Michael W R Holmes

Michael W R Holmes
Brock University · Department of Kinesiology

PhD

About

76
Publications
8,521
Reads
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688
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
Ontario Tech University
September 2011 - August 2012
University of Waterloo
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2006 - June 2011
McMaster University
Field of study
  • Biomechanics

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of submaximal isometric neck muscle fatigue and manual therapy on wrist joint position sense (JPS) within healthy individuals and individuals with subclinical neck pain (SCNP). Methods Twelve healthy participants and 12 participants with SCNP were recruited. Each group completed 2 sess...
Article
Full-text available
Innovations in material properties of goaltender skates have improved the protective characteristics of the boot, leading to redesign of the blade holder to resemble players' holders. The redesigned blade holder introduces the ability to customize blade alignment, which may grant a performance advantage. We investigated the effect of blade alignmen...
Article
The purpose of this work was to investigate forearm muscle activity and wrist angular displacement during radial and ulnar wrist perturbations across various isometric hand grip demands. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight muscles of the upper extremity. A robotic device delivered perturbations to the hand in the radial and ulnar...
Article
Full-text available
Muscular weakness and loss of motor function are common symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Robotic rehabilitation can improve sensorimotor function and motor control in this population. However, many studies using robotics for rehabilitation have overlooked changes in muscular strength, despite research demonstrating its utility in combating functiona...
Article
Full-text available
Fatigue is a temporary condition that arises as a result of intense and/or prolonged use of muscles and can affect skilled human performance. Therefore, the quantitative analysis of these effects is a topic of crucial interest in both ergonomics and clinical settings. This study introduced a novel protocol, based on robotic techniques, to quantitat...
Article
Full-text available
Elastic resistance exercise is a popular mode of strength training that has demonstrated positive effects on whole-body strength and performance. The purpose of this work was to identify the efficacy of elastic resistance training on improving upper limb strength and performance measures for the shoulder. Seven online databases were searched with a...
Article
Muscle fatigue is represented as a reduction in force production capability; however, fatigue does not necessarily result in performance impairments. As the distal upper limb serves as the end effector when interacting or manipulating objects, it is important to understand how muscle fatigue may impact motor functionality. The aim of this study was...
Article
Full-text available
Even on pain free days, recurrent neck pain alters sensorimotor integration (SMI) measured via somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Neck muscle fatigue decreases upper limb proprioception, and thus may interfere with upper limb motor task acquisition and SMI. This study aimed to determine the effect of cervical extensor muscle (CEM) fatigue on u...
Conference Paper
In this study, we implemented a protocol for the robotic assessment of the effects of forearm muscle fatigue on wrist dynamics. The potential of robotic devices lies in the possibility to control and measure a wide variety of kinematic and physiological variables, both in repeated sessions over time and during real-time assessments. The implemented...
Article
Full-text available
Robotics can be used to describe wrist kinematics and assess sensorimotor impairments, while the implementation of training algorithms can be aimed at improving neuromuscular control. The purpose of this study was to use a robotic device to develop an adaptive and individualized training program of the distal upper extremity for individuals with mu...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we designed a robot-based method to compute a mechanical impedance model that could extract the viscoelastic properties of the wrist joint. Thirteen subjects participated in the experiment, testing both dominant and nondominant hands. Specifically, the robotic device delivered position-controlled disturbances in the flexion-extension...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate anthropometry and forearm muscle activity as predictors of maximal isometric wrist torque. Thirteen anthropometric measures, forearm electromyography from flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and maximal isometric wrist flexion/extension torque were obtained from 25 male participan...
Article
The aim of this study was to characterize wrist extensor and flexor muscle activity during combinations of moderate-to-high handgrip and wrist forces that are similar to actions and intensities used in many workplace settings. Surface electromyography was recorded from three wrist flexors and three wrist extensors while participants performed simul...
Article
Full-text available
# Background Elastic resistance exercise is a common part of rehabilitation programs. While these exercises are highly prevalent, little information exists on how adding an additional resistance vector with a different direction from the primary vector alters muscle activity of the upper extremity. # Purpose The purpose of this study was to examin...
Article
Full-text available
A deep investigation of proprioceptive processes is necessary to understand the relationship between sensory afferent inputs and motor outcomes. In this work, we investigate whether and how perception of wrist position is influenced by the direction along which the movement occurs. Most previous studies have tested Joint Position Sense (JPS) throug...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences in upper limb muscle activity and kinematics when performing shoulder elastic resistance exercises with no cue, slouched posture, and corrected posture. Design: Fifteen healthy participants completed four shoulder elastic resistance exercises (unilateral flexion, bilateral flex...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of muscle fatigue on hand-tracking performance in young adults. Differences were quantified between wrist flexion and extension fatigability, and between males and females. Participants were evaluated on their ability to trace a pattern using a 3-degrees-of-freedom robotic manipulandum before (baseline) and after (0, 1, 2,...
Article
The cerebellum undergoes neuroplastic changes in response to motor learning. Healthy human individuals demonstrate reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) following motor learning. Alterations in neck sensory input due to muscular fatigue are known to impact upper limb sensorimotor processing, suggesting that neck fatigue may also impact cerebellum to...
Article
Full-text available
The wrist extensors demonstrate an earlier fatigue onset than the wrist flexors. However, it is currently unclear whether fatigue induces unique changes in muscle activity or corticospinal excitability between these muscle groups. The purpose of this study was to examine how sustained isometric wrist extension/flexion maximal voluntary contractions...
Article
Functioning as wrist stabilizers, the wrist extensor muscles exhibit higher levels of muscle activity than the flexors in most distal upper-limb tasks. However, this finding has been derived mostly from isometric or wrist flexion-extension protocols, with little consideration for wrist dynamics or radial-ulnar wrist deviations. The purpose of this...
Article
Current research suggests that the wrist extensor muscles function as the primary stabilizers of the wrist-joint complex. However, most investigations have utilized isometric study designs, with little consideration for wrist dynamics or changes in posture. The purpose of the present study was to assess forearm muscle activity during the execution...
Article
Full-text available
Due to their stabilizing role, the wrist extensor muscles demonstrate an earlier onset of performance fatigability and may impair movement accuracy more than the wrist flexors. However, minimal fatigue research has been conducted at the wrist. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine how sustained isometric contractions of the wrist extensors...
Article
Full-text available
Sudden disturbances (perturbations) to the hand and wrist are commonplace in daily activities and workplaces when interacting with tools and the environment. It is important to understand how perturbations influence forearm musculature and task performance when identifying injury mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate changes in forea...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? How do temperature manipulations affect motor unit (MU) properties during submaximal contractions to the same relative percentage of maximal force? What is the main finding and its importance? These data indicate that MU recruitment patterns are affected by temperature manipulations at the...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fatigue in baseball pitchers is a process linked to lowered physical and mental performance, injury, and changes in kinematics. Numerous studies have associated fatigue with overuse, high ball velocities, lack of rest time, poor mechanics, and degree of self-satisfaction. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature...
Article
Forearm rotation (supination/pronation) alters corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii, but it is unclear whether corticospinal excitability is influenced by joint angle, muscle length, or both. Thus, the purpose of this study was to separately examine elbow joint angle and muscle length on corticospinal excitability. Corticospinal excitab...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Force variability is affected by environmental temperature, but whether the changes are from altered muscle temperature or proprioception are unclear. We tested how forearm muscle warming and cooling affected a force tracking task. Methods Twelve males and four females completed evoked, maximal, and isometric wrist flexion contractions (0–...
Article
Altered afferent input from the neck due to fatigue alters upper limb proprioception and is likely to impact upper limb performance accuracy. This study examined the effect of cervical extensor muscle (CEM) fatigue on eye-hand tracking accuracy in healthy participants. Twenty-four healthy right-handed individuals were randomly assigned to either a...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine forearm muscle activity during simultaneous execution of dual motor tasks; hand-gripping and wrist forces. Surface electromyography was recorded from eight muscles of the upper-limb: flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Several neuromuscular disorders present muscle fatigue as a typical symptom. Therefore, a reliable method of fatigue assessment may be crucial for understanding how specific disease features evolve over time and for developing effective rehabilitation strategies. Unfortunately, despite its importance, a standardized, reliable and objecti...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the influence of the Theraband TM CLX gold band on lower-limb muscle activity and kinematics during an overhead barbell squat. Participants performed two sets (band and no-band) of 12 repetitions of overhead barbell squats at 25% bodyweight. Three-dimensional kinematics were measured using motion capture with rigid bodies placed...
Article
This study examined sex differences in head kinematics and neck muscle activity during sudden head perturbations. Sixteen competitive ice hockey players participated. Three muscles were monitored bilaterally using surface electromyography: sternocleidomastoid (SCM), scalene (SCL) and splenius capitis (SPC). Head and thorax kinematics were measured....
Article
Full-text available
Background: The physical demands associated with patient handling activities have been well documented in healthcare. However, many activities contribute to the physical demands of caregivers. Our purpose was to evaluate upper extremity muscle activity and kinematics during intravenous (IV) pole interaction. Materials and methods: Muscle activit...
Article
Workstation design often considers wrist posture or humeral angle in efforts to minimize worker injury risk. However, little research exists on examining co-dependencies between upper extremity joint angles for horizontal pushes and pulls. This study examined interactions of wrist posture and humeral abduction angle on upper extremity muscular acti...
Article
OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS Physically demanding nurse activities, such as patient handling, are leading contributors to an occupation with a historically high prevalence of musculoskeletal injury. Numerous strategies have been investigated to reduce injury rates associated with patient handling activities, including mechanical lifts and ergonomic ed...
Article
Full-text available
The cerebellum processes pain inputs and is important for motor learning. Yet, how the cerebellum interacts with the motor cortex in individuals with recurrent pain is not clear. Functional connectivity between the cerebellum and motor cortex can be measured by a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation technique in which stimulation is applied...
Data
CBI data for all participants. CBI, cerebellar inhibition; CBI50+5%, cerebellar inhibition with conditioning stimulus intensity 5% greater than the conditioning stimulus intensity for CBI alone; CBI50+10%, cerebellar inhibition with conditioning stimulus intensity 10% greater than the conditioning stimulus intensity for CBI alone; MEP, motor evoked...
Data
Motor performance data for all participants. Baseline, baseline motor performance before TMS or motor acquisition; pre, motor performance prior to motor acquisition; post, motor performance following motor acquisition. (XLSX)
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether people with subclinical neck pain (SCNP) had altered visual, auditory, and multisensory response times, and whether these findings were consistent over time. Methods: Twenty-five volunteers (12 SCNP and 13 asymptomatic controls) were recruited from a Canadian university student population....
Article
Deficits in balance and strength combined with differing rates of sensory and motor neural development may increase risk of sports related injury in youth. This study evaluated changes in functional fitness and concussion status over the course of a competitive season in youth ice-hockey players, and examined the relationship between these variable...
Article
Background: Medial knee collapse can signal an underlying movement issue that, if uncorrected, can lead to a variety of knee injuries. Placing a band around the distal thigh may act as a proprioceptive aid to minimize medial collapse of the knee during squats; however, little is known about EMG and biomechanics in trained and untrained individuals...
Article
This pilot study compared a Nintendo Wii intervention to single-joint resistance training for the upper limb in children ages 7 to 12 with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Children were randomized to Wii training (n = 3), or resistance training (n = 3) and trained at home for 6 weeks. Pre, post and 4-week follow-up measures were collected. O...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Mental rotation of objects and the frame of reference of those objects are critical for executing correct and skillful movements and are important for object recognition, spatial navigation, and movement planning. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare the mental rotation ability of those with subclinical neck pain (SCNP)...
Article
A high prevalence of low back pain has been reported among professional drivers, including mobile police officers. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and evaluate a novel thoracic support designed for mobile police officers. Fourteen participants (7 male, 7 female) attended two 120-min driving simulations using a Crown Victoria Interc...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball. Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to ma...
Article
The cervical flexion relaxation ratio is lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls. Fatigue modulates the onset and offset angles of the silent period in both the lumbar and cervical spine in healthy individuals; however, this response has not been studied with neck pain patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if cervica...
Article
Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to examine the influence of compressive force magnitude on a functional spinal unit’s (FSU) flexion–extension neutral zone measured during pure moment (PM) tests. Each porcine cervical FSU received four repeats of a PM test with 10, 300, 900 and 1,800 N of compressive force, in a randomized order. Increasing the magni...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate how gripping modulates forearm muscle co-contraction prior to and during sudden wrist perturbations. Ten males performed a sub-maximal gripping task (no grip, 5% and 10% of maximum) while a perturbation forced wrist flexion or extension. Wrist joint angles and activity from 11 muscles were used to determ...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The purpose of this study was to examine the variability in muscle activity at rest and work during a repetitive task. A total of 20 participants performed a bimanual push task using three frequencies (4, 8, 16 pushes/min), three loads (1 kg, 2 kg, 4 kg) and two grip conditions (no grip, 30% maximum). The coefficient of variation (CoV)...
Article
Understanding joint stiffness and stability is beneficial for assessing injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine joint rotational stiffness for individual muscles contributing to elbow joint stability. Fifteen male participants maintained combinations of three body orientations (standing, supine, sitting) and three hand pre-loads (no l...
Article
Unlabelled: Police officers spend large amounts of time performing duties within a police cruiser and report a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. This study evaluated the effects of driver seat and duty belt design on posture, pressure and discomfort. Ten male and 10 female university students attended two sessions involving simulated dr...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the biomechanical demands associated with MMH performed in moving environments. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four different lifting tasks (referred to as 10U, 15U, Close25 and Far25) while exposed to a simulated ship motion profile. Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) signals from s...
Article
The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) influences carpal stability and carpal tunnel mechanics, yet little is known about its mechanical properties. We investigated the tissue properties of TCLs extracted from eight cadaver arms and divided into six tissue samples from the distal radial, distal middle, distal ulnar, proximal radial, proximal middle,...
Article
Joint stiffness and stability are reliant on coordinated muscle activity which may differ depending on initial posture and loading during sudden perturbations. This study investigated the effects of arm posture and hand load on muscle activity during perturbations of the arm. Fifteen male participants experienced perturbations to the wrist causing...
Article
This study investigated the effects of loading and posture on mechanical properties of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL). Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms were dissected to expose the TCL and positioned in the load frame of a servo-hydraulic testing machine, equipped with a load cell and custom made indenters. Four cylindrical indenters (5, 10, 20,...
Article
Job rotation is an intuitive approach to distributing work to minimize muscular fatigue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate rotation between lifting and gripping on muscle activity and effort. Ten male participants performed all 4 combinations of two 15 min tasks in 30 min trials split between separate days to prevent fatigue. The tas...
Article
The high prevalence of low back injuries in nursing has prompted the use of mechanical lift assists while overall assessment of activities and postures remains limited. The purpose of this study was to chronicle trunk posture and work tasks of long-term healthcare professionals. An inclinometer monitored trunk posture for 27 workers, 20 of whom wer...
Article
Considerable effort has been spent evaluating aspects of low back injury risk in nursing yet comprehensive evaluation of all work tasks has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate peak and cumulative lumbar spine loads experienced by personal support workers. A total of 20 female long-term care workers were observed and had trunk po...