Michael Humphreys

Michael Humphreys
Oxford Brookes University · School of Architecture

BSc MA

About

63
Publications
55,898
Reads
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9,035
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
4817 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
In order to quantify the seasonal differences in the comfort temperature and to develop a domestic adaptive model for Japanese dwellings, thermal measurements, a thermal comfort survey, and an occupant behaviour survey were conducted for 4 years in the living and bedrooms of dwellings in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 36,114 thermal c...
Chapter
Full-text available
This short chapter introduces the causal relationship between the behaviour of building occupants, their comfort and the energy used by the buildings. It suggests that much of the behaviour is motivated by the desire of the occupants to make themselves comfortable and to optimise the environment. The provision of comfortable conditions in domestic...
Chapter
The adaptive approach to thermal comfort recognises that people are not passive with regard to their thermal environment, but actively control it to secure comfort. Thermal comfort can thus be seen as a self-regulating system, incorporating not only the heat exchange between the person and the environment but also the physiological, behavioural and...
Article
Full-text available
Window opening behavior and thermal comfort were monitored in relation to the thermal environment over a 4 year period in the living rooms and the bedrooms of dwellings in the Kanto region of Japan. 36 144 sets of physical and subjective data were collected from 243 residents of 120 dwellings. This paper explores relationships between the different...
Book
These are the proceedings of the tenth Windsor Conference held at the Cumberland Lodge conference centre in Windsor Great Park, UK. You are advised to download and save the file to your own computer (145Mb) to ensure the links within the book are active and save download time. Other information about the Conference is available at the website http:...
Article
This study investigates the seasonal adaptation to temperature that occurs in Japanese offices, with a view to suggesting an adaptive model for them. Temperatures were measured in 11 office buildings and thermal comfort transverse surveys of occupants were conducted for over a year in the Tokyo and Yokohama areas of Japan. A total of 4660 samples w...
Book
Full-text available
Preface to the Proceedings of the 9th Windsor 2016 at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor For many the costs of providing acceptable indoor temperatures have become prohibitive. Around the world people already have to make stark choices on whether to spend money on heating and cooling or on eating. The science of comfort developed in the 20th century around...
Book
The book tells the story of the development of the sdaptive approach to thermal comfort from its origins in the 1960s, looks critically at some methods of statistical analysis, and shows various worldwide trends in thermal comfort field study results.
Article
Full-text available
In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with cor...
Book
Full-text available
Preface to the Proceedings of the 8th Windsor Conference 2014 at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor For many the costs of providing acceptable indoor temperatures have become prohibitive. In Japan energy rationing has become necessary after the destruction of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The repercussions in the Japanese energy markets have made critical c...
Article
We look critically at the principal graphs relating thermal comfort indoors to the climate, and compare the metrics used for the climate; an exponential running mean of the mean outdoor temperature proves better than either the historic monthly mean or the current outdoor temperature. Using the SCATs and the ASHRAE RP-884 databases of field-studies...
Article
Full-text available
A simple logical model of the interaction between a building and its occupants is presented based on the principle that if free to do so, people will adjust their clothing or available building controls with the aim of achieving or restoring comfort and reducing discomfort. These adjustments are related to building design in two ways: first, the fr...
Book
The fundamental function of buildings is to provide safe and healthy shelter. For the fortunate they also provide comfort and delight. In the twentieth century comfort became a 'product' produced by machines and run on cheap energy. In a world where fossil fuels are becoming ever scarcer and more expensive, and the climate more extreme, the challen...
Article
A theoretical model of the interaction between a building and its occupants is developed based on field survey data; the role of the model in building performance simulation is illustrated. If free to do so, people adjust their clothing or available building controls (windows, blinds, doors, fans, and thermostats) with the aim of achieving or resto...
Article
Full-text available
The urgent need to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a bid to meet increasingly stringent GHG targets has focused the attention of scientists on the built environment. The reason is that nearly 50% of all the energy in the developed world is consumed in buildings and it is here that the easiest savings can be made. Although the...
Article
It requires more energy to maintain a narrow indoor temperature range than a broader range, in which the building may be allowed to float with reduced conditioning for longer periods of time. A narrow range should presumably be preferable to the building occupants to justify its increased energy cost. At what widths are temperature ranges detected,...
Article
Full-text available
The equation for thermal comfort for buildings in the free-running mode (Annexe A2) in European Standard EN15251 rests on the data collected in the EU project Smart Controls and Thermal Comfort (SCATs). Many of these data were from naturally ventilated office buildings which were in free-running mode outside the heating season. Using the data from...
Article
This paper begins with a review of three principal graphs relating thermal comfort indoors to the climate. It considers the appropriate index by which to express the indoor comfort temperature, concludes that operative temperature is usually sufficient, but that corrections may be made for elevated air speed, and perhaps for elevated humidities. Th...
Article
A mixed-mode building is heated in winter, free running in mid-season, and has cooling available in summer as required. It is likely to use less energy than a fully air-conditioned building. However, the energy consumption of a mixed-mode building depends greatly upon how the occupants use the available controls, such as windows, fans, heating, and...
Article
Full-text available
Existing international standards for the specification of environments for human occupancy often ‘categorize’ such environments to distinguish between higher and lower ‘quality’. The way in which the categories are presented tends to favour high-energy, closely controlled buildings. Part of the reason for this is that the Standards address ‘environ...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive thermal comfort criteria for building occupants are now becoming established. In this paper we illustrate their use in the prediction of occupant behaviour and make a comparison with a non-adaptive temperature threshold approach. A thermal comfort driven adaptive behavioural model for window opening is described and its use within dynamic...
Article
L'auteur suggère qu'il est possible, à partir des données disponibles sur la température extérieure de telle ou telle localité, de prévoir la fourchette de températures qui permettra aux habitants de se sentir bien chez eux — ce qui pourrait avoir des répercussions importantes au niveau de la conception des bâtiments et sur le plan financier.
Article
This investigation of the window-opening data from extensive field surveys in UK office buildings demonstrates: (1) how people control the indoor environment by opening windows; (2) the cooling potential of opening windows; and (3) the use of an ‘adaptive algorithm’ for predicting window-opening behaviour for thermal simulation in ESP-r. It was fou...
Article
Full-text available
A building that is heated in winter, free-running in mid-season, and has cooling available in summer as required, is usually called a 'mixed mode' building. It is likely to use less energy than a fully air conditioned building. However, the energy consumption of such a building depends greatly on how the occupants use the available controls, such a...
Conference Paper
Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Interaction Human and Building Environment, Yonsei University, Seoul Korea, 2-3 July 2008.
Article
In the study of thermal comfort, whether in the laboratory or the field, wide use is made of scales of warmth, such as the ASHRAE scale, and scales of thermal preference. These scales use words to identify their categories. The meaning of a word is affected by the context in which it occurs, the context being textual, social, emotional and cultural...
Article
Windows are one of the major means by which building occupants control the indoor environment. This research uses results from field surveys to formulate a method for simulation of office buildings to include the effects of window opening behaviour on comfort and energy use. The paper focuses on: (1) what is general window opening behaviour? (2) ho...
Article
This analysis explores the pattern of variation of the desired thermal sensation on the ASHRAE scale, applying the method of direct enquiry. Data are from studies of thermal comfort at university lectures and in selected dwellings. Respondents reported both their thermal sensation and the sensation they would have desired at that time. The data con...
Article
This paper looks at the ways in which discomfort from summer overheating can be avoided in European office buildings. Starting with the results from field surveys and applying adaptive comfort theory the paper defines comfortable conditions and the range of acceptable temperature around these, in buildings in both free running mode and those being...
Article
Full-text available
The experimental basis of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort is the field study. Since the publication of Bedford's study in 1936, many researchers have collected data on people's thermal comfort in everyday conditions. The principal assemblages of data are those of Humphreys (1975; 1978; 1981), de Dear et al (1997), de Dear (1998), de Dear a...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation of the window opening data from extensive field surveys in UK office buildings investigates 1) how people control the indoor environment by opening windows, 2) the cooling potential of opening windows, and 3) the use of an "adaptive algorithm" for predicting window opening behaviour for thermal simulation in ESP-r. We found that...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the relation of self-assessed productivity to the objective environment and also to user satisfaction with air quality, acoustic, visual, and thermal conditions. The data are from the SCATs Project (Smart Controls and Thermal Comfort) and were obtained during monthly surveys in 26 office buildings in five European countries. Mor...
Article
What are the various ways in which evaluation of the several aspects of the indoor environment might combine to form an occupant's overall assessment of that environment? Data from an environmental survey of 26 offices in Europe (the Smart Controls and Thermal Comfort, or SCATs, project) are used. These show that dissatisfaction with one or more as...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of surveys of the use of simple controls - opening of windows, the closing of window blinds, and the use of lighting, heaters, and fans - by building occupants. Information is also presented on the use of air conditioning in mixed-mode buildings. The surveys were conducted in the UK, Pakistan, and throughout Europe....
Article
This analysis explores a discrepancy between "neutral" on the ASHRAE scale and "prefer no change" on a thermal preference scale. The data employed are from numerous field studies drawn from two large databases. Multivariate analysis showed that the ASHRAE scale vote depended not only on the recognized thermal variables but also on the outdoor tempe...
Article
Full-text available
The origin and development of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort is explained. A number of recent developments in the application of the theory are considered and the origin of the differences between adaptive thermal comfort and the ‘rational’ indices is explored. The application of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort standards is consi...
Article
Full-text available
One of the uses of ISO 7730 (predicted mean vote, PMV) is to predict the thermal sensations of people in buildings. This application is examined, using the ASHRAE database of field-studies. Taking these world-wide data as a single distribution, PMV is free from serious bias. There exist, however, underlying biases in relation to all contributing va...
Article
A field study of the thermal comfort of workers in natural ventilated office buildings in Oxford and Aberdeen, UK, was carried out which included information about use of building controls. The data were analysed to explore that what effect the outdoor temperature has on the indoor temperature and how this is affected by occupants’ use of environme...
Article
Full-text available
Relations between indoor neutral temperatures and outdoor temperatures are currently proposed as an 'adaptive standard' to supplement ASHRAE Standard 55-1992. They rest on the 1998 ASHRAE database. Humphreys and Nicol drew attention to the depression of the regression coefficient by measurement and formulaic error in thermal comfort indices. This p...
Article
A thermal comfort index relates the thermal environment and the human response. The relation is affected by errors in the measurement and formulation of the index. The correlation coefficient between the values of the index and the subjective response is reduced by both kinds of error. Constant errors reduce the regression coefficient when the vari...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explains the adaptive approach to thermal comfort, and an adaptive model for thermal comfort is presented. The model is an example of a `complex adaptive system' whose equilibria are determined by the restrictions acting upon it. People's adaptive actions are generally effective in securing comfort, which occurs at a wide variety of indo...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the dependency of comfortable temperatures upon indoor and outdoor climates. A building and its occupants can be regarded, from the point of view of thermal performance, as a single self-regulating system whose objective is to achieve and maintain comfortable conditions for the occupants. The regulating processes include (a)...
Article
The factors influencing indoor comfort temperatures are examined and it is found that the thermally neutral temperature depends on the outdoor mean temperature. It is also found that tolerable temperature swings lie between I and 2°C. It is also permissable to allow the temperature to drift gradually over days and weeks.
Article
Using available data of outdoor temperatures in a given locality, it is possible, the author suggests, to forecast the range of temperatures that occupants will require indoors in order to feel comfortable—and this could have important implications for building design and economy. The author is Head of the Human Factors Section at the UK Bulding Re...
Article
For three different sites, observations of people's clothing outdoors in summertime were made, and observations of the thermal microclimate were made. The clothing was found to be most strongly related to the air temperature, and the responses of men, women, boys and girls were found to be fairly similar. The effects of sunshine, wind and humidity...
Article
A study of the thermal comfort and clothing of primary school children aged 7–9 took place during the summers of 1971 and 1972. Of the 641 children who took part, 262 produced records suitable for analysis. The weight of clothing followed the trend of room temperature over several days, but did not respond to diurnal changes of temperature. The sub...
Article
By applying currently recommended formulae for the heat transfer from spheres, and comparing results with up-to-date information about human response to air temperature and mean radiant temperature, it is shown that the optimum diameter for a globe thermometer, when used as an index of subjective warmth for people in buildings, is approximately 40...
Article
Data from over thirty field-studies of thermal comfort are collected and tabulated. Together they consist of over 200,000 observations made in a variety of climates. The methods of study and analysis are critically described. A comparison is made of the performance of thermal indices and subjective rating-scales, the temperatures for thermal neutra...
Article
The process of adaptation to changing temperatures by means of choice of clothing was investigated. Classroom temperatures and children's clothing were recorded during the summer period for a total of 987 lessons. It was found that the percentage of children working in shirt-sleeves or summer dresses was strongly correlated with the classroom tempe...
Article
Full-text available
From studies of the behaviour of children in classrooms and of workers in offices, this article suggests that we should pay more attention to the way people react positively to their thermal environment, by changes of clothing, changes of metabolic rate and modifications to the environment itself. The reactions will be constrained by social pressur...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to understand and model the behaviour of occupants in buildings and how this behaviour impacts energy use and comfort. It is similarly important to understand how a buildings design affects occupant comfort, occupant behaviour and ultimately the energy used in the operation of the building. In this work a behavioural algorithm for w...

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Projects (4)
Project
A conference will be held on the subjects of building energy use and the thermal comfort of building occupants in April 2018. Papers are expected on a wide range of subjects and academic disciplines which relate to these subjects including building simulation and the physics of buildings, human physiology and psychology and behaviour. The definitions of occupant comfort and discomfort, the adaptive response of occupants to the internal environment and how this influences building energy use and resilience.