Michael Kaess

Michael Kaess
Universität Bern | UniBe · Universitätsklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie

Prof. Dr.

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375
Publications
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Publications

Publications (375)
Article
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Background School-based mental health promotion aims to strengthen mental health and reduce stress. Results on the effectiveness of such programs are heterogeneous. This study realized a school-based mental health promotion program ( StresSOS ) for all students and aimed to identify moderators (mental health status, gender, grade level) of pre- to...
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Purpose Research to date suggests that physical activity is associated with improved sleep, but studies have predominantly relied on self-report measures and have not accounted for school day/free day variability. To address these gaps in the literature, the aim of the present study was to (a) quantify physical activity in adolescents using long-te...
Article
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Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) demonstrate heterogeneity in clinical profiles and outcome features. However, the extent of neuroanatomical heterogeneity in the CHR-P state is largely undetermined. We aimed to quantify the neuroanatomical heterogeneity in structural magnetic resonance imaging measures of cortical surface are...
Article
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing evidence on the efficacy of TMS in adolescent MDD awaits quantitative synthesis. A systematic literature search was conducted, and data from eligible studies were synthesized using random-effects models. Treatment-covariate i...
Article
Introduction The Neurovisceral Integration Model (NIM) proposes a complex interplay of visceral and neural structures that are crucial for adaptive responses to environmental demands. The aim of the present study was to investigate this circuitry using experimental manipulation via transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), measures o...
Article
Introduction: Childhood maltreatment is associated with both reduced cognitive functioning and the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the specific relationship between childhood maltreatment, cognitive abilities and (pre)psychotic symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between childho...
Article
Zusammenfassung: Das Jugendalter stellt eine wichtige Phase in der Entwicklung der Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit, der Aufmerksamkeit, des Gedächtnisses und der exekutiven Funktionen dar. Im Rahmen einer Normierungsstudie der kognitiven Basistestung (COGBAT) für das Jugendalter wurden Testwerte bei n = 269 Jugendlichen im Alter von 12 bis 15 Jahren e...
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Among individuals with clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR), perceptive symptoms are more frequent but have less clinical significance in children/adolescents compared to adults. However, findings are based on clinical interviews relying on patient’s recall capacity. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can be used to explore experiences in real...
Article
Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent transdiagnostic psychiatric symptom in adolescents. Research in adults has begun to investigate neurocognitive processes associated with NSSI as potential underlying phenotypes. However, research on neurocognitive function in adolescent patients with NSSI is scarce. Methods In this s...
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Early detection and intervention can counteract mental disorders and risk behaviours among adolescents. However, help-seeking rates are low. School-based screenings are a promising tool to detect adolescents at risk for mental problems and to improve help-seeking behaviour. We assessed associations between the intervention “Screening by Professiona...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine whether (a) cyberbullying has unique associations with mental health problems, risk-taking, and self-harm behavior in victims and perpetrators when compared to school bullying and (b) if cyberbullying is associated with an additional burden for students already involved in school bullying. Method...
Article
The Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) has been used extensively to screen for personality disorders (PD), including adolescents. Yet, it is unclear how well the SAPAS performs in screening for impairment in personality functioning (IPF), Criterion A of the alternative Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disord...
Article
Research has established the diagnostic validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The roots of BPD often lie in childhood; however, significantly less is known about the presence and correlates of BPD traits in school-age children and whether these are comparable with those observed in adolescents. Trained psychologists admi...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is among the most severe mental health problems with long-lasting deterioration of functioning. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for methods focused on treatment for adolescent BPD patients is very limited. Aims of the study were to demonstrate the noninferiority of adolescent identity treatment (AIT) c...
Article
Introduction: Despite the growing evidence base for psychotropic drug treatment in pediatric patients, knowledge about the benefit-risk ratio in clinical practice remains limited. The 'Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)-VIGIL' study aimed to evaluate serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children and adolescents treated with antidepressants and/...
Preprint
Purpose Research to date suggests that physical activity is associated with improved sleep, but studies have predominantly relied on self-report measures and have not accounted for school day/free day variability. Methods To address these gaps in the literature, the aim of the present study was to describe the number of steps in adolescents using l...
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Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in adolescents and help-seeking behaviour for suicidal behaviour is low. School-based screenings can identify adolescents at risk for suicidal behaviour and might have the potential to facilitate service use and reduce suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess associations of a two-stage s...
Article
Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its effector hormone cortisol have been proposed as one possible mechanism linking child maltreatment experiences to health disparities. In this series of meta-analyses, we aimed to quantify the existing evidence on the effect of child maltreatment on various measures of HPA axis activity...
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Background Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with specific indications in child and adolescent psychiatry. Notwithstanding its frequent use and clinical benefits, the relationship between pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and tolerability of sertraline across indications, particularly in non-adult patients, is not f...
Article
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent transdiagnostic symptom and risk marker for mental health problems among adolescents. Research on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying NSSI is needed to clarify the neural correlates associated with the behavior. We examined resting-state-functional-connectivity (RSFC) in n = 33 female adol...
Article
Persistent, interpersonal difficulties are a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Theories propose that these may result from an insufficient object constancy, for example, the insufficient capacity to maintain feelings of closeness (FC) toward a person when he or she is absent. Based on this assumption, this study examined whethe...
Article
Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), typically observed in the context of various mental disorders, represents a highly prevalent and serious problem among adolescents. Based on studies linking NSSI with stress, alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning have been suggested to contribute to the development and maint...
Article
Adolescence represents an important phase in the development of cognitive functions. In this standardization study of the neuropsychological test battery Cognitive Basis Assessment (COGBAT), scores of n = 269 healthy adolescents between 12 and 15 years were compared with existing standardized scores of individuals between 16 and 30 years. Associati...
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Background Body mass index (BMI) at hospital admission in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) represents a prognostic marker for mortality, chronicity and future body weight. The current study focused on the associations between BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) at admission and reasons for seeking inpatient treatment. Further interest was giv...
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Background Parents’ mental illness (MI) and parental history of early life maltreatment (ELM) are known to be significant risk factors for poor parenting while poor parenting is a crucial mediator of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. Hence, maltreatment prevention programs for families with an MI parent, which pay particular a...
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Home treatment (HT) may offer an effective and cost-efficient alternative to inpatient treatment for children and adolescents with acute mental disorders. This study introduces and evaluates a pilot HT project from Bern, Switzerland, with HT completely replacing an inpatient treatment. A total of n = 133 children and adolescents with acute mental d...
Article
The ability to regulate one's emotions (emotion regulation, ER) with regard to individual short- and long-term goals presents one of the most central human skills. A disrupted development of ER skills is associated with psychopathological outcomes. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) presents a frequent and impairing phenomenon among young individuals....
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Depersonalization and derealization (DD) cause significant distress and are associated with poor role and social functional outcomes. Despite the relatively high prevalence of DD symptoms and the chronic course in those suffering from a DD disorder, there still exists a need for effective interventions. Preliminary evidence indicates that cognitive...
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Introduction Patient suicidality is a frequently experienced topic for psychotherapists. Especially adolescents with borderline personality pathology (BPP) often exhibit suicidal tendencies. Previous research which examined therapists’ countertransference towards suicidal patients suggested that therapists are negatively affected and distressed by...
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Bullying is a common and significant risk factor for mental and physical health problems. The aim of the outlined study was to evaluate the German version of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) and to investigate potential moderators of its effectiveness. 23 schools started with the implementation and all students were invited to complete...
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Introduction: Aggressive behavior in reaction to threats, frustration, or provocation is prevalent in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study investigated aggressive behavior and its biological correlates in adolescents with BPD. Methods: Twenty-one female adolescents with a DSM-IV BPD diagnosis and 25 sex- and age-matched healthy cont...
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Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often display increased stress vulnerability, which may be linked to altered hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Corresponding deviations of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) are presumed to mirror maladaptive neuroendocrine processes, which may explain why CARs are increase...
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Background: Research has shown a direct path between peer victimization and poor mental health outcomes. However, the impact of bullying prevention on mental health is a largely unexplored field. Therefore, our study examined the longitudinal association between bullying development and trajectories of psychiatric symptoms (emotional problems, tot...
Article
Full-text available
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a considerable health problem among adolescents. Affect regulation by means of self-injury may promote the maintenance of NSSI. However, existing findings have limited ecological validity. The present study aimed to assess emotional and interpersonal states preceding and following incidents of NSSI in female adole...
Article
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Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a serious clinical problem, particularly for adolescents and young adults. NSSI is a complex behavior that emerges through the intersecting effects of social, psychological, and biological mechanisms. Although the social and psychological contributions to risk for developing NSSI are relatively well understood and...
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The impact of school-closings on adolescents’ mental health and well-being in the management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is subject to ongoing public debate. Reliable data to inform a balanced discussion are limited. Drawing on a large ongoing multi-site project in Germany, we assessed differences in self-reported psychopathology in a matched...
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Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) involves non-episodic irritability and frequent severe temper outbursts in children. Since the inclusion of the diagnosis in the DSM-5, there is no established gold-standard in the assessment of DMDD. In this systematic review of the literature, we provide a synopsis of existing diagnostic instruments f...
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Both DSM-5 and ICD-11 have provided weight cut-offs and severity specifiers for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The aims of the current study focusing on inpatients aged < 19 years were to assess (1) the relationship between age and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), BMI-centiles, BMI-standard deviation sc...
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Background There is a lack of studies examining psychosocial functioning in patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), especially in adolescents, and rates of impaired functioning in existing literature vary considerably. These variations may be attributable to further risk factors that influence psychosocial functioning. Thus, the aim of the s...
Article
Pathological Internet use (but only with respect to gaming) is classified as mental disorder in the ICD-11. However, there is a large group of adolescents showing excessive Internet use, which may rather be considered adolescent risk-behavior. The aim was to test whether pathological and excessive Internet use should be considered as “psychopatholo...
Article
The present study investigated dissociation as a predictor of parenting and a potential mediator in the relationship between early life maltreatment (ELM) and impaired parenting. Mothers reporting moderate to severe sexual and/or physical abuse (assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) formed the maltreatment group (n = 58; MG) and were co...
Article
Prompt access to appropriate professional care for adolescents with self-harm thoughts and respective behaviors (suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury [NSSI]) is crucial as both are associated with an increased risk of suicide in later life. The present study aimed to describe the duration from initial onset of thoughts and incidents of se...
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Introduction Neural alterations in limbic and prefrontal circuits in association with self-injurious behavior have been studied primarily in adult borderline personality disorder (BPD). In adolescent patients, research is still sparse. Here, we used resting functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex...
Article
Aim: Early detection of, and intervention for, psychosis during its prodromal phase has the potential to alter the course of the disease and has therefore become a major objective of modern clinical psychiatry. An increasing number of early detection and intervention services have been established in Europe and worldwide. This study aims to descri...
Article
Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as betwee...
Article
Objectives Behavioral disturbances in adolescence are potentially linked to aberrant functioning of the thyroid gland. Accordingly, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis might impact psychopathological development. Yet corresponding research in adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and comorbid mental disorders is s...
Article
Introduction Most psychiatric disorders in adolescence are linked to alterations in sleep behavior and neurophysiology. Similar but less pronounced changes to sleep have been reported in healthy adolescent and sub-clinical samples, suggesting that the association between sleep and mental health may lie on a continuum. The current study takes a dime...
Article
Objective: Obstetric complications (OCs) are adverse events during pregnancy, birth, or immediately after birth. Evidence on cumulative OC and longitudinal associations with child psychopathology is sparse. Prospective studies testing mediating pathways such as parenting stress are needed. This study aimed to investigate the impact of OC on child...
Article
The present study aimed to expand on previous findings that pre-treatment autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning serves as a predictor of clinical outcome in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), while examining whether the relationship between ANS functioning and treatment outcome may vary as a function of early life maltreatment (...
Article
Alcohol consumption in adolescence is widespread. Several studies have investigated alcohol use in minors and its consequences in adulthood, but prospective findings on psychosocial predictors for problematic alcohol use (PAU) already in youth are still limited. Next to genetic aspects, psychosocial predictors appear to be particularly relevant. Th...
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Background The heterogeneous presentation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a clinical challenge. There is an ongoing scientific debate whether the heterogeneity can best be understood in terms of qualitative (categorical) or quantitative (dimensional) differences between individuals. The present study examined the latent structur...
Article
Research has shown associations between adverse parenting experiences and (borderline) personality disorder ([B]PD). A biopsychosocial model suggests that child characteristics and the environment interact in the development of symptoms. However, prospective data in this aspect are limited. This study focused on maternal bonding impairment (MBI; 2...
Preprint
Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) initiative, the largest pooled CHR-neuroimaging sample to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk in a sample with known heterogeneous outcomes. Objective: We investigated baseline structural neuroimaging differences between CHR subjects and healthy contro...
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Full-text available
The present article gives a selective overview of recent studies on the role of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) in the context of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous research found self-harming behavior, particularly NSSI, to constitute an easily accessible marker in the early detection of individuals at risk...
Chapter
This text outlines the role of risk-taking and self-harming behaviours in the development and detection of suicidal behaviour and mental health problems among adolescents. Risk-taking and self-harming behaviours are observable symptoms for underlying problems of emotion regulation, impulse control or interpersonal relationships and are sensitive ri...
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Background: Adolescence is a critical time for brain development. Findings from previous studies have been inconsistent, failing to distinguish the influence of pubertal status and aging on brain maturation. The current study sought to address these inconsistencies, addressing the trajectories of pubertal development and aging by longitudinally tr...
Article
Psychophysiological research methods allow important insights into normative and pathological functioning of the human organism. This position paper briefly reviews existing studies, investigating the psychophysiological concomitants of personality pathology, with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Focussing on measures, indexing autonomic nervo...
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Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), which involves deliberate damage to body tissue without suicidal intent, has long been a concern for schools and school staff. Secondary schools are an ideal setting in which to identify, and appropriately refer, students who self-injure as well as implement evidence-based prevention and early intervention programs....
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The school-based mental health promotion and suicide prevention universal program Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM) significantly reduces incident suicide attempts and severe suicidal ideation. This paper aims at elucidating psychological mechanisms underlying YAM’s efficacy. Our hypothesis is that YAM operates through interactions with coping str...
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Background. Predicting suicide attempts is a challenging task for clinicians and researchers, particularly among high-risk individuals (i.e. adolescents with lifetime suicide attempts). In this study, we examined whether adolescents were able to predict their own risk of attempting suicide in the future and whether borderline personality disorder (...
Article
Objectives We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, indexed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) predicts clinical outcome and therapy drop-outs in adolescents with borderline personality (BPD) pathology receiving dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT-A). We further tested for an a...