Michael S. Latour

Michael S. Latour
Ithaca College | IC · Marketing

Ph.D.

About

71
Publications
18,175
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3,466
Citations

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Abstract Purpose – The aim of this paper is to identify the best marketing communications for policy messages that makes these messages acceptable and fair to the public. Within the context of the Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) tax, this paper examines how framing messages through the alternative perspective of tribalism can increase individual suppo...
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While the explosive literature on the portrayal of women in advertising has established a multitude of salient issues (e.g., sexual objectification), the skin tone of Asian models in ads and associated cultural underpinnings has not yet been examined. However, given the obsession in various Asian countries with skin whitening for women, it has the...
Article
False memories are generally viewed as "dumb," in the sense of being caused by deficient processing, but recent psychological research has shown that elaboration and inferences can result in " smart" false memories. These " smart" false memories are explained by fuzzy-trace theory (FTT), which assumes that they derive from comprehension of the mean...
Article
The study focuses on assessing the impact of a salesperson's accent on people's perception of his effectiveness, including credibility, competence, friendliness, and intentions to buy. One hundred and forty-six students listened to tape recordings of three presenters speaking with Greek-accented English and three presenters speaking with standard A...
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Given that virtual worlds as a promotional vehicle may dramatically alter the existing customer experience, we seek to understand the impact of the virtual environment through interdisciplinary research. We present a conceptual framework, beginning with a qualitative study, and finishing with a quantitative study that includes hypothesis testing. O...
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This study explores consumers' ethical judgments about the use of sexual appeals in print advertising. It specifically focuses upon responses on the Reidenbach-Robin multidimensional ethics scale, ad attitude, brand attitude, and purchase intentions. The findings indicate that, regardless of the respondent's gender, the use of a strong overt sexual...
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Marketers frequently evoke personal nostalgia in their advertising. To date, scales have been developed to measure the propensity to get nostalgic but not the actual dimensions of personal nostalgia. Results from four studies show that advertising-evoked personal nostalgia comprises four correlated but distinct dimensions: past imagery, positive em...
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Periodic scanning of research productivity within a discipline is necessary to effectively measure the relative contribution of individual authors and institutions. This review extends Barry's 1990 work and examines refereed articles in the three primary U.S. advertising specialty journals—Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, an...
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The present study uses a causal-modeling approach to evaluate an experimental manipulation of female nudity in print advertising. A hypothetical model which includes a multi-dimensional structure of arousal acting as an intervening factor between the ad nudity stimulus and resulting cognitive impressions of the ad is proposed. The results lend part...
Article
How advertising can influence or change consumers' product experience has been a topic of great interest to marketers. The majority of research has suggested that advertising received prior to an experience can exert the most influence. In 1999, however, Braun introduced the concept of reconstructive memory, and demonstrated that advertising receiv...
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How effective is an advertising campaign that has consistently used the same theme since consumers' early childhood? To answer that question one has to consider the effect the campaign has had on consumers' memory. This research begins by discussing the structure of memory and schematic processes that occur when similar or related information is pr...
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This study addresses kiosk-based shopping behavior among female consumers. The authors sought to build upon existing promotional retail research that showed and explained gender differences in experiential shopping environments. Upon confirming extant literature findings of gender differences as they apply to perceptions of shopping risk in kiosk e...
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There has been some debate between marketing researchers regarding the role postexperience advertising can play on influencing consumer memory. Our investigation looks at whether paradigm differences can account for these different findings or whether advertising's influence on altering sensory memory is indeed limited. We also investigate a potent...
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Given the stream of response studies concerning women's perceptions of female role portrayals and the apparent phenomenon of feminist consciousness raising in our society, the current experimental study evaluates whether brief exposure to “consciousness raising stimuli” can have a significant effect after carefully checking for demand artifacts as...
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Wine marketers and restaurateurs have a vested interest in helping novice wine drinkers to learn more about wine, with the goal of encouraging them to purchase more wine and higher quality wine (with its higher price tag). The question posed here is how best to conduct that educational effort, using a perceptual approach or a conceptual approach. M...
Article
Graphic sexual appeals grab attention but the advertising literature suggests that these messages are far from a “magic bullet.” Using a large national panel ( N = 1,506), the current research manipulated levels of nudity in fragrance ads and assessed key constructs including Sexual Self Schema, Sensation Seeking, and dimensions of the Reidenbach-R...
Article
The aficionado consumer is one who consumes and enjoys a hedonic product regularly but has failed to obtain product expertise from his/her many experiences. We conceptualize the aficionado as having asymmetric perceptual and conceptual knowledge and posit that when these two types of knowledge are bridged with a sensory consumption vocabulary, the...
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Despite the diversity of all those involved within the marketing discipline, all have a stake in maximizing the advancement of marketing knowledge. Without a specific analysis it is difficult to reflect on where a field has been or where it might be heading. The purpose of this chapter is to examine who and what marketing scholars have been researc...
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This paper builds on consumer storytelling theory and childhood memory research by proposing that earliest childhood memory stories are useful for developing brand myths and providing relevance to iconic brands. This article investigates consumers' childhood memories with Coca-Cola and finds that memories from early childhood are more predictive an...
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International expansion by Las Vegas casino operators has so far been uneven, notably in Macao. Information on different cultures’ understandings of gambling, which is scant, could be instrumental in supporting international expansion. Instead of using the common-macro level cultural comparison survey-based method, this research uses early childhoo...
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Based on a real-world field study of twenty-one sponsored promotional events (sponsored fashion shows) (n=535), we provide a self-congruity theory-based model explaining the role of mall shopper’s self-congruity on the effectiveness of experiential mall promotions. We find that self-congruity with the event is a key influencer of promotion effectiv...
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This paper examines the impact of mood on consumers' implicit and explicit responses to false advertising. In our first experiment, we find that those consumers in a positive (versus a negative or neutral) mood state are more likely to notice the false information in the advertising, but paradoxically, are also likely to develop positive feelings t...
Article
The U.S. embargo has clearly been costly to the Cuban people, in terms of their health and well-being. Based upon the first author's firsthand, informal personal interactions with the Cuban people, including Cuban president Fidel Castro, as well as the authors' recent qualitative research in Cuba, this article contends that these past decades have...
Article
This investigation contributes to work on emotion-based advertising by testing responses to three types of sexual stimuli in commercials: ads featuring women, men, or both women and men. As expected, affective and attitudinal responses were most favorable to opposite-sex stimuli, followed by mixed-sex stimuli, with same-sex imagery evaluated least...
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Marketing the Quarterdeck may be a matter of touching on the emotions of current and potential customers.
Article
The regional In-N-Out burger chain is at a crossroads. With the passing of its matriarch, a new generation of owners is considering speeding up the company's growth, franchising the company, and expanding its product to a national audience. The question is, How will existing customers respond to the chain's expansion? In this context, the childhood...
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In this article, the authors introduce the concept that people's earliest and defining product memories can be used as a projective tool to help managers more fully understand consumers' relationships to their products. The authors use a study on three generations of automobile consumers to illustrate how these memories symbolize the consumer-brand...
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This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...
Article
Previous research on the arts, entertainment, and other cultural objects has found, at most, a weak link between expert judgments of aesthetic excellence and audience appeal to nonexpert consumers. However, this tendency for audience appeal only weakly to reflect expert judgments of excellence raises the question of how this fragile relationship mi...
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This manuscript reports three experiments investigating the impact of television programming context on the processing of a fear-appeal message. This is done using a dual-motivation system theory conceptualizing emotion as arising from activation of the appetitive and/or aversive motivational systems. Results show that, as predicted, sad programmin...
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Initial impressions were found to form along well-differentiated lines, namely race and/or sex, in a study involving 450 shoppers at several regional shopping malls. The role of initial impressions in cognitive formation towards retail salespeople was found to be significant. Significant differences were found to exist between members of differing...
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A study of the effects of reconstructive memory points the way to dealing with the damage to a business’s reputation that follows an instance of negative publicity. The study contradicts the commonly held myth that it is best to avoid communicating for a time and let consumers “forget” an unfortunate incident. Instead, given what is now known about...
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A successful path to purchasing negotiation often hinges on a buyer's ability to gain relative bargaining strength. Unfortunately, the establishment of a strong bargaining position for a buyer is not a simple matter because of the multitude of factors affecting the buyer's negotiation leverage. To help purchasing professionals develop more effectiv...
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Previous research has shown that employee job satisfaction is a relevant factor in service quality improvement. Employees who feel satisfied with their jobs provide higher levels of customer satisfaction. This study contributes to the current body of work in this area by investigating the responses from 351 employees and their 8667 customers from o...
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Recent "paradigm shifting" research in consumer behavior dealing with reconstructive memory processes suggests that advertising can exert a powerful retroactive effect on how consumers remember their past experiences with a product. Building on this stream of research, we have executed three studies that incorporate the use of false cues with the a...
Article
The promotion of US exports has been a priority for the US Department of Commerce, with the aim of reducing the trade deficit. This, combined with the worldwide reduction in trade barriers, has opened up a number of foreign markets for US companies. A key element of export sales development is successful sales negotiations between US exporters and...
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This study examines the psychological response to the threat of radon gas. This study contributes new information to the theoretical literature pertaining to fear appeals in general and the threat to children from radon gas in particular. The presence or absence of children living in the home resulted in opposite effects of alternative levels of th...
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The implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems enables industrial marketing management to pursue the reduction of marketing cycle times and enhance customer service. The use of ERP systems is closely associated with business engineering (BE), which focuses on decades of research to benchmark optimal business practices. A descripti...
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This study examines the institutional as well as individual contributions to Industrial Marketing Management over its first 28 years of existence. IMM has been able to effectively bridge the gap between academia and industry and has served as the flagship publication for the field of industrial marketing, and the authors and institutions represente...
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As part of a project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted to gain insight into perceptions of the threat of radon in the Karst geological region (i.e., Northern Alabama, Central Tennessee, Central Kentucky). Based on health practitioner input, it was clear that the tenets of Protection Motiva...
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With the importance of Japan to the world economy, and the attractiveness of Japanese corporations as buyers of U.S. industrial products, it is vital for industrial marketers to understand the ethical predispositions of Japanese purchasing executives. A ground-breaking sample of 222 purchasing executives from the largest Japanese corporations was o...
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The topic of sexism in advertising has been dissected for more than 30 years in the consumer advertising arena. Yet, a relative dearth of knowledge exists concerning perceived sexism in industrial advertising. More and more women are joining the professional ranks. Their perceptions of gender role portrayals in industrial advertising is of high imp...
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The topic of sexism in advertising has been dissected for more than 30 years in the consumer advertising arena. Yet, a relative dearth of knowledge exists concerning perceived sexism in industrial advertising. More and more women are joining the professional ranks. Their perceptions of gender role portrayals in industrial advertising is of high imp...
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Most research in the area generally known as “fear appeals” has examined the persuasive effects and effectiveness of different types of threat-based communications on various groups of consumer subjects, often failing to distinguish between the threats, the literal communication stimuli, and the actual fear arousal response that different types of...
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Seeks to fill some of the gaps in the business literature regarding the consumer market in Japan. Accomplishes this through a replication of the classic 1974 work of Davis and Rigaux relating to family purchase decision making. An egalitarianism scale was included for the final analysis to allow for differences in couple perceived traditionality-mo...
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Acknowledging the decades of social awareness and diverse views on the portrayal of women in advertising, the authors evaluate the perceptions of a stratified sample of adult women in a large mid-Atlantic SMSA regarding their general perceptions of female role portrayals, company image, purchase intention, and female autonomy orientation responses....
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This study investigates the differences in he way bribery and extortion is perceived by two different cultures — American and Greek. Two hundred and forty American business students and two hundred and four Greek business students were presented with three scenarios describing a businessman offering a bribe to a government official and three scenar...
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Following the approach of the classic 1974 marital-role influence study of Davis and Rigaux, the present study focuses on differences in decision making (i.e., joint, husband dominated, wife dominated) across 24 product categories as a function of two key factors. These factors are stage of the decision process (i.e., problem recognition, informati...
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This study extended a 1990 report of LaTour, Pitts, and Snook-Luther by further analysis. Relationships between the key dimensions of High Activation (tension) and General Activation (energy) and ratings of attitude toward the advertisement were analyzed in a test of two hypothetical models performed on ratings by 134 undergraduate business student...
Article
In an era of global sourcing, the multinational firm's success often hinges on its astuteness in selecting from a set of domestic and foreign suppliers. When compared with domestic supplier selection, international supplier selection decisions are fraught with countless risks and complexities. These may include the political atmosphere, tariff barr...
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Explores gender specific attitudes toward the ad and attitudes toward the brand under varying degrees of female nudity in ad treatment conditions. Shows that while female nudity is extremely common in women's magazines, men are not only far more positive than women in their attitude toward an ad using explicit female nudity, but also stronger in th...
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This paper examines the tenability of a two-dimensional (tension and energy) formulation of fear arousal effects in the context of print advertising. Intuitively, stimulation of fear parallels a two-part continuum of increasing tension. This exploratory study stems from the theoretical premise that increasing tension generates energy up to a certai...
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In this paper we explore the intersection of three topics which have historically been singled out for ethical consideration in advertising and marketing: the use of fear appeals, marketing to the elderly, and the marketing of health care services and products. Issues relevant to using fear appeals in promoting health care issues to the elderly are...
Article
The location decision for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) services facility is evaluated through marginal analysis. Both population-based and referral-based data are applied. The results provide input for a series of practical recommendations for MRI service providers.
Article
Assesses the effect of an international business person's accent on Guatemalan subjects' perception of the business person's effectiveness, credibility, competence, friendliness, as well as the Guatemalan subject's intentions to buy. Graduate students at a Guatemalan university listened to tape recordings of three presenters speaking Guatemalan Spa...
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Full-text available
Adoption and diffusion of product innovations continue to be important issues in developing marketing strategies for consumers. A recent addition to the literature, the Cultural Anchoring Diffusion/Assimilation Model,4 suggests that over time, certain technological innovations may actually foster a highly involving psychological dependence that goe...
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Investigated the influence of salespersons' race and sex on initial impressions of White buyers. 107 White organizational buyers and civilian governmental buyers (average age 38.2 yrs) viewed artist sketches of sales personnel differentiated only by race and sex and responded to a hypothetical buying scenario through a descriptive adjectives instru...
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Uses an upscale female sample to extend previous research on women's perceptions of their role portrayal in advertising media. Indicates that serious disenchantment with perceived portrayal of women still exists for this important group of consumers. Measures various attitudinal, company image, and purchase intention responses in addition to salien...
Article
Previous research on the dimensionality of arousal indicates tension arousal is associated with negative feelings and energy arousal is associated with positive feelings. Women were found to generate more tension and negative feelings towards explicit female nudity in print ads than men. Men were more energized and positive in their feelings about...
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The “open door” policy adopted by the PRC in 1979 created a fundamental need for additional insight in to the domestic consumer market. This research examines and explores the existence of country of origin product perceptions form the point of view of the citizens of the People's Republic of China. A study of 481 PRC citizens from five distinct an...
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Outlines issues arising from employing fear appeals in advertising. Reviews the results of several studies on the effect of using fear as a means of persuasion in marketing. Concludes that strong fear appeal may not be an effective marketing tool, and that the use of fear appeals requires that ethical concerns for the consumers' psychological well-...
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A multiple-indicator model reveals the impact of AIDS prevention advertising on dimensions of arousal and subsequent cognitive impressions of the advertisement. Exploratory results obtained from a sample of college students indicate that levels of arousal and impressions of the advertisement vary according to emphasis on the deadly consequences of...
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In this paper, three major themes in research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) are identified. Of particular interest, however, is the potential link between CSR and organizational effectiveness (OE). Data collected from 410 college graduate and undergraduate students were used to examine this relationship. Using factor analysis, eight dime...
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Examined the general perceptions of women from different interest groups to female role portrayals in advertising. 130 members of the National Organization for Women (NOW), 94 members from the League of Women Voters (LOWV), and 150 females from a general area sample responded to 17 attitude statements relating to role portrayals in advertising, com...
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Studied the effects of the perceived ethicality and performance of fear appeals in advertising. Two versions of an advertisement for a stun gun device were shown to 150 and 155 demographically diverse women, respectively; one designated as a mild fear appeal ad and the other a strong fear appeal ad. Ss completed questionnaires including the followi...

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