Michael F Holick

Michael F Holick
Boston University | BU · Department of Medicine

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915
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Publications

Publications (915)
Article
CYP11A1 and CYP27A1 hydroxylate tachysterol3, a photoproduct of previtamin D3, producing 20S‐hydroxytachysterol3 [20S(OH)T3] and 25(OH)T3, respectively. Both metabolites were detected in the human epidermis and serum. Tachysterol3 was also detected in human serum at a concentration of 7.3 ± 2.5 ng/ml. 20S(OH)T3 and 25(OH)T3 inhibited the proliferat...
Article
Introduction: Rickets is typically characterized by bone deformities due to defective bone mineralization and chondrocyte maturation in growing bones. However, infantile rickets often goes unrecognized, because the skeletal abnormalities are more subtle and often can only be detected radiologically. Nutritional rickets is a major public health con...
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Vitamin D is associated with biological activities of the innate and adaptive immune systems, as well as inflammation. In observational studies, an inverse relationship has been found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and the risk or severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several mechanisms have been proposed for...
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Background The goal of this study is to clarify clinical, functional, and biochemical features of postmenopausal women who are at risk of developing osteosarcopenia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study undertaken to investigate the co-accordance of osteoporosis and sarcopenia and common risk factors on 305 postmenopausal Iranian women. Sarcope...
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Objective: The goal of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in improving vitamin D status in vitamin D-deficient/vitamin D-insufficient patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus. Methods: This is a multicenter, randomize...
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This study aimed to determine the relationships among hyperglycemia (HG), the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the outcomes of COVID-19. Demographic data, blood glucose levels (BG) measured on admission, and hospital outcomes of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Boston University Medical Center from 1 March to 4 August 2020 were extracted fro...
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Intrauterine fractures are a rare clinical finding caused by abnormal early-life osteogenesis. In this case report, we reported a male infant with twenty-three intrauterine/fetal fractures resembling osteogenesis imperfecta and tested negative for COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutations. The infant’s mother had Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type. Whole...
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Background Black individuals have been disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether there are any biological factors that predispose Black patients to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.Objective To compare in-hospital morbidity, mortality, and inflammatory marker levels between B...
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Background: Obese and malabsorptive patients have difficulty increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] after taking vitamin D supplementation. Since 25(OH)D is more hydrophilic than vitamin D, we hypothesized that oral 25(OH)D supplementation is more effective in increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations in these patients. Objectives: We aime...
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Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D on adipokine expression and inflammation in human adipose tissues and adipocytes and evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved. Methods Omental and abdominal subcutaneous human adipose tissues were treated with 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), and adipokine lev...
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Objective To determine the association between vitamin D status and morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients Methods We performed a retrospective chart review study in COVID-19 patients aged ≥18 years old hospitalized at Boston University Medical Center between March 1 – August 4, 2020. All studied patients were tested posit...
Article
Vitamin D is known not only for its importance for bone health, but also for its biologic activities on other many other organ systems. This is due to the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in various types of cells and tissues, including the skin, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, endocrine pancreas, immune cells and blood vessels. Experiment...
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ON THE COVER: The cover image is based on the Research Article Is the natural UV zone important for successful captive propagation of the Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis); are different UVB irradiance exposures that generate a similar dose equally successful? by Gary W. Ferguson et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21591.
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While we generally understand the optimal ultraviolet B (UVB) environment for the growth and reproduction of female Panther Chameleons Furcifer pardalis, we do not know the relative importance of UVB irradiance and dose for optimal husbandry outcomes. Accordingly, we experimented with Panther Chameleon females to test the hypothesis that UVB dose (...
Article
Worldwide the pandemic of COVID-19 spreads rapidly and has had an enormous public health impact with substantial morbidity and mortality especially in high-risk groups, such as older people and patients with comorbidities like diabetes, dementia or cancer. In the absence of a vaccine against COVID-19 there is an urgent need to find supportive thera...
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There is a marked variation in mortality risk associated with COVID-19 infection in the general population. Low socioeconomic status and other social determinants have been discussed as possible causes for the higher burden in African American communities compared with white communities. Beyond the social determinants, the biochemical mechanism tha...
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Many solar UV measurements, either terrestrial or personal, weight the raw data by the erythemal action spectrum. However, a problem arises when one tries to estimate the benefit of vitamin D 3 production based on erythemally weighted outdoor doses, like those measured by calibrated R-B meters or polysulphone badges, because the differences between...
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Background: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and its effect on adverse clinical outcomes, and parameters of immune function and mortality due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Study design: The hospital data of 235 patients infected with COVID-19 were analyzed. Results: Based on CDC criteria, among our study pat...
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Until treatment and vaccine for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) becomes widely available, other methods of reducing infection rates should be explored. This study used a retrospective, observational analysis of deidentified tests performed at a national clinical laboratory to determine if circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are ass...
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Inadequate vitamin D nutritional status is prevalent worldwide and has been associated with autoimmune disorders, heart disease, deadly cancers, insulin resistance, inflammation, neurological disorders, adverse outcomes in pregnancy, and increased risk for mortality. Expert recommendations for vitamin D intake differ between governmental agencies a...
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The negative outcomes of COVID‐19 diseases respiratory distress (ARDS) and the damage to other organs are secondary to a “cytokine storm” and to the attendant oxidative stress. Active hydroxyl‐forms of vitamin D are anti‐inflammatory, induce anti‐oxidative responses, and stimulate innate immunity against infectious agents. These properties are shar...
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Purpose of review: The goal of this review is to give an overview of diagnosis and up-to-date management of major pediatric metabolic bone diseases that are associated with bone fragility, including nutritional rickets, hypophosphatemic rickets, osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers--Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, hypophosphatasia, osteopetrosis an...
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Vitamin D is responsible for regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton. It is also known as an immunomodulatory hormone. Experimental studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, exerts immunologic activities on multiple components of the innate and adaptive immun...
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We have previously described new pathways of vitamin D3 activation by CYP11A1 to produce a variety of metabolites including 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3. These can be further hydroxylated by CYP27B1 to produce their C1α-hydroxyderivatives. CYP11A1 similarly initiates the metabolism of lumisterol (L3) through sequential hydroxylation of the side chain...
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Objective To determine whether perioperative vitamin D levels are predictive of postoperative hypocalcemia in patients receiving thyroidectomy. Study Design Single center retrospective study. Subjects and Methods This study included all patients receiving total or completion thyroidectomy between January 2007 and March 2017 at a single tertiary c...
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Aim: A commercially available light emitting diode (LED) that transmitted narrow band ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was evaluated for its efficacy and efficiency to produce vitamin D3 in human skin. Materials and methods: Human skin samples were obtained from surgical procedures. The LED had peak emission wavelength of 295 nm. Skin samples were...
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Background: Although unhealthy alcohol use and low bone density are prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH), it is not clear whether alcohol use is associated with bone turnover markers (BTMs), and if so, at what quantity and frequency. The study objective was to examine the association between alcohol and BTMs in PLWH with substance use dis...
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Background: Obese children are vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency and impaired cardiovascular health; vitamin D replenishment might improve their cardiovascular health. Objectives: The aims were to determine, in vitamin D-deficient overweight and obese children, whether supplementation with vitamin D3 1000 or 2000 IU/d is more effective than 600...
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Background: Intensive scientific debate is ongoing about whether moderate solarium use increases melanoma risk. The authors of some recent publications demand the debate be closed and propose "actions against solarium use for skin cancer prevention" because new studies have convincingly demonstrated causality. This minireview aims to investigate w...
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Background/aim: To assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on genomic and metabolomic profiles and relate them to the individual's responsiveness to varying doses of vitamin D3 Patients and Methods: Healthy adults were given either 600, 4000 or 10,000 IUs vitamin D3/day for 6 months. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin...
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Background/aim: To assess the effectiveness of three UV emitting lamps on the cutaneous production of vitamin D3, a marker of DNA damage and nitric oxide production in human skin. Materials and methods: Human skin samples (skin types II, III and IV) obtained from surgery were exposed to three different UV emitting lamps for varying times and the...
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Background/aim: To investigate the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on gut microbiota. Patients and methods: Twenty adults with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency [25(OH)D <30 ng/ml] were enrolled and given 600, 4,000 or 10,000 IUs/day of oral vitamin D3 Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks for identifying gut microbiota usi...
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Zusammenfassung Vitamin D spielt u. a. im Insulin- und Glukosestoffwechsel eine Rolle. Bereits ältere Studien weisen auf eine Korrelation hin zwischen niedrigem Vitamin-D-Spiegel und dem Risiko für metabolisches Syndrom sowie der Progression vom Prädiabetes zum manifesten Typ-2-Diabetes. Aktuelle Interventionsstudien und Metaanalysen weisen auf ein...
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Zusammenfassung Aktuelle Studien zeigen einen Zusammenhang zwischen unzureichender Versorgung mit Vitamin D und einem erhöhten Risiko für das metabolische Syndrom sowie die Progression vom Prädiabetes zum manifesten Typ-2-Diabetes. Ein Vitamin-D-Mangel erhöht die Insulinresistenz und verringert die Insulinsekretion der Betazellen im Pankreas. Von e...
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The aims of this randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial were to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on calcium metabolism and non-calcemic broad gene expression by relating them to the individual’s responsiveness to varying doses of vitamin D3. Thirty healthy adults were randomized to receive 600, 4,000 or 10,000 IU/d of vitam...
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The results of epidemiological and several interventional studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of developing insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Various studies have indicated that a lack of vitamin D must be regarded as a pathogenic factor for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, since a vitam...
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The effect of alcohol consumption on cortical and trabecular microarchitecture is not well-understood particularly among patients living with HIV who are at higher risk for metabolic bone disease, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on bone microarchitecture as measured by high-r...
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We tested whether novel CYP11A1-derived vitamin D 3 - and lumisterol-hydroxyderivatives, including 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , 20(OH)D 3 , 1,20(OH) 2 D 3 , 20,23(OH) 2 D 3 , 1,20,23(OH) 3 D 3 , lumisterol, 20(OH)L 3 , 22(OH)L 3 , 20,22(OH) 2 L 3 , and 24(OH)L 3 , can protect against UVB-induced damage in human epidermal keratinocytes. Cells were treated with...
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Purpose: As imaging technology improves and more thyroid nodules and malignancies are identified, it is important to recognize factors associated with malignancy and poor prognosis. Vitamin D has proven useful as a prognostic tool for other cancers and may be similarly useful in thyroid cancer. This study explores the relationship of Vitamin D to...
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Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in people living in the Gulf states. We performed a retrospective analysis of data gathered at the first attendance of 82,396 Emirati nationals to outpatient diabetes, endocrinology and general primary care services at two centres in the United Arab Emirates during 2012–2016. Our aim was to explore associations betwe...
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Background Periodontitis is a common oral inflammation, which is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium are inversely associated with occurrence and progression of periodontitis. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a multi-component intervention, including provision of milk powder supplemented with c...
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This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th–13th, 20th–26th and 30th–36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin...
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Objective Ultraviolet B (UVB) plays an important role in the photo-damage of skin through formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), the primary mutagenic DNA photoproducts, and regulation of the p53 protective responses against genotoxic damage. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor regulating antioxidan...
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Objective: To evaluate vitamin D inadequacy among extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants and the association between circulating vitamin D concentrations and perinatal-neonatal outcomes. Study design: Prospective cohort study of ELBW infants in the neonatal ICU. Blood was collected within the first 3 days after birth after obtaining...
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Vitamin D deficiency can lead to musculoskeletal diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia, but vitamin D supplementation may also prevent extraskeletal diseases such as respiratory tract infections, asthma exacerbations, pregnancy complications and premature deaths. Vitamin D has a unique metabolism as it is mainly obtained through synthesis in th...
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Background People living with HIV (PLWH) commonly have low bone mineral density (BMD) (low bone mass and osteoporosis) and are at high risk for fractures. Fractures and low BMD are significant causes of morbidity and mortality, increasingly relevant as PLWH age. Alcohol use is common among PLWH and known to affect bone health. The association betwe...
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Purpose: To characterize the physiological changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] throughout pregnancy. Methods: Prospective cohort of 229 apparently healthy pregnant women followed at 5th-13th, 20th-26th, and 30th-36th gestational weeks. 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS....
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Dietary protein may help prevent age-related declines in strength and functional capacity. This study examines the independent relation between dietary protein and longitudinal changes in physical functioning among Framingham Offspring Study adults from Exams 5 (1991-1995) to 8 (2005-2008). Protein intakes were derived from three-day diet records d...
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Background/aim: Exposure of the skin to sunshine is the major natural source of vitamin D. In order to imitate this natural production of vitamin D for patients with chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis patients were exposed three times a week to radiation of the front part of both legs to normalize the vitamin D status. Patients and methods: Pa...
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The European Commission's Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks and the World Health Organization recently published reports which concluded that a large proportion of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer is attributable to sunbed use, and that there is no need to use sunbeds as there are no health benefits and they are...
Chapter
The skin is the only organ capable of making vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight. Both the keratinocytes and fibroblasts have a vitamin D receptor (VDR), and thus respond to the antiproliferative activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). It is also recognized that immune cells including activated T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and m...
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Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin is important for health. Those with fat malabsorption disorders malabsorb vitamin D and thus must rely on cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is generated secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (whether from the sun or from an artificial source). Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been devel...
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Objective There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesiz...
Chapter
Vitamin D is known as the sunshine vitamin. During exposure to sunlight the skin transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol into vitamin D3. Throughout evolution vitamin D3 has played a pivotal role in the evolution of vertebrates. Vitamin D is not only critically important for bone health but has a multitude of other biologic functions to help reduce chronic...
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Background: Air particulate matter (PM) is a ubiquitous environmental exposure associated with oxidation, inflammation, and age-related chronic disease. Whether PM is associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of bone fractures is undetermined. Methods: We conducted two complementary studies of: (i) long-term PM <2.5 μm (PM2.5)...
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Background: The physiological relevance C-3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [3-epi-25(OH)D] is not well understood among youth. Objective: To assess whether demographic/physiologic characteristics were associated with 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in youth. Methods: Associations between 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and demographics, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, total 25-h...