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Michael Hoffmann

Michael Hoffmann
Zoological Society of London · Conservation and Policy

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157
Publications
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Publications

Publications (157)
Preprint
Overexploitation is a major threat to biodiversity and international trade in many species is regulated through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). However, there is no established method to systematically determine which species are most at risk from international trade to inform potential t...
Article
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Multiple demographic factors can affect ranger experiences and perceptions of their work, including factors like gender, age, and income. Similarly, whether a ranger is local to their conservation area might influence their experiences and perceptions of the work. This premise, however, has received limited attention. In this study we use survey da...
Preprint
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The global biodiversity crisis threatens the natural world and its capacity to provide benefits to humans into the future. The conservation of evolutionary history, captured by the measure phylogenetic diversity (PD), is linked to the maintenance of these benefits and future options. The Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) metric...
Article
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Comprehensive assessments of species’ extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been o...
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A growing body of literature explores rangers' perceptions and experiences of implementing conservation activities. In particular, the Global Ranger Perception Survey, carried out by the WWF, is the largest global assessment of ranger perceptions and experiences of working conditions in protected and conserved areas, providing insights into various...
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An important rationale for legally‐farmed and synthetic wildlife products are that they reduce illegal wild‐sourced trade by supplying markets with sustainable alternatives. For this to work, more established illegal‐product consumers must switch to legal alternatives than new legal‐product consumers drawn to illegal wild products. Despite widespre...
Article
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species is central in biodiversity conservation, but insufficient resources hamper its long-term growth, updating, and consistency. Models or automated calculations can alleviate those challenges by providing standardised estimates required for assessments, or prioriti...
Article
Taxonomy and systematics are fundamental to the success of conservation actions. A robust and accurate classification of living organisms is vital for understanding biodiversity, using limited resources wisely, prioritising conservation action, and for legal protection and regulation of trade. However, all too often current taxonomies are not based...
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The Anthropocene is characterized by unparalleled human impact on other species, potentially ushering in the sixth mass extinction. Yet mitigation efforts remain hampered by limited information on the spatial patterns and intensity of the threats driving global biodiversity loss. Here we use expert-derived information from the International Union f...
Article
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Unsustainable exploitation of wild species represents a serious threat to biodiversity and to the livelihoods of local communities and Indigenous peoples. However, managed, sustainable use has the potential to forestall extinctions, aid recovery, and meet human needs. We analyzed species‐level data for 30,923 species from 13 taxonomic groups on the...
Article
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Robust evaluation of the impact of biodiversity conservation actions is important not only for ensuring that conservation strategies are effective and maximise return on investment, but also to identify and celebrate successful conservation strategies. This evaluation can be retrospective (comparing the current situation to a counterfactual scenari...
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Abstract Understanding wildlife consumption is essential for the design and evaluation of effective conservation interventions to reduce illegal trade. This requires understanding both the consumers themselves and those who influence their behaviour. For example, in markets for wildlife‐based medicines, both consumers and medical practitioners have...
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Overexploitation is a key driver of biodiversity loss but the relationship between the use and trade of species and conservation outcomes is not always straightforward. Accurately characterizing wildlife trade and understanding the impact it has on wildlife populations are therefore critical to evaluating the potential threat trade poses to species...
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Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a "Green List of Species" (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species' progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 s...
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The Convention on Biological Diversity’s post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will probably include a goal to stabilize and restore the status of species. Its delivery would be facilitated by making the actions required to halt and reverse species loss spatially explicit. Here, we develop a species threat abatement and restoration (STAR) metric...
Article
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More than 30 years after it was first proposed as a biodiversity conservation strategy, rewilding remains a controversial concept. There is currently little agreement about what the goals of rewilding are, and how these are best achieved, limiting the utility of rewilding in mainstream conservation. Achieving consensus about rewilding requires agre...
Article
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The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that...
Article
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Wet grassland wader populations in the United Kingdom have experienced severe declines over the last three decades. To help mitigate these declines, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) has restored and managed lowland wet grassland nature reserves to benefit these and other species. However, the impact that these reserves have on b...
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The production of palm oil has considerable implications for tropical biodiversity. Increasing the environmental, social and governance (ESG) transparency and disclosure of the industry will contribute towards sustainable consumption and production practices. Here, we present a method for producing an index to measure changes in ESG disclosure in t...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
Full-text available
Unsustainable exploitation of wild species represents a serious threat to biodiversity and to the livelihoods of local communities and indigenous peoples. However, managed, sustainable use has the potential to forestall extinctions, aid recovery, and meet human needs. Here, we infer current prevalence of unsustainable and sustainable biological res...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity. The purpose of the Guidelines for using A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas is to ensure that KBA identification is based on consistent, scientifically rigorous yet practical methods. These KBA Guidelines p...
Article
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Aichi Target 12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) contains the aim to ‘prevent extinctions of known threatened species’. To measure the degree to which this was achieved, we used expert elicitation to estimate the number of bird and mammal species whose extinctions were prevented by conservation action in 1993–2020 (the lifetime of th...
Article
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Phylogenetic diversity measures are increasingly used in conservation planning to represent aspects of biodiversity beyond that captured by species richness. Here we develop two new metrics that combine phylogenetic diversity and the extent of human pressure across the spatial distribution of species-one metric valuing regions and another prioritis...
Article
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Given the current biodiversity crisis, pragmatic approaches to detect global conservation trends across a broad range of taxa are critical. A sampled approach to the Red List Index (RLI) was proposed, as many groups are highly speciose. However, a decade after its conception, the recommended 900 species sample has only been implemented in six group...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aichi Target 12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims to 'prevent extinctions of known threatened species'. To measure its success, we used a Delphi expert elicitation method to estimate the number of bird and mammal species whose extinctions were prevented by conservation action in 1993 - 2020 (the lifetime of the CBD) and 2010 - 20...
Preprint
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Humanity will soon define a new era for nature – one that seeks to correct decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. But persistent shortfalls in ecological represe...
Article
Ecological baselines—reference states of species' distributions and abundances—are key to the scientific arguments underpinning many conservation and management interventions, as well as to the public support to such interventions. Yet societal as well as scientific perceptions of these baselines are often based on ecosystems that have been deeply...
Article
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Historical data are a valuable resource for addressing present-day conservation issues, for example by informing the establishment of appropriate recovery targets. However, while the recovery of threatened species is the end goal of many conservation programmes, data made available through the efforts of palaeoecologists and historical ecologists a...
Article
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The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, a species extinction risk assessment tool, has been guiding conservation efforts for over 5 decades. It is widely assumed to have been instrumental in preventing species from moving closer to extinction and driving recoveries. However, the impact of the IUCN R...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) is increasingly recognised as an important measure that can provide information on evolutionary and functional aspects of biodiversity for conservation planning that are not readily captured by species diversity. Here we develop and analyse two new metrics that combine the effects of PD and human encroachment on species...
Article
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The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species includes assessment of extinction risk for 98 512 species, plus documentation of their range, habitat, elevation, and other factors. These range, habitat and elevation data can be matched with terrestrial land cover and elevation datasets to map the species' ar...
Article
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Four species of wild canids are documented as occurring in Vietnam: Dhole Cuon alpinus, Eurasian Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Red Fox Vulpes vulpes and Raccoon Dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Except for Dhole, all species are widely distributed globally and are listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Concerned by the paucit...
Article
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The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categor...
Article
As landscapes continue to fall under human influence through habitat loss, fragmentation, and settlement expansion, fencing is increasingly being used to mitigate anthropogenic threats or enhance the commercial value of wildlife. Subsequent intensification of management potentially erodes wildness by disembodying populations from landscape‐level pr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity. A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas (IUCN, 2016, hereafter the KBA Standard) provides quantitative criteria and associated thresholds for identifying KBAs in an objective, repeatable and transparent way. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Stopping declines in biodiversity is critically important, but it is only a first step toward achieving more ambitious conservation goals. The absence of an objective and practical definition of species recovery that is applicable across taxonomic groups leads to inconsistent targets in recovery plans and frustrates reporting and maximization of co...
Article
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Critical Habitat has become an increasingly important concept used by the finance sector and businesses to identify areas of high biodiversity value. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) defines Critical Habitat in their highly influential Performance Standard 6 (PS6), requiring projects in Critical Habitat to achieve a net gain of biodivers...
Data
Further datasets considered and justification for exclusion. Includes information on which element of the PS6 Critical Habitat they align with, the dataset investigated and the reason it was excluded from the global screening layer. (DOCX)
Data
Relevance of regional-scale designations to Critical Habitat criteria. (DOCX)
Data
Global screening layer (1x1 km raster) for terrestrial Critical Habitat. A GIS dataset of the terrestrial Critical Habitat screening layer is available on request for research and conservation purposes from information@unep-wcmc.org. (DOCX)
Data
Biodiversity features included in the screening layer for the identification of Critical Habitat. Includes information on which element of the PS6 Critical Habitat they align with, the dataset used, their classification as likely or potential Critical Habitat and justification based on the degree of alignment with the PS6 definition and the certain...
Data
Proposed alignment between the KBA criteria in the new global standard for the identification of KBAs (IUCN 2016) and IFC Critical Habitat (CH) criteria. (DOCX)
Chapter
Nearly one-fifth of all vertebrates are currently estimated to be threatened with extinction, with a range between 16% and 33%. There are two well-established means of understanding how status changes over time: monitoring changes in the abundance of populations and tracking change in extinction risk. Evidence indicates a decline of 58% in vertebra...
Article
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A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue f...
Article
Extinction risk in vertebrates has been linked to large body size, but this putative relationship has only been explored for select taxa, with variable results. Using a newly assembled and taxonomically expansive database, we analyzed the relationships between extinction risk and body mass (27,647 species) and between extinction risk and range size...
Article
Extinction of a species is difficult to detect, yet there are important conservation consequences of classifying an extant species as extinct or an extinct species as extant, and potentially significant costs of making the wrong classification. To deal with the uncertainties of detecting extinctions, some Critically Endangered species are tagged as...
Article
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In our recent perspective article, we noted that most (approximately 0 percent) terrestrial large carnivore and large herbivore species are now threatened with extinction, and we offered a 13-point declaration designed to promote and guide actions to save these iconic mammalian megafauna (Ripple et al. 2016). Some may worry that a focus on saving m...
Article
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1. The current classification of the Felidae was reviewed by a panel of 22 experts divided into core, expert and review groups, which make up the Cat Classification Task Force CCTF of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. 2. The principal aim of the CCTF was to produce a consensus on a revised classification of the Felidae for use by the IUCN. 3. Based on...
Article
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Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards , governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms.
Data
Unique visitors per year to knowledge products’ websites. (DOCX)
Data
Calculation of the cost of achieving pre-defined baselines by 2020. All extrapolations were derived through data from the sample compiled in the study and projections provided by each knowledge product team. (DOCX)
Data
Currency conversions and accounting for inflation. Costs were provided in British Pounds (GBP), US Dollars (US$), Euros (EUR), Australian Dollars (AUD), and Swiss Francs (CHF) of the year when the investment took place. We accounted for inflation by calculating the value of the currency in 2014 and then we transformed all currencies to US Dollars (...
Data
Extrapolated one-off costs costs per funding source between 1979 and 2013 for all four knowledge products. Extrapolated one-off costs costs per cost categories between 1979 and 2013 for all four knowledge products. (DOCX)
Data
Summary of data collection for all four knowledge products. The table summarises which costs were collected for each of the four knowledge products and how much of the total number of assesments, available in December 2013, these represent. In cases where 100% of the costs were not collected, the total sum for each knowledge product was increased p...
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