Michael Kosoy

Michael Kosoy
KB One Health

PhD

About

666
Publications
36,535
Reads
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6,998
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - present
KB One Health
Position
  • Researcher
May 1999 - May 2019
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (666)
Article
Full-text available
From the perspective of ecology of zoonotic pathogens, the role of the Old World rats of the genus Rattus is exceptional. The review analyzes specific characteristics of rats that contribute to their important role in hosting pathogens, such as host-pathogen relations and rates of rat-borne infections, taxonomy, ecology, and essential factors. Spec...
Article
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More is not automatically better. Generation and accumulation of information reflecting the complexity of zoonotic diseases as ecological systems do not necessarily lead to improved interpretation of the obtained information and understanding of these complex systems. The traditional conceptual framework for analysis of diseases ecology is neither...
Article
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Our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central New Mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of Yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. A total of 3156 fleas collec...
Article
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Infectious agents, their hosts, and relevant abiotic components are directly involved in the complex dynamic process of maintaining infectious diseases in Nature. The current tendency to focus on host-pathogen interactions at the molecular and organismal levels does not advance our knowledge about infectious diseases, as much as it potentially coul...
Article
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The Borrelia genus comprises vector-borne, spirochete bacteria infecting vertebrates worldwide. We characterized a novel relapsing fever Borrelia species from a desert cottontail (Syvilagus audubonii) from New Mexico, United States, using an established multilocus sequence analysis approach. Phylogenetic analysis of the flagellin gene (flaB) and fo...
Article
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Big cities of Argentina are characterized by a strong social and economic fragmentation. This context enables the presence of urban rodents in close contact to the human population, mostly in the peripheral areas of the cities. Urban rodents can harbor a large variety of zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize Lept...
Article
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Yersinia enterocolitica culture-positive rodents and shrews were reported in different territories across Georgia during 14 of 17 years of investigations conducted for the period of 1981–1997. In total, Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 2052 rodents (15 species) and 33 shrews. Most isolates were obtained from Microtus arvalis, Rattus norvegicus,...
Article
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Background In Peru, the information regarding sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis in the Amazon region is limited. In this study, we carried out sand fly collections in Peruvian lowland and highland jungle areas using different trap type configurations and screened them for Leishmania and Bartonella DNA. Methodology/Principal findi...
Article
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Cat-associated Bartonella species, which include B. henselae, B. koehlerae, and B. clarridgeiae, can cause mild to severe illness in humans. In the present study, we evaluated 1362 serum samples obtained from domestic cats across the U.S. for seroreactivity against three species and two strain types of Bartonella associated with cats (B. henselae t...
Preprint
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Infectious diseases result from multiple interactions among microbes and hosts, but community ecology approaches are rarely applied. Manipulation of vector populations provides a unique opportunity to test the importance of vectors in infection cycles while also observing changes in pathogen community diversity and species interactions. Yet for man...
Article
Bats are notorious reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases and may be uniquely tolerant of infection among mammals. Broad sampling has revealed the importance of bats in the diversification and spread of viruses and eukaryotes to other animal hosts. Vector-borne bacteria of the genus Bartonella are prevalent and diverse in mammals globally and rece...
Article
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Protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma infect a broad diversity of vertebrates and several species cause significant illness in humans. However, understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, host associations, and infection dynamics of Trypanosoma species in naturally infected animals is incomplete. This study investigated the presence of Tryp...
Article
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The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis is the main vector of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, the causative agents of cat-scratch disease (CSD) and the spotted-fever agent Rickettsia felis. In spite of their worldwide distribution, there are no data on the occurrence of CSD-causing Bartonella species or the prevalence of Rickettsia spec...
Article
Urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry pathogenic Bartonella spp. that are transmitted among rats and from rats to people through arthropod vectors, particularly fleas. There is marked temporospatial variation in Bartonella spp. carriage among Norway rats in Vancouver, Canada, and we investigated whether this variation is associated with flea...
Article
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Upon acquiring two unique plasmids (pMT1 and pPCP1) and genome rearrangement during the evolution from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , the plague causative agent Y . pestis is closely related to Y . pseudotuberculosis genetically but became highly virulent. We developed a pentaplex real‐time PCR assay that not only detects both Yersinia species but a...
Article
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Yersinia entercolitica is a bacterial species within the genus Yersinia, mostly known as a human enteric pathogen, but also recognized as a zoonotic agent widespread in domestic pigs. Findings of this bacterium in wild animals are very limited. The current report presents results of the identification of cultures of Y. entercolitica from dead bats...
Article
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Here, we provide the first mass molecular screening of medically important mosquitoes for Bartonella species using multiple genetic markers. We examined a total of 72,115 mosquito specimens, morphologically attributed to Aedes vexans (61,050 individuals), Culex pipiens (10,484 individuals) and species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (581 indi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bats are notorious reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases and may be uniquely tolerant of infection among mammals. Broad sampling has revealed the importance of bats in the diversification and spread of viruses and eukaryotes to other animal hosts. Vector-borne bacteria of the genus Bartonella are prevalent and diverse in mammals globally and rece...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Vector-borne bacterial diseases represent a substantial public health burden and rodents have been recognized as important reservoir hosts for many zoonotic pathogens. This study investigates bacterial pathogens in a small mammal community of the southwestern United States of America. Methods: A total of 473 samples from...
Preprint
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Disease ecology emphasizes how ecological interactions between microparasites (pathogenic microbes), macroparasites (helminths, protists), and animal hosts help understanding transmission of diseases and parasites within the epidemiological landscape. Diseases and parasites are ecological and evolutionary forces at all biological levels of organiza...
Article
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In the present study, we tested 391 fleas collected from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (241 Pulex species, 110 Ctenocephalides felis, and 40 Tiamastus cavicola) and 194 fleas collected from human bedding and clothing (142 Pulex species, 43 C. felis, five T. cavicola, and four Ctenocephalides canis) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. We also tested...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bartonella Infections. (Carrión’s disease, cat scratch disease, trench fever)
Article
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We report isolation and identification of two strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Janibacter from a human patient with aortic stenosis from a rural area of the country of Georgia. The microorganisms were isolated from aortic heart valve. Two isolates with slightly distinct colony morphologies were harvested after sub-culturing from an origin...
Article
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The main purpose of this study was to clarify the role of gray marmots (Marmota baibacina) in the long-term maintenance of highly virulent strains of Yersinia pestis in two plague endemic foci of the Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan. We present data from regular observations of populations of M. baibacina and small rodents cohabiting with marmots...
Article
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Despite the widespread recognition of the risks of disease transmission associated with international trade in domestic animals and movement of exotic animals, less is known about the role of rats in carrying pathogens between continents. The genus Bartonella, a highly prevalent and extremely diverse group of bacteria, includes species that are exc...
Article
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How multitrophic relationships between wildlife communities and their ectoparasitic vectors interact to shape the diversity of vector-borne microorganisms is poorly understood. Nested levels of dependence among microbes, vectors, and vertebrate hosts may have complicated effects on both microbial community assembly and evolution. We examined Barton...
Article
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Phylogenetic sister clades Bartonella and Brucella within the order Rhizobiales present some common biological characteristics as well as evident differences in adaptations to their mammalian reservoirs. We reviewed published data on Bartonella and Brucella infections in wild carnivores to compare the ecology of these bacteria in relatively similar...
Article
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Twice a year in southwestern Nigeria, during a traditional bat festival, community participants enter designated caves to capture bats, which are then consumed for food or traded. We investigated the presence of Bartonella species in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) from these caves and assessed whet...
Article
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Twice a year in southwestern Nigeria, during a traditional bat festival, community participants enter designated caves to capture bats, which are then consumed for food or traded. We investigated the presence of Bartonella species in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) from these caves and assessed whet...
Article
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Few studies have been able to provide experimental evidence of the ability of fleas to maintain rodent-associated Bartonella infections and excrete these bacteria. These data are important for understanding the transmission cycles and prevalence of these bacteria in hosts and vectors. We used an artificial feeding approach to expose groups of the o...
Article
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Growing evidence demonstrates that bacterial species diversity is substantial, and many of these species are pathogenic in some contexts or hosts. At the same time, laboratories and museums have collected valuable animal tissue and ectoparasite samples that may contain substantial novel information on bacterial prevalence and diversity. However, th...
Article
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Bat bugs (Cimex adjunctus Barber) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) collected from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus Palisot de Beauvoir) in Colorado, United States were assessed for the presence of Bartonella, Brucella, and Yersinia spp. using molecular techniques. No evidence of Brucella or Yersinia infection was found in the 55 specimens collected; however,...
Article
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Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, a...
Article
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Fleas (n = 407) were collected from small mammals trapped inside huts and surroundings of homesteads in five villages within the Arua and Zombo districts of Uganda. The most common flea species were Dinopsyllus lypusus (26%) and Xenopsylla cheopis (50%). Off-host fleas (n = 225) were collected inside huts by using Kilonzo flea traps. The majority o...
Article
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It is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. Though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. Here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of Bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co...
Article
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The presence of keystone species can influence disease dynamics through changes in species diversity and composition of vector and host communities. In this study, we compared 1) the diversity of small mammals; 2) the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of arthropod vectors; and 3) the prevalence of Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Bar...
Article
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Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from 44 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and 10 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in southern California during health inspections in 2015-16. Specimens were identified and screened by PCR analysis to determine the presence and prevalence of Bartonella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia species in ticks associated...
Article
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Bartonellae are phylogenetically diverse, intracellular bacteria commonly found in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats have a high prevalence and diversity of Bartonella infections globally. Isolates (n = 42) were obtained from five bat species in four provinces of Thailand and analyzed using sequences of the citrate synthase gene...
Data
Supplementary material. This file includes additional information on field and laboratory methods and supplementary tables and figures. (HTML)
Article
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Author summary Bacteria of the genus Bartonella parasitize erythrocytes and endothelial cells of a wide range of mammals and recently were reported in bats from Africa, Asia, America, and northern Europe. A human disease case in the USA was associated with a novel Bartonella species, which later was identified in bats in Finland. This human case ha...
Article
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The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion...
Article
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Bartonella spp. are erythrocytic bacteria transmitted via arthropod vectors, which infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. We investigated transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for potentially zoonotic Bartonella spp. in invasive Rattus rattus hosts and associated arthropod ectoparasites in Madagascar. We...
Article
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Morphological (craniometrical characteristics and variations of cusp t3 on the second upper molar (M 2)) and genetic (polymorphism of chromosomes and blood proteins) variability was analyzed in small island populations of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771 from the Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan). It was found that the absenc...
Article
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The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria with a unique lifestyle. After transmission by blood-sucking arthropods they colonize the erythrocytes of mammalian hosts causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Although the pathogen–host interaction is well understood, little is known about the evolutionary origin of the inf...
Article
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The host-parasite-vector relationship of Bartonella spp. system in wild carnivores and their fleas from northwestern Mexico was investigated. Sixty-six carnivores belonging to eight species were sampled, and 285 fleas belonging to three species were collected during spring (April-May) and fall (October-November) seasons. We detected Bartonella spec...