Michael h Hennessy

Michael h Hennessy
University of Delaware | UDel UD · Department of Communication

About

97
Publications
76,656
Reads
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4,304
Citations
Citations since 2016
21 Research Items
2098 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Understanding why sports and energy drinks remain increasingly popular among adolescents despite declines in other sugar sweetened beverages is critical. This study points to memory for advertising exposure and adolescent athletic identity as two aspects that together help to explain consumption. An online survey of U.S. adolescents aged 14-18 (n =...
Article
Full-text available
Content analysis of traditional and social media has a central role in investigating features of media content, measuring media exposure, and calculation of media effects. The reliability of content coding is usually evaluated using “kappa-centric” agreement measures, but these measures produce results that aggregate individual coder decisions whic...
Article
This study identifies constructs from key persuasion theories that are present in popular sports and energy drink advertising. A theory-driven content analysis was conducted on 315 popular television and social media sports and energy drink advertisements from top selling brands. The advertisements were analyzed for the presence of persuasive cues...
Article
American adolescents consume more sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) than any other age group. Sports and energy drinks consumption among adolescents is higher than other SSBs. For sports drinks, there is uncertainty about their “healthiness” and also beliefs that these drinks may provide health benefits such as hydration, enhanced athletic performan...
Article
Consumption of red meat has been linked to a variety of health issues, yet Americans are resistant to reducing their meat consumption. Family communication environments shape beliefs about food and meat consumption, and therefore are locations for potential interventions to change the way people think about food. Families are embedded in cultures,...
Article
Purpose: Combinations of risk behaviors are common in popular media, which make it difficult to understand how exposure to risk content affects adolescent risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether media effects associated with exposure to multiple risk behaviors (i.e., combined alcohol and sex, sex only, alcohol only, and...
Article
Media exposure to risky behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, violence) has been associated with adolescent engagement in risk-taking behaviors, but not all adolescents are equally at risk. Here we focus on individual differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking and assess their effects on the relation between media risk exposure and adolescent risk be...
Article
The digital neighborhood is the amalgamation of the spaces online where youth connect with others. Just as Black and Hispanic youth live in neighborhoods that influence their health, they are also influenced by online digital neighborhoods. Youth are exposed to social media content featuring substance use, sexual risk, and violence, yet little is k...
Article
Media violence exposure (MVE) is associated with aggressive outcomes in adolescents. However, based on the differential susceptibility hypothesis, this risk is expected to vary based on the individual's unique risk and protective factors. Using survey data from 1,990 adolescents (Mean age = 15.6 ± 1.10 years; 48% female) and content analysis of U.S...
Article
Adolescents spend many hours per day watching television, and there are racial differences in time spent watching television and in show preferences. Prior research suggests there are also differential associations in how exposure to media content affects adolescent behavior. This study examines the demographic representation of main characters and...
Article
Black-oriented media, content with predominately Black casts and/or racial themes, is marketed primarily toward Black audiences. However, how audiences perceive such targeting is unclear. To investigate this, Black and White adolescents (n=1,990) identified the perceived target audiences of 15 movies (12 Black-oriented). Results from Item Response...
Article
Context: Parents, peers and media are informal sources of sexual information for adolescents. Although the content of sexual information communicated by these sources is known to vary, little is known about what adolescents report actually learning from each source. Methods: Data from 1,990 U.S.14-17-year-olds who participated in an online surve...
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The heightened risk of persons with serious mental illness to contract and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a public health problem. Here we evaluate the interaction between psychiatric diagnosis and response to a community based-intervention targeted at treatment adherence in 236 HIV+ persons with co-occurring mental illness. To exam...
Article
Purpose: To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. Methods: The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black ad...
Article
Objective: This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. Design: Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertiseme...
Article
The reasoned action approach is one of the most successful behavioral theories in the history of social psychology. This study outlines the theoretical principles of reasoned action and considers when it is appropriate to augment it with a new variable. To demonstrate, we use survey data collected from a 4 to 17 year old U.S. adolescents to test ho...
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To determine if an escalating HIV treatment adherence intervention would be considered by participants from a caring or coercive perspective, perceived coercion was examined in 238 community-based dually diagnosed individuals (HIV+ and a serious mental illness) randomized to a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group or preventing AIDS through health...
Article
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Adolescent exposure to risk in film has been associated with behavior. We coded Black and White character involvement in sex, violence, alcohol use, and tobacco use, and combinations of those behaviors in popular mainstream and Black-oriented films (film n = 63, character n = 426). Health risk portrayals were common, with the majority of characters...
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Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents’ intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content anal...
Article
In this article we examine in real time the political selective exposure process involved when the public confronted the “walrus haul out” of October 2014, a news event attributed by some climate change researchers to the effects of the climate change-driven reduction of Arctic sea ice. Analyzing data assessing the amount of major TV and cable news...
Article
Research indicates that media campaigns targeting weight-related behaviors can make overweight individuals feel stigmatized and may create backlash effects in weight-related health behavior. Using weight-based identity threat theory as a guiding framework, this study investigates the role of prior weight stigmatization in adults’ reactions to publi...
Article
In this article, we describe a novel experimental approach for identifying the effectiveness of distinct persuasive strategies used in audiovisual (television-format) public service advertisements (PSAs) designed to encourage parents to reduce their children’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Eight-hundred and seven parents were assigned...
Article
Mass media campaigns are a commonly used approach to reduce sugary drink consumption, which is linked to obesity in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the direct and mediated effects of emotional appeals in public service advertisements (PSAs) that aired between 2010 and 2012 on adolescents' intention to reduce their sugar-swe...
Article
New Annenberg survey results indicate that marketers are misrepresenting a large majority of Americans by claiming that Americans give out information about themselves as a tradeoff for benefits they receive. To the contrary, the survey reveals most Americans do not believe that ‘data for discounts’ is a square deal. The findings also suggest, in c...
Article
The family system plays an important role in shaping children’s television use. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time, given the risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing. Researchers have highlighted family television practices that may be effective for reducing children’s viewing, but mo...
Article
Voting is an essential component of civic engagement. To demonstrate the utility of a reasoned action approach to predict voting, we created an instrument that measured non-normative political beliefs and voting intentions. We identified political beliefs and attitudes of the Republican Party, Democratic Party, Libertarian Party, Tea Party, and Occ...
Article
To examine how parents' beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising are associated with parents' and their children's SSB consumption. Cross-sectional representative telephone survey of Philadelphia parents in households with children between the ages of 3 and 16 years. Three hundred and seventy-one...
Article
Research on the relationship between adolescent health risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors in particular, and perceived life satisfaction is emerging. Some researchers suggest that life satisfaction has been a neglected component of adolescent health research. African American adolescents aged 13-18 (n = 1,658) from four matched, mid-sized cities...
Article
This is a collection of the reports on the Annenberg national surveys that explored Americans' knowledge and opinions about the new digital-marketing world that was becoming part of their lives. So far we’ve released seven reports on the subject, in 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010, and 2012. The reports raised or deepened a range of provocative...
Article
Objectives: Because household smoking levels and adoption of domestic smoking rules may be endogenously related, we estimated a nonrecursive regression model to determine the simultaneous relationship between home smoking restrictions and household smoking. Methods: We used data from a May-June 2012 survey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, househol...
Article
We identified household, child, and demographic characteristics associated with not having a smoking ban and having a rule about smoking in the presence of children in an urban population. We conducted a cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey (n=456) of Philadelphia parents in June 2012. Forty-eight percent of homes reported a full smok...
Article
Full-text available
The heightened risk of persons with serious mental illness (SMI) to contract and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a public health problem. Our objective was test the effectiveness of a community-based advanced practice nurse intervention to promote adherence to HIV and psychiatric treatment regimens call Preventing AIDS Through Health...
Article
Smoking in homes exposes family members to secondhand smoke, an exposure that is harmful to children and adults. This study identifies barriers to instituting household smoking bans and beliefs that are positively and negatively related to smoking bans in households with smokers. A telephone survey of parents living in Philadelphia with at least 1...
Article
Objective: To examine the effect of parental television viewing on children's television viewing compared with traditional predictors such as household television access, parental rules, and demographic characteristics of the child, parent, and household. Methods: An online survey using national samples of 1550 parents with children in 3 age gro...
Article
Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the...
Article
Background: Scientific evidence demonstrates a link between viewing time and several poor health outcomes. We use a reasoned action approach to identify the determinants and beliefs associated with parents' intention to limit their children's television viewing. Methods: We surveyed a random sample of 516 caregivers to children ages 3-16 in a la...
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Objectives: We estimated the long-term (36-month) effects of Project iMPPACS, a multisite randomized controlled trial of mass media and small-group intervention for African American adolescents. Methods: We collected 6 waves of longitudinal data on program participants aged 14 to 17 years (n = 1139) in Providence, Rhode Island; Syracuse, New Yor...
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Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral...
Article
There is confusion regarding reason and rational thought as a precondition for interventions designed using a reasoned action approach. To test their feasibility, two interventions were developed for use with persons with mental illnesses, using the reasoned action model. Preventing AIDS through Health (PATH) was delivered one-on-one by case manage...
Article
This article serves as a guide for conducting statistical analyses in a reasoned action context. Using structural equation modeling concepts, the authors identify two elements of reasoned action data: the structural component relating theoretical variables to one another and a measurement component defining the theoretical constructs. The authors t...
Conference Paper
Obesity continues to be a major public health concern for America's children, with obesity rates for preschoolers tripling in the past 30 years and quadrupling for children aged 6 to 11. Television viewing has been shown to have a small, but significant association with childhood overweight. While research is ongoing to understand the pathways from...
Article
To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African American adolescents. Television and radio messages were delivered for more than 3 years in two cities (Syracuse, NY; and Macon, G...
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This article reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek...
Article
Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article...
Article
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We examined the long-term effects of two interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American adolescents. African American adolescents (N = 1383, ages 14-17) were recruited from community-based organizations over a period of 16 months in two northeastern and two southeastern mid-sized U.S. cities with high rates of sexually...
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We report on African American adolescents' (N = 850; M age = 15.4) contraceptive practices and type of contraception utilized during their last sexual encounter. Respondents completed measures of demographics, contraceptive use, sexual partner type, and ability to select "safe" sexual partners. 40% endorsed use of dual or multiple contraceptive met...
Conference Paper
The HPV vaccine offers hope that the incidence of cervical cancer can be dramatically reduced worldwide. In the U.S., cervical cancer has become primarily a disease of low-income minority women. To improve understanding about vaccination barriers, we investigated (a) HPV vaccination prevalence and (b) the association between HPV vaccine acceptabili...
Article
We identify the adolescent and family factors that shape the time adolescents spend viewing television. Adolescent traits, family/household characteristics, television access, and TV viewing time were assessed by self-report using a web-based survey conducted with a sample of 457 14- to 16-year-old adolescents in a Northeastern US city. Bivariate a...
Article
This study used the Integrative Model as a framework to examine whether religiosity delays onset of coitus among a longitudinal sample of virgins, and investigated the causal pathways of this relationship. In addition, this study examined the behavioral beliefs about the consequences of engaging in sex, which distinguishes between youth who vary in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract Based on a media diary method, this study examines the prevalence and patterns of audience behaviors that combine media use withother media (i.e., multiple media use) or non- media activity (i.e., multitasking) among high school and college students. Consistent with previous research conducted with adolescents (e.g., Roberts,2000), this st...
Article
To examine the effect of a community-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening program on sexual risk behavior among African American adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents testing positive for an STI and receiving post-test counseling would reduce risky sexual practices, whereas STI-negative adolescents would show little or no ch...
Article
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This study identifies a theoretical mechanism through which communication with friends about sex influences sexual initiation in a sample of adolescents. The Integrative Model was used to assess the effect of attitudes, normative pressure and self efficacy on intentions to have sex in a sample of virgin adolescents. Results show that the constructs...
Article
The authors examined how support for abstinence-only education, comprehensive sex education, and condom instruction in US schools was related to beliefs about their respective efficacy, as well as how policy preferences were related to demographic, political, and social variables such as political orientation, attendance at religious services, and...
Article
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The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that ma...
Article
This nationally representative telephone (wire-line and cell phone) survey explores Americans' opinions about behavioral targeting by marketers, a controversial issue currently before government policymakers. Behavioral targeting involves two types of activities: following users' actions and then tailoring advertisements for the users based on thos...
Article
Background: Routine HIV testing is recommended for all adolescents ages 13 years and older. This study aims to report the prevalence of HIV testing among black adolescents, describe characteristics of adolescents who have been tested, and identify potentially modifiable factors associated with greater likelihood of testing across gender. Methods: B...
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Many studies of sexual messages in media utilize content analysis methods. At times, this research assumes that researchers and trained coders using content analysis methods and the intended audience view and interpret media content similarly. This article compares adolescents' perceptions of the presence or absence of sexual content on television...
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This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents...
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The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The...
Article
To evaluate the test-retest reliability of self-reported sexuality-related data in a sample of African American adolescents residing in four U.S. cities. Using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), 156 African American teens (mean age = 15.5 years) provided data on lifetime and recent sexual behavior, HIV/sexually transmitted disease (...
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To examine how sources of sexual information are associated with adolescents' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about having sexual intercourse using the integrative model of behavior change. Survey data from a quota sample of 459 youth. The most frequently reported sources were friends, teachers, mothers, and media. Regression analyses in...
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Using a longitudinal web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, we estimate regression models where self-reported sexual behavior and content analytic-based exposure to sex in the media are related cross-sectionally and longitudinally. We find evidence for both cross-sectional non-recursive and prospective longitudinal relationships even a...
Article
Studies suggest the general structure of Web sites leads consumers away from demanding that online merchants take certain approaches to privacy as a condition for dealing with them. This article presents findings from a nationally representative survey showing that the absence of such a privacy marketplace can also be attributed to the public’s inc...
Article
Although there has been concern about sex and violence on television since the 1950s, little is known about the determinants of public opinion concerning the regulatory response to “inappropriate” television content. Here the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) is used to predict support for fining television stations for violent...
Article
Behavioral theory informs HIV prevention programs by identifying important predictors of the relevant behavior. Changes in those predictors brought about by program messages should theoretically translate into behavior change. Program evaluation, however, may examine only whether message exposure is associated with behavior change, assuming that if...
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This article investigates two kinds of information search strategies in the context of selecting romantic partners. Confirmatory searching occurs when people ask for more information about a romantic partner in order to validate or confirm their assessment. Balanced searches are characterized by a search for risk information for partners rated as a...
Article
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Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was "deep kissing" and the most difficult was "receiving anal sex" for females and "giving anal sex" for males. The index was validated with data that...
Article
Adolescence is a period of heightened experimentation with risky behavior. Models of brain development suggest that this phenomenon is partly the result of increased adolescent sensation seeking unaccompanied by maturation in ability to evaluate risks. We test an alternative biosocial-affect model in which favorable affect attached to behavior lead...
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Full-text available
Research shows that people engage in "risky" sex with "safe" partners and in "safer" sex with "riskier" partners. How is the determination of "risky" or "safe" status made? Factorial survey methodology was used to randomly construct descriptions of romantic partners based on attractive and/or risky characteristics. Respondents evaluated 20 descript...
Article
What does the US public believe about the credibility of institutional actors when it comes to protecting information privacy online? Drawing on perspectives of environmental risk, this article addresses the question through a nationally representative telephone survey of 1200 adults who go online at home. A key result is that a substantial percent...
Article
Using data from two nationally representative surveys, we examined public knowledge about the Constitution and courts: the impact of court exposure and news sources on perceptions of the courts, trust in the courts, perceptions of bias in the courts, and willingness to curb the power or influence of the courts. The surveys were conducted in the summ...
Article
To examine US public opinion on sex education in schools to determine how the public's preferences align with those of policymakers and research scientists. Cross-sectional survey. July 2005 through January 2006. Randomly selected nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 to 83 years (N = 1096). Support for 3 different types of sex educ...