in work environment in Brazilian samples. This study aimed to adapt and collect psychometric evidence from the Short Work Attachment Measure for Brazilian Portugues...
Chapter
There is a growing realisation within healthcare that healthcare worker well-being, patient outcomes and organizational change are symbiotically linked (Montgomery & Maslach, 2019). We have accumulated enough evidence to demonstrate that job burnout has become a major problem within the field of healthcare. It is a response to prolonged exposure to...
Book
This volume delineates the ways in which key areas of healthcare, well-being, patient safety and organisational change overlap with and contribute to unhealthy workplaces for healthcare professionals. There is a growing realisation within healthcare that healthcare worker well-being, patient outcomes and organisational change are symbiotically link...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing interest in the relationship between attachment and decisions related to career and work. However, instruments in Brazilian Portuguese were not found to specifically assess attachment at the workplace. Our goal was to translate and adapt the SWAN to Brazilian Portuguese and test its validity. A total of 450 adults (62% female...
Article
Objective: This study aims to examine 1st-line managers' (FLMs') experiences in managing the workplace social environment (WSE). Background: FLMs are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of supportive WSE essential for effective teamwork. Poorly managed WSE and dysfunctional teams hold negative implications for patients, teams, and...
Article
Full-text available
Many healthcare workers are ‘on the move’ as part of their employment, travelling often great distances to such places as patients’/clients’ homes and community clinics. Healthcare workers’ experiences of this employment-related geographic mobility have been relatively invisible even though mobility is necessary for home and community care. Intervi...
Article
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Background: Researchers have studied for decades workplace stress and burnout to identify their relationship to health and wellness. This research has focused on stress levels in people, as well as on environmental and personal factors that contribute to experiencing stress or burnout. In addition to the burnout measurement questionnaires (MBI-GS)...
Article
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Aim To examine predictors of Canadian new graduate nurses’ health outcomes over 1 year. Design A time‐lagged mail survey was conducted. Method New graduate nurses across Canada (N = 406) responded to a mail survey at two time points: November 2012–March 2013 (Time 1) and May–July 2014 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression (mental and overall healt...
Article
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Mobility and movement is an increasingly important part of work for many, however, Employment-Related Geographical Mobility (ERGM), defined as the extended movement of workers between places of permanent residence and employment, is relatively understudied among healthcare workers. It is critical to understand the policies that affect ERGM, and how...
Article
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Burnout has a long tradition of studies in the workplace and recently researchers suggested burnout is also rising among university students. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is considered a valid measure of burnout. However, the student version of the MBI (MBI-SS) has received limited empirical support. The aim of this paper is to analyze the f...
Article
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The quality of workplace social environments has been widely recognized as having an important role in employees' experience of their workplace, which is confirmed by recent research. The greater frequency of incivility, in contrast to the more intense forms of negative workplace interactions, expands opportunities for understanding the social dyna...
Article
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Objective: The study examined the relationship of occupational safety with job burnout. Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Setting: The setting was Nova Scotia, Canada. Participants: Mobile health employees (N = 156) completed surveys on road safety, workload, burnout and supervisor incivility. Main outcome measure: The main ou...
Article
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Background This study examines the construct validity of the Areas of Worklife Short Scale, a practical instrument to measure employees’ perceptions of their work environments in the sample of secondary obligatory education teachers in Spain. Methods Conducted in 33 centers of secondary obligatory education in Spain (N = 677). Confirmatory Factor...
Article
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Objective Using a quantitative diary design, the purpose of this paper is to gain insight in the workplace violence phenomenon by examining whether within-person fluctuations in fear of future violence is linked to within-person levels of burnout. In addition, authors investigated whether this relationship was stronger for those low in job control...
Article
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Employees working in the hospitality industry are constantly exposed to occupational stressors that may lead employees into experiencing the burnout syndrome. Research addressing the interactive effects of control, community and value congruence, to alleviate the impact of workplace demands on experiencing burnout is relatively limited. The present...
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide nuance into the issue of generational cohort differences at work by focusing on the role of contextual moderator variables. Theory and hypotheses derived from the research on generational differences, psychological contracts, and work values are contrasted to a countervailing set of hypotheses derived from theory and re...
Article
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Burnout has been disproportionally reported in child protection social work. This paper presents data from 162 child protection staff in Northern Ireland, assessed for burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Path models were estimated, based on an extension of the two-process demands and values model (Leiter, ) to include additional measures o...
Article
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Objectives: Although incivility is a common interpersonal mistreatment and associated with poor mental health, there are few studies about it in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the modified Work Incivility Scale (J-MWIS), investigate its reliability and validity, and reveal the prevalence of incivility...
Chapter
Workplace aggression is a serious problem for workers and their employers. As such, an improved scientific understanding of workplace aggression has important implications. This volume, which includes chapters written by leading workplace aggression scholars, addresses three primary topics: the measurement, predictors and consequences of workplace...
Chapter
The concept of burnout, which first attracted the attention of both researchers and practitioners in the 1970s, is now recognized as a major social issue in the workplace. A historical review of the development of this concept, in terms of theoretical models and assessment tools, points to the tension between models of greater complexity and effort...
Article
Aim: To describe new graduate nurses' transition experiences in Canadian healthcare settings by exploring the perspectives of new graduate nurses and nurse leaders in unit level roles. Background: Supporting successful transition to practice is key to retaining new graduate nurses in the workforce and meeting future demand for healthcare service...
Article
What do we know about burnout, and what can we do about it? This article will provide an overview of what has been learned from current research on burnout, and what are the implications of the key themes that have emerged. One theme involves the critical significance of the social environment in health care settings. A second theme is the challeng...
Article
Background: Incivility has negative consequences in the workplace and remains a prevalent issue in nursing. Research has consistently linked incivility to nurse burnout and, in turn, to poor mental health and turnover intentions. To retain high-quality nurses, it is important to understand what factors might protect nurses from the negative effect...
Article
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Latent profile analysis, with two large datasets, was used to identify multiple person-centered profiles across the burnout – engagement continuum, as assessed by the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Five profiles emerged from this analysis: Burnout (high on all three dimensions), Engagement (low on all three), Overextended...
Article
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Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the A...
Article
Full-text available
The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focus...
Article
Full-text available
Orientation: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context. Research purpose: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivil...
Article
Objectives: Prior research found preliminary effectiveness for Burnout Reduction: Enhanced Awareness, Tools, Handouts, and Education (BREATHE), a daylong workshop for reducing burnout among behavioral health providers. Using a longer follow-up compared with prior research, this study compared the effectiveness of BREATHE and a control condition....
Article
Background: As the nursing profession ages, new graduate nurses are an invaluable health human resource. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing new graduate nurses' successful transition to their full professional role in Canadian hospital settings and to determine predictors of job and career satisfaction a...
Article
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Although conflict at work is a fairly common and often distressing occurrence, it is arguably a vital and necessary element of human interaction. Relevant to this special issue on positive psychology, we propose that the necessary short-term intensity of interpersonal conflict can bring about positive longer term consequences, including insight, co...
Article
Workplace incivility has been identified as a specific form of social mistreatment causing distress despite its low intensity. Research on workplace incivility has touched on a variety of personal and contextual factors associated with incivility's prevalence including research on both antecedents and outcomes. The research has been especially conc...
Article
Full-text available
Background/aim Occupational health largely depends on the perceived fit between the employee's abilities and workplace demands/factors. The Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) specifies six areas that are particularly relevant in this respect: workload, control, reward, community, fairness, and values. The current article aimed at investigating the facto...
Article
Full-text available
Although the potential deleterious effects of negative social interactions at work have been well established in the literature, the impact of personal factors in forming work relationships has been relatively neglected. Therefore, using a survey of 1624 Canadian healthcare providers, we examined the extent to which attachment styles at work were a...