Michael Jump

Michael Jump
University of Liverpool | UoL · Mechanical Material and Aerospace Engineering

PhD

About

91
Publications
17,683
Reads
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869
Citations
Citations since 2016
24 Research Items
380 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - June 2017
University of Liverpool
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
November 2014 - present
University of Liverpool
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2007 - October 2014
University of Liverpool
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (91)
Conference Paper
Autorotation maneuvers in helicopters are generally performed in an emergency following some form of catastrophic mechanical or system failure. It is a complex maneuver to perform because the pilot is required to perform several tasks simultaneously and the timing of each of them needs to be precise. Workload can be high and the consequences of get...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A novel trajectory generation and control architecture for fully autonomous autorotative flare is proposed that combines rapid path generation with model-based control. The trajectory generation component uses optical Tau theory to compute flare trajectories for both longitudinal and vertical vertical speed. These flare trajectories are tracked by...
Article
Full-text available
A drive to reduce costs, carbon emissions, and the number of required personnel in the offshore energy industry has led to proposals for the increased use of autonomous/robotic systems for many maintenance tasks. There are questions over how such missions can be shown to be safe. A corollary exists in the manned aviation world for helicopter-ship o...
Conference Paper
Autorotation is a challenging flight maneuver that involves highly coordinated control actions and competing constraints. It is generally recognized that pilot performance in autorotation may benefit from additional cues that improve decision-making as well as timing and coordination of control inputs. This paper describes the development and simul...
Article
Physical-law-based models are widely utilized in the aerospace industry. One such use is to provide flight dynamics models for use in flight simulators. For human-in-the-loop use, such simulators must run in real-time. Owing to the complex physics of rotorcraft flight, to meet this real-time requirement, simplifications to the underlying physics so...
Conference Paper
The emergency autorotation manoeuvre used to land a conventional helicopter is a difficult task to accomplish successfully. It is even more difficult to perform in degraded visual conditions. There is an identified need to develop a cueing system to assist pilots should they need to perform an autorotation. In order to develop such a cueing system,...
Preprint
Physical-law based models are widely utilized in the aerospace industry. One such use is to provide flight dynamics models for use in flight simulators. For human-in-the-loop use, such simulators must run in real-time. Due to the complex physics of rotorcraft flight, to meet this real-time requirement , simplifications to the underlying physics som...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical-law based models are widely utilized in the aerospace industry. One such use is to provide flight dynamics models for use in flight simulators. For human-in-the-loop use, such simulators must run in real-time. Due to the complex physics of rotorcraft flight, to meet this real-time requirement, simplifications to the underlying physics some...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation presents the methods used and the initial model that resulted from these analyses for turbulence that can be expected to be encountered in a ships air wake for rotorcraft of varying disk-loadings.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, the complexity of high speed civil transport and highly-augmented rotorcraft, has led to an increase in the chances of encountering unwanted unstable phenomena, such as the so called Aircraft/Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings (A/RPCs) or Pilot-Induced Oscillations (PIOs), whose unpredictability has given rise to a serious problem concerning the...
Conference Paper
Autorotation to landing is a difficult manoeuvre to accomplish successfully in an emergency. During autorotation, it is critical to simultaneously maintain the desired flight path, decelerate the aircraft appropriately, all whilst locating and reaching a safe location to land. This significantly increases the pilot work load in the cockpit. Therefo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Physical law based models (also known as white box models) are widely applied in the aerospace industry, providing models for dynamic systems such as helicopter flight simulators. To meet the criteria of real-time simulation, simplifications to the underlying physics sometimes have to be applied, leading to errors in the model's predictions. Grey-b...
Article
This study aimed to understand more fully some of the factors that influence decisions as related to air defence in a naval vessel's operation room. The study considered the impact of decision criticality (DC) and task load (TL) on measures of accuracy, confidence, and within-subjects confidence-accuracy (W-S C-A; a measure of metacognition). Perso...
Article
The time-to-contact τ theory posits that purposeful actions can be conducted by coupling the actor’s motion onto the so-called τ guides generated internally by their central nervous system. Although significant advances have been made in the application of τ for flight control purposes, little research has been conducted to investigate how pilots a...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in personal aerial vehicles (PAVs) is resurgent with several flying prototypes made possible through advances in the relevant technologies. Whilst the perceived wisdom is that these vehicles will be highly automated or autonomous, the current regulatory frame-work assumes that a human will always be able to intervene in the operation of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: This study aimed to understand more fully some factors that influence decision confidence and accuracy related to air defence. To investigate the metacognitive abilities of air defence operators a Within-Subjects Confidence-Accuracy (W-S C-A) measure was used. Specifically, therefore, this study investigated the impact of Decision Cri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper details the design and limited flight testing of a preliminary system for visual pilot cueing during autorotation maneuvers. The cueing system is based on a fully-autonomous, multi-phase autorotation control law that has been shown to successfully achieve autonomous autorotation landing in unmanned helicopters. To transition this control...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) operations have outpaced current training regimes resulting in a shortage of qualified UAS pilots. Three potential UAS operator groups were explored for suitability (i.e. video game players [VGP]; private pilots; professional pilots) and examined to assess levels of accuracy, confidence and confidence-accuracy judgemen...
Article
With recent increased interest in autonomous vehicles and the associated technology, the prospect of realizing a personal aerial vehicle seems closer than ever. However, there is likely to be a continued requirement for any occupant of an air vehicle to be comfortable with both the automated portions of the flight and their ability to take manual c...
Research
Full-text available
The requirement for the use of Virtual Engineering, encompassing the construction of Virtual Prototypes using Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, for the development of future aerospace platforms and systems is discussed. Some of the activities at the Virtual Engineering Centre, a University of Liverpool initiative, are described and a number of...
Article
Abstract The aviation community relies heavily on flight simulators as a fundamental tool for research, pilot training and development of any new aircraft design. The goal of the present paper is to provide a review on how effective ground simulation is as an assessment tool for unmasking adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (APC/RPC). A...
Article
Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desir...
Article
This paper describes the development of a methodology to assess the handling qualities requirements for vertical takeoff and landing-capable personal aerial vehicles. It is anticipated that such a personal aerial vehicle would be flown by a "flight-naïve" pilot who has received much less training than is typically received even by today's general a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes research under way at the University of Liverpool in the myCopter project to develop handling qualities guidelines and criteria for a new category of aircraft - the personal aerial vehicle, which it is envisaged will demand no more skill than that associated with driving a car today. Testing has been conducted both with test pi...
Article
The involuntary interaction of a pilot with an aircraft can be described as pilot-assisted oscillations. Such phenomena are usually only addressed late in the design process when they manifest themselves during ground/flight testing. Methods to be able to predict such phenomena as early as possible are therefore useful. This work describes a techni...
Article
Unmasking aircraft pilot couplings (APCs) prior to vehicle entry into service have been a long standing challenge in the aerospace industry. APCs, often only exposed through unpredictable or very specific circumstances, have arisen throughout the history of manned powered flight and have required stopgap “fixes” to ensure system safety once a probl...
Article
This work proposes a helicopter pilot model identified from experimental results obtained in piloted simulation flight tests. The tests were originally designed to verify predicted unstable pilot-vehicle systems. The results have been further analyzed using methods for the detection of pilot induced oscillation that are available from the literatur...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes helicopter model development work which will be used in the next stage of a research project to establish flying qualities requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operating in Maritime Environments. A new T-REX helicopter model, classed as a Mini UAS, has been built in the FLIGHTLAB simulation environment. A brief desc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes ihe continuing development work being undertaken to establish Flying Qualities Requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) that will be expected to operate in the Maritime Environment. A UAS Dynamics Model (UDM) has been developed to allow the rapid investigation of the aircraft dynamics required to conduct ship-deck launc...
Article
This paper presents the development of a multiloop pilot model for use in boundary-triggered pilot-induced oscillation investigations. In doing so, the point-tracking and boundary-avoidance elements of the pilot control strategy are assumed to act simultaneously for a point-tracking-dominant task during a boundary-avoidance tracking event. The theo...
Article
This work presents an experimental study that investigated the possibility of destabilising a rotorcraft by coupling the biomechanical behaviour of human subjects with the dynamics of the vehicle. The results of a study focused on the behaviour of pilots holding the collective control inceptor in a flight simulator are discussed. The motion of the...
Article
This paper describes research activities conducted at the University of Liverpool as part of the myCopter project into the development of training requirements for pilots of Personal Aerial Vehicles (PAVs). The work has included a Training Needs Analysis (TNA) to determine the skills required of a PAV pilot and the evaluation of a training programm...
Article
Previous studies using both rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft have indicated that providing the pilot with more intuitive physiological information can enhance task performance because of the increased level of pilot's awareness of aircraft orientation and workload required to control the aircraft. This will also be true Personal Aerial Vehicles (...
Article
Unmasking Adverse Pilot Couplings (APC) prior to vehicle entry into service has been a long standing challenge in the Aerospace Industry. APCs, often only exposed through unpredictable or very specific circumstances, have arisen throughout the history of manned powered flight, and have required short-term (fixes' to ensure system safety. This paper...
Article
Previous investigators have found that obtaining the same results using different simulation facilities for notionally identical test can be difficult to achieve. This was also found to be true in the EC-Framework 7-funded ARISTOTEL project. This project used two simulators in parallel - the HELIFLIGHT-R Simulator (HFR) at the University of Liverpo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports results from a study to investigate the use of novel control systems designed to provide a safe and reliable method for the control of a future Personal Aerial Vehicle (PAV). Previous research into vehicle response type requirements, conducted within the EC FP-7 project myCopter, has centered around (conventional' rotorcraft-type...
Article
Lecturer University of Liverpool Liverpool, UK This paper describes the continuing research at the University of Liverpool in the myCopter project to develop handling qualities guidelines and criteria for a new category of aircraft - the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), which, it is envisaged, should demand no more skill to fly than that associated w...
Article
Fixed and rotary wing pilots alike are familiar with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. Understanding, predicting and suppressing these inadvertent and sustained aircraft oscillations, known as aircraft (rotorcraft)-pilot coupling...
Article
Fixed and rotary wing pilots alike are familiar with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. Understanding, predicting and supressing these inadvertent and sustained aircraft oscillations, known as Aircraft (Rotorcraft)-Pilot Couplings...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research activity and results obtained within the European project ARISTOTEL (2010-2013) are presented. It deals with anatomy, modelling and prediction of Rotorcraft Pilot Coupling (RPC) phenomena, which are a really broad and wide category of events, ranging from discomfort to catastrophic crash. The main topics concerning piloted helicopter simul...
Article
Full-text available
Unfavourable Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPCs), usually called pilot induced oscillations (PIO), manifested themselves since the early days of manned flight and may still create problems in modern configurations. In Europe, the ARISTOTEL project (Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection...
Article
Full-text available
The investigation of motion guidance and its subsequent application using tau (tau) theory relies on the accurate calculation of the coupling term between the tau (time to contact) of the motion and the appropriate tau guide. However, the traditional approach for this calculation can be numerically unstable, requires experience and skill to execute...
Article
Pilot-vehicle interaction represents a critical aspect of aircraft design. Very low-frequency, voluntary although unintentional interaction has been extensively investigated in fixed and rotary wing aeromechanics. Higher frequency, involuntary and thus passive interaction received similar attention in fixed wing aeromechanics, but not as much for r...
Article
Significant effort has been expended to develop criteria to predict the susceptibility of an air vehicle to so-called pilot-induced oscillations. Much of this work has been carried out for fixed-wing aircraft and it is only recently that their applicability to rotorcraft has started to be assessed. Real time pilot-induced oscillation identification...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the results of a flight simulator test campaign aimed at understanding the effect of high-frequency dynamics associated with helicopter aeroservoelasticity on the proneness to rotorcraft-pilot couplings and specifically to pilot-assisted oscillations. Linearised aeroservoelastic models representative of helicopters in hover and...
Article
This paper presents a proposed new method for the prediction of rotorcraft pilot-induced oscillations (PIO), through the application of the previously developed phase-aggression criterion (PAC). The novel method attempts to define the susceptibility of the overall pilot-vehicle system (PVS), and attempts to avoid the limitations of previously devel...
Conference Paper
The goal of the present paper is to investigate the pilot control behaviour during "possible" Rotorcraft Pilot Coupling (RPC) events. Two identification experiments were conducted in two simulation facilities with four helicopter pilots and eight human subjects. Both experiments used a single loop roll disturbance-rejection hover task, with a time...
Conference Paper
Unmanned aircraft are expected to increase in use in civil applications over the coming years, particularly for the so-called dull, dirty and dangerous missions. Unmanned aircraft will undoubtedly require some form of autonomy in order to ensure safe operations: communications failure could render a completely human-piloted unmanned aircraft danger...
Conference Paper
Fixed and rotary wing pilots alike are familiar with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. Understanding, predicting and suppressing these inadvertent and sustained aircraft oscillations, known as Aircraft (Rotorcraft)-Pilot Coupling...
Conference Paper
This paper presents and discusses the results of a study focused on the biomechanical behavior of human subjects holding the collective control inceptor in a flight simulator. The reported experimental campaign was conducted at the HELIFLIGHT simulation facility of the University of Liverpool as part of the EC sponsored project ARISTOTEL. The fligh...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the application of the newly developed Phase-Aggression Criterion to data obtained during a simulated flight test campaign, in order to assess its suitability to detect Rotorcraft Pilot Coupling events. Due to the increasing complexity of modern rotorcraft, both the frequency and severity of Rotorcraft Pilot Coupling events is...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes progress that has been made in the European Commission funded project myCopter on the development of handling qualities requirements for future Personal Aerial Vehicles (PAVs). A generic PAV dynamics model has been developed to permit the simulation of a range of tasks that are representative of a typical PAV commuting role. Th...
Article
This paper presents the initial results of an investigation to study the effect of motion, visual and force-feel settings on incipience to Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings of a basic heave-only rotorcraft model within a generic rotorcraft flight simulator. Currently, there are no guidelines outlining requirements for simulation facilities to either valid...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the European Commission (EC) Framework 7 funded project myCopter (2011-2014). The project is still at an early stage so the paper starts with the current transportation issues faced by developed countries and describes a means to solve them through the use of personal aerial transportation. The concept of personal air vehicles...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we assess the feasibility of using formal methods, and model checking in particular, for the certification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) within civil airspace. We begin by modelling a basic UAS control system in Promela, and verify it against a selected subset of the CAA’s Rules of the Air using the Spin model checker. Next we bu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the European Commission Framework 7 funded project myCopter (2011-2014). The paper starts with the current transportation issues faced by developed countries and describes a means to solve them through the use of personal aerial transportation. The concept of personal air vehicles (PAV) is briefly reviewed and how this project...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The requirement for the use of Virtual Engineering, encompassing the construction of Virtual Prototypes using Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, for the development of future aerospace platforms and systems is discussed. Some of the activities at the Virtual Engineering Centre, a University of Liverpool initiative, are described and a number...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we assess the feasibility of using formal methods, and model checking in particular, within the certification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for civil airspace. We begin by modelling a basic UAS control system in PROMELA, and verify it against a selected subset of the CAA's Rules of the Air using the SPIN model checker. We then re...