Michael Kennedy

Michael Kennedy
University of Virginia | UVa · Department of Special Education

Ph.D.

About

80
Publications
45,701
Reads
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1,143
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2017 - May 2017
University of Virginia
Position
  • Professor
June 2011 - present
University of Virginia
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
August 2007 - May 2011
University of Kansas
Field of study
  • Special Education

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Understanding science allows students with and without developmental and behavioral‐based (DB) disabilities to better appreciate the world around them as well as prepare them for the growing science‐related job market. However, students in the United States consistently underperform on science achievement tests compared to students from other natio...
Article
Special education teacher preparation programs vary in their usage of practices (e.g., modeling and performance feedback) that have consistently been shown to effectively coach pre-service teachers to sustain high-quality implementation of teaching practices. Research even suggests that some pre-service special education teachers may not receive an...
Article
Student achievement disparities in inclusive science classrooms are concerning, as knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is increasingly important for upward mobility. When students identify with multiple marginalized sociocultural groups, progress becomes more troubling, as the interplay among these factors is ra...
Article
Vocabulary is a critical building block for establishing mastery of content area knowledge. Two technology-based tools (InferCabulary and Content Acquisition Podcasts for Students [CAP-S]) have been found to have beneficial effects on students’ vocabulary knowledge, but efficacy of device features across varied presentation formats is unknown. The...
Chapter
To successfully participate in the science learning experience, students are expected to participate in investigations and communicate their thinking with their peers. However, in order to engage in these conversations and develop a deeper understanding of the science concepts being explored, it is necessary to understand the specialized vocabulary...
Article
Full-text available
Topics presented in content area courses at the secondary level are often comprised of specialized and/or multiple-meaning vocabulary terms that can challenge students’ understanding. Additionally, gaps in relevant knowledge from prior learning experiences in earlier grade levels may further impede comprehension of content area concepts. This is of...
Article
All teachers need ongoing coaching that helps them recognize areas of strength and need for teaching students with disabilities. Unfortunately, the amount, quality, and speed with which teachers receive feedback from coaches, administrators, mentors, or other instructional leaders on their academic and behavior management practices is limited. In t...
Chapter
Students with disabilities consistently underperform on academic achievement tests. In part, this is due to teachers being underprepared to provide the evidence-based instruction needed to help students with disabilities succeed. Historically, professional development (PD) has been provided to educators yielding disappointing results. In this chapt...
Article
Early in 2020, it became clear the COVID-19 pandemic was on its way toward disrupting the status quo in education in a substantial manner. As schools reacted by moving teaching and learning online, teachers, staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders were thrust into a world of learning previously discussed in this journal, but unknown to mos...
Article
Strong classroom management may be the key to finding success as a new teacher. Yet many teachers seek additional professional development in managing classrooms that include students with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to provide new teachers and teacher educators with a prescriptive yet self-led approach to systematically improving...
Article
There are multiple pathways for students with and without disabilities to learn new vocabulary terms. However, the number of empirically tested and validated multimedia options is surprisingly limited. In this study, researchers tested a commercially available app (InferCabulary) to evaluate the impact on vocabulary performance of fifth-grade stude...
Article
School personnel can benefit from creating and sharing their own positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) videos. PBIS videos can (a) introduce a new initiative to faculty and students, (b) teach specific school or class expectations, (c) reinforce appropriate student and staff behavior, and (d) celebrate PBIS implementation successes....
Article
Full-text available
Students with high-incidence disabilities (e.g., learning disabilities, emotional behavior disorders, and autism spectrum disorders) often receive most of their education in general education classrooms. Once in these classrooms, students with disabilities are expected to learn from the general education curriculum. For students with disabilities p...
Article
Effective professional development (PD) for teachers should be directly and intricately linked to their teaching practice. One way to link PD to practice is for administrators or coaches to provide performance feedback based on classroom observations, accompanied by reflection and coaching. This type of PD can be time-consuming and difficult to man...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this manuscript, we (a) briefly describe proposed open-science practices to increase transparency of research in special education and related disciplines, and (b) provide recommendations for research funders, professional societies, journal editors and publishers, and individual researchers to support awareness, exploration, and adoption of ope...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this manuscript, we (a) briefly describe proposed open-science practices to increase transparency of research in special education and related disciplines, and (b) provide recommendations for research funders, professional societies, journal editors and publishers, and individual researchers to support awareness, exploration, and adoption of ope...
Article
This article provides an overview of the literature on special education law and policy and teacher preparation for special education technology use and identifies current issues, focusing on four key obstacles regarding the status of special education technology access and implementation: (a) the mismatch between legal requirements, policy recomme...
Article
Schools can use School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) videos as a tool for teaching school-wide expectations and other targeted skills. Although some schools integrate SWPBIS videos into their universal framework, little is known about the creation and implementation of these videos. Through an online survey, information...
Chapter
In this updated chapter, the authors introduce a multimedia professional development process that can be used to support teacher candidates or inservice teachers' needs. The multimedia process has three key components: 1) teachers learn new evidence-based practices using multimedia vignettes including modeling videos; 2) teachers receive customizab...
Book
Of the many issues facing special education (and general education) today, it is difficult to imagine one more important or timely than response to intervention (RTI). Almost overnight RTI has become standard practice across the nation. Unfortunately, RTI remains ill-defined, falls far short of its evidence-based practice goal, is almost invariably...
Article
High-quality, effective vocabulary instruction is essential for supporting all students’ academic success, and it is particularly important for students with disabilities. Teacher preparation programs are faced with the challenge of not only training preservice teachers to provide effective vocabulary instruction across grades and content areas, bu...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers conducted an observation study to explore the instructional practices of special education teachers (N = 20) responsible for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities (LD) in grades four and five. With this study, researchers addressed gaps in previous related literature and augmented understanding of how teachers spend th...
Article
Improving inclusive middle school science teachers’ vocabulary instruction is a critical step toward helping those professionals support the learning needs of all students. In this Institute of Education Sciences (IES)–funded project, inclusive science teachers received professional development using elements of a multimedia-based approach called t...
Article
Purpose This study tested whether a youth participatory video production program for smoking prevention is feasible and effective. Design and Methods A participatory video production program was implemented in eight twice-weekly sessions at a youth summer camp in a community center in a low-income neighborhood. Twenty-three youths participated. De...
Article
Full-text available
General and special education teachers need to have an understanding of effective practices for providing vocabulary instruction to students with and without disabilities across grade levels and content areas. Preservice teachers in this study (N = 121) received training in evidence-based practices for vocabulary instruction via a series of three t...
Article
Vocabulary knowledge is vital for students’ success in school and beyond. However, students with disabilities and others who consistently score below their peers on various measures of vocabulary knowledge have difficulties in secondary-level content area courses. Because many students with disabilities are now educated primarily in general educati...
Article
Teaching expectations is an essential component of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). Creating PBIS videos is a tool for teaching expectations and other targeted skills within a schoolwide PBIS framework. In this article, we offer the why, how, when, where, and what of producing/screening PBIS videos to effectively su...
Article
Full-text available
The National Commission on Writing called for a reform in writing instruction over a decade ago. However, teacher preparation programs still rarely provide sufficient training in writing instruction for teacher candidates. The purpose of this study was to improve the writing instruction of preservice teachers. Participating preservice teachers (N =...
Article
Mastering content vocabulary is critical to the success of students with high-incidence disabilities in the general education curriculum. General education classrooms often do not offer the opportunities necessary for these students to master important vocabulary. Teachers often look to technology to help. Several studies have indicated that conten...
Chapter
This article describes a tool that can be used in teacher education called Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs). CAPs are short multimedia vignettes designed to teach targeted, specific concepts. They are developed in accordance with design principles that are intended to reduce learners’ cognitive load (Mayer, 2009). CAPs are simple to create and c...
Article
Content Acquisition Podcasts for Teachers (CAP-T) are a form of multimedia-based instruction that are supported by an empirical record of effectiveness and are grounded in Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning and accompanying instructional design principles. In this study, 162 students enrolled in an introductory course in special educat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Open educational resources (OERs) reside in the public domain and have been licensed for reuse. OERs hold great potential for increasing access to high-quality educational materials and can be used to enrich K–12 education in online as well as face-to-face (f2f) formats. However, OERs and other free resources do not automatically undergo the same q...
Article
Given the significant literature supporting the use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making, it is critical that teacher candidates learn about it prior to student teaching and entry into the field as full-time teachers. The authors of this study used a content acquisition podcast (CAP), a multimedia-based instructional...
Article
The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students’ knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition Podcas...
Chapter
Open educational resources (OER) are resources that reside in the public domain or have been licensed for reuse. OER hold great potential for increasing access to high-quality educational materials and can be used to enrich K-12 education in online as well as face-to-face formats. However, OER and other free resources do not automatically undergo t...
Article
Full-text available
: Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an empirically supported intervention associated with decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. To date, few studies have examined multimedia approaches to FBA training. This paper provides the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial across three university sites and evaluates whe...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The purpo...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher educators are expected to provide preservice special education teachers with extensive knowledge about a variety of topics as well as allowing candidates a chance to engage in higher-level thinking about content. Today, some teacher educators are thinking “outside the box” when it comes to instructional delivery by moving beyond the traditi...
Article
Full-text available
Supporting teachers’ implementation of evidence-based vocabulary practices with fidelity during instruction is critical. In this study, researchers investigated a multimedia-based intervention that integrates a modeling video and a Content Acquisition Podcast (i.e., video plus CAP) to teach elementary teachers how to implement a vocabulary interven...
Article
Full-text available
Reading comprehension is difficult for many students with disabilities, including those with specific learning disabilities. However these students can be explicitly taught strategies to improve their comprehension abilities. One such strategy is teaching students story grammar in order to provide them with a framework for understanding narrative t...
Chapter
Full-text available
http://archives.pdx.edu/ds/psu/13340. A big challenge when teaching students with disabilities (SWD) within general education placements is providing evidence-based instruction with fidelity and the dosage needed to ‘move the needle’ on academic performance (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Stecker, 2010). Two key barriers preventing successful student outcomes tha...
Article
Full-text available
Most general education content area teachers teach classes that include students with disabilities. However, this can be a daily challenge, as most teachers in this group receive limited support for the unique needs of those students in our respective disciplines. One tool used by many to help support learning for all students is multimedia-based i...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher educators are always looking for instructional strategies that are easy to create and use but are powerful for promoting learning among preservice teacher candidates. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs) is an example of an instructional strategy that embeds evidence-based instructional design principles to package and deliver critical conte...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers’ understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called Content Acq...
Article
Teacher educators play an influential role in the chain of improvement needed to address gaps in vocabulary knowledge and performance for some children. If created in careful accordance to design principles, multimedia can serve as a tool to improve preservice teacher knowledge in this domain. The present experimental study investigated a multimedi...
Article
a b s t r a c t There are many open questions with respect to theory and empirical support for methods used in college teaching, especially when technology is incorporated into instruction. In this article, we report the results of a study of a multimedia-based instructional tool called Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) that pro-vides university...
Technical Report
http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/tools/innovation-configurations/
Article
Full-text available
Universal design for learning (UDL) is a framework that is commonly employed for guiding the construction and delivery of instruction intended to support all students. In this study we employed a related model to guide creation of a multimedia-based instructional tool called content acquisition podcasts (CAPs). CAPs delivered vocabulary instruction...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were r...
Data
a b s t r a c t Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One mul...
Article
Full-text available
science, technology, engineering, and math courses. The words alone are challenging to many secondary stu-dents with specific learning disabilities. Add to these difficult concepts a some-times bewildering, intertangled vocabu-lary and you get a set of challenges that many students find daunting. To this add frustrated teachers who may be using met...
Article
Full-text available
Policy makers, university teacher education faculty, school leaders, and government officials are asking the same question: How do we recruit, prepare, and retain effective teachers who will produce desired student outcomes in every classroom? This complex question garners distinct opinions depending on the queried stakeholder, but most agree that...
Article
Policy makers, university teacher education faculty, school leaders, and government officials are asking the same question: How do we recruit, prepare, and retain effective teachers who will produce desired student outcomes in every classroom? This complex question garners distinct opinions depending on the queried stakeholder, but most agree that...
Article
Full-text available
Those who teach introductory level courses in special education to preservice teacher candidates often face a paradox in terms of whether to use limited instructional time to either focus on characteristics of students with disabilities or emphasize evidence-based practices (EBPs). The issue of limited instructional time is also an issue in other t...
Article
Full-text available
Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs), created using Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, are a form of instructional technology that can deliver critical course content and be used by teacher educators to conserve limited face-to-face instructional time. In this study, we investigated whether the sequence of instruction for CAP exposure...
Article
The special educator in the content area classroom often experiences an ill-defined role, which can translate into marginalization within instructional settings. Indeed, most students with learning disabilities (LD) receive content area instruction from a general education teacher with the support of a special educator. However, the literacy demand...
Article
Full-text available
A critical issue facing the field of education is the need to improve teachers' preparation to effectively manage student behavior in the classroom. Many pre- and in-service teachers receive exposure to evidence-based behavioral interventions, such as schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, during teacher preparation programs; ho...