Michael D Greenfield

Michael D Greenfield
University of Kansas | KU · Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

PhD

About

163
Publications
40,748
Reads
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5,937
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - present
Université Jean Monnet
Position
  • Professor
September 2007 - present
University of Kansas
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2006 - June 2018
University of Tours
Position
  • Professor
Education
July 1973 - May 1978
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Field of study
  • Biology, entomology, statistics
September 1969 - June 1973
New York University
Field of study
  • engineering, biology

Publications

Publications (163)
Article
Full-text available
Ambient noise is a major constraint on acoustic communication in both animals and humans. One mechanism to overcome this problem is Spatial Release from Masking (SRM), the ability to distinguish a target sound signal from masking noise when both sources are spatially separated. SRM is well described in humans but has been poorly explored in animals...
Article
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This theme issue assembles current studies that ask how and why precise synchronization and related forms of rhythm interaction are expressed in a wide range of behaviour. The studies cover human activity, with an emphasis on music, and social behaviour, reproduction and communication in non-human animals. In most cases, the temporally aligned rhyt...
Article
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Animals communicating interactively with conspecifics often time their broadcasts to avoid overlapping interference, to emit leading, as opposed to following, signals or to synchronize their signalling rhythms. Each of these adjustments becomes more difficult as the number of interactants increases beyond a pair. Among acoustic species, insects and...
Article
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The study of human language is progressively moving toward comparative and interactive frameworks, extending the concept of turn‐taking to animal communication. While such an endeavor will help us understand the interactive origins of language, any theoretical account for cross‐species turn‐taking should consider three key points. First, animal tur...
Article
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Specific characteristics of the male Achroia grisella acoustic mating signal determine a male's attractiveness towards females. These features are genetically variable in populations, and mapping experiments have been used to identify loci contributing to song variation, and understand the evolutionary forces acting on this important sexual trait....
Article
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Social environments can influence diverse aspects of animal behavior. In reproductive activity, females may adjust their pre-mating preference for males and their post-mating investment in offspring according to the social environment and thus maximize their fitness, and how these two adjustments interact may significantly impact a male’s fitness....
Article
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We studied the Pleistocene diversification of a relatively endemic Mediterranean insect (Ephippiger diurnus; Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) to understand how species with restricted range may nonetheless exhibit the complex phylogeography normally associated with broad distribution. A time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on two mitochondrial genes...
Data
1 Supplementary Materials Appendix S1. Mitochondrial DNA amplification and analysis. We amplified cytochrome c oxidase 2 subunit II (COII; 530 bp) with the universal insect primers C2-J-3279 and TD-N-3862 (Simon et al. 1994), followed by newly designed specific COII primers for E. diurnus (EdiurCOII-F: TAA GAG ACC 4 AGT ACT TAC TTT CAG TCA T and Ed...
Article
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In many animal species, the expression of sexually-selected traits is negatively correlated with survival traits such as immune function, a relationship termed a ‘trade-off’. But an alternative in which sexually-selected traits are positively correlated with survival traits is also widespread. The nature of inter-trait relationships may be largely...
Article
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When animal species have a strong phylogeographic structure questions arise on the origin, maintenance and future evolutionary trajectory of that structure. One prediction is that phenotypic differences among populations serve as pre-mating barriers should secondary contact occur. Post-mating barriers may also function and ensure further separation...
Article
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In many acoustic insects, neighbouring males adjust their calling rhythms and broadcast a temporally structured chorus ranging from an irregular mixture of alternation and synchrony to a nearly perfect synchrony wherein most males sing in unison. Irregular synchrony can arise where females ignore calls that follow a neighbour's call by a brief dela...
Article
Full-text available
In many acoustic insects, neighbouring males adjust their calling rhythms and broadcast a temporally structured chorus ranging from an irregular mixture of alternation and synchrony to a nearly perfect synchrony wherein most males sing in unison. Irregular synchrony can arise where females ignore calls that follow a neighbour's call by a brief dela...
Article
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Individuals often modify their behaviour in response to environmental cues and their own condition. Here we asked whether males modify ejaculates based on information from the sociosexual environment and their physiological age, and how those two factors may interact. We used two populations of the chorusing bushcricket, Ephippiger diurnus, to test...
Article
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Small animals typically localize sound sources by means of complex internal connections and baffles that effectively increase time or intensity differences between the two ears. However, some miniature acoustic species achieve directional hearing without such devices, indicating that other mechanisms have evolved. Using 3D laser vibrometry to measu...
Article
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Synchrony and alternation in large animal choruses are often viewed as adaptations by which cooperating males increase their attractiveness to females or evade predators. Alternatively, these seemingly composed productions may simply emerge by default from the receiver psychology of mate choice. This second, emergent property hypothesis has been in...
Article
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When acoustically advertising animals call in dense clusters, problems in signal efficacy often arise. These problems are particularly acute in species where females ignore males who call immediately following a neighbor and males adjust call timing to avoid broadcasting following calls: Males may forego such adjustments and produce many ineffectiv...
Article
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Female preferences play a major role in the elaboration and diversification of male traits: as a selective pressure on males, variation in female preferences can generate population divergence and ultimately, speciation. We studied how interpopulation differences in the shape of female mate preference functions may have shaped male advertisement si...
Chapter
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Tympanal organs for hearing in the far field have evolved on multiple occasions among insects and are currently found in seven orders. Many, if not most, cases of insect hearing probably originated as a means for detecting and avoiding predators. In particular, sensitivity to ultrasound appears to have coevolved with echolocation signaling by insec...
Article
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A novel panel of 16 microsatellite markers, obtained by pyrosequencing of enriched genomic libraries, is reported for the flightless European bushcricket Ephippiger diurnus (Dufour) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Five multiplex and one simplex PCR protocols were optimized, and the polymorphism at the 16 loci was assessed in two natural populations fr...
Article
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In the study of sexual selection among insects, the Lesser Waxmoth, Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has been one of the more intensively studied species over the past 20 years. Studies have focused on how the male calling song functions in pair formation and on the quantitative genetics of male song characters and female preference for t...
Article
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Many acoustic animals exhibit temporally structured chorusing, and in some cases, groups of calling males display elaborate forms of synchrony and/or alternation. Such temporal structure has traditionally been explained as an adaptation by which chorusing males preserve critical call features, maximize the attractiveness of their local group to fem...
Article
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Sexual signals can provide information about the range and number of conspecifics in the social environment, and individuals may use such information to adjust their behavior accordingly. However, the extent to which both males and females adjust their behavior remains relatively unexplored. We used the chorusing bushcricket Ephippiger diurnus to t...
Article
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Reproduction and immunity often require significant energetic investment and as a result, trade-offs may occur between them. Reproduction is particularly costly for males of the bushcricket Ephippiger diurnus: not only do they produce loud advertisement calls for long periods of time to attract mates but also they offer females a large nuptial gift...
Article
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It has been proposed that leks arise because of increased mating benefits in aggregations of displaying males, and some evidence supports this hypothesis. But observations also indicate that lekking aggregations include only a small percentage of the males in a population, implying that certain factors limit lek size. Potential factors include incr...
Article
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Fisher's mechanism of sexual selection is a fundamental element of evolutionary theory. In it non-random mate choice causes a genetic covariance between a male trait and female preference for that trait and thereby generates a positive feedback process sustaining accelerated coevolution of the trait and preference, is a fundamental element of evolu...
Article
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Acoustic insects usually sing amidst conspecifics, thereby creating a social environment-the chorus-in which individuals communicate, find mates, and avoid predation. A temporal structure may arise in a chorus because of competitive and cooperative factors that favor certain signal interactions between neighbors. This temporal structure can generat...
Chapter
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The potential roles of phenotypic plasticity and genotype × environment interaction (GEI) in sexual selection become clear when we consider the variation generally observed in male traits such as advertisement signals. Phenotypic plasticity currently elicits increasing attention in studies of behavior, ecology, and evolution, but what is often over...
Chapter
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Pair formation in moths typically involves pheromones, but some pyraloid and noctuoid species use sound in mating communication. The signals are generally ultrasound, broadcast by males, and function in courtship. Long-range advertisement songs also occur which exhibit high convergence with communication in other acoustic species such as orthoptera...
Chapter
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1. Elements of animal communication 2. What communication is 3. How does communication originate and how does it evolve? 4. Evolutionary trajectories: Four examples 5. On the reliability of animal communication The evolution of animal communication remains one of the more fascinating questions in evolutionary biology, but it is also presents us wit...
Article
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The evolution of extravagant sexual traits by sensory exploitation occurs if males incidentally evolve features that stimulate females owing to a pre-existing environmental response that arose in the context of natural selection. The sensory exploitation process is thus expected to leave a specific genetic imprint, a pleiotropic control of the orig...
Article
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In species in which males provide females with nuptial gifts, females can benefit from choosing mates offering the larger or higher quality donation. The existence of such preferences assumes that females can reliably assess a male's gift before mating. However, in certain species, for example most bushcrickets, prior, direct assessment of the nupt...
Article
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In species in which males display collectively, females may evaluate display features that arise specifically in groups in addition to basic features of signal energy. For example, in acoustic insects and anurans that chorus, males often adjust their song timing relative to neighbours, and females may pay attention to these adjustments in timing. M...
Article
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In Plodia interpunctella, radioactive labelling techniques indicate that male-derived substances, transferred to the female during copulation, enter unfertilized eggs. These substances are proteinaceous and the cumulative amount of material entering the unfertilized eggs increases with time since mating. Following courtship, smaller males complete...
Article
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Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria can accelerate the evolution of traits and preferences to exaggerated levels. Both theory and recent empirical findings...
Data
Full-text available
This file illustrates the mapping of QTLs for developmental, male signal, and female receiver traits among linkage groups in broods Xt7 and Xt19. Each section of the file shows maps of a pair of associated linkage groups where association was possible due to common markers, or only one linkage group where common markers did not occur. Two sections...
Article
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Life history theory predicts that females may adjust the selectivity expressed in mate choice as they age. Particularly in cases where time is limiting, females are expected to reduce selectivity and thereby avoid losing a terminal mating opportunity. Some evidence for this reduction has been found in vertebrates and long-lived insects, and several...
Article
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Michael Greenfield reviews Cricket Radio, Tuning in the Night-Singing Insects
Article
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Substantial additive genetic variance (V(A)) often exists for male signalling traits in spite of the directional selection that female choice imposes. One solution to this problem, a conundrum generally termed the 'lek paradox', is that genotype × environment interaction (GEI) occurs and generates a 'crossover' of reaction norms in which no one gen...
Article
‘Indirect benefits’ models of sexual selection propose that mates are chosen based on their ‘genetic quality’, which is reliably indicated by sexual advertisement signals and courtship behavior. When we consider how indirect benefits models may function in natural populations, one of several difficulties encountered are environmental influences on...
Article
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Theories of lek evolution generally invoke enhanced mating success experienced by males signalling in aggregations. Reduced predation has also been acknowledged as a potential factor driving lek formation, but its role is more ambiguous. Although lekking is a complex behaviour, few empirical studies have investigated the role of both claims. We stu...
Article
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Although sexual activity in many animal species is reduced when predation pressure intensifies, such reduction may be attenuated in accordance with age, demography or sexual competition. For example, males in lekking aggregations might forgo evasive behaviour and continue their signalling activity when exposed to predation for various reasons: the...
Article
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Life history theory predicts that organisms make certain adjustments to their current and future reproductive effort such that fitness is maximized. Moreover, these adjustments may be fine tuned in response to risks of attack by natural enemies. Thus, we may predict that as an organism ages it will accept increasing levels of exposure to predators...
Article
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Two components of sexual selection in the lesser was moth, Achroia grisella, are clearly defined: females choose males based on characters of their ultrasonic advertisement signals, and males display agonistic behaviour patterns in contests over signalling stations. We conducted a series of laboratory trials to determine whether successes in these...
Article
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Sexual selection theory predicts low costs of choice when females choose among males for genetic (indirect) benefits, as occurs at leks. However, few empirical studies have investigated the actual costs incurred during the process of pair formation, and we generally do not know whether and to what extent females incur energetic expenditure, exposur...
Article
Full-text available
Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to either non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria, a genetic correlation, can accelerate the evolution of male traits and female preferences to exaggerated levels....
Article
Full-text available
The diel periodicities of male signaling and long-range female orientation to male signals were studied in Ligurotettix coquilletti, a territorial grasshopper in which singing males defend individual host plants (Larrea tridentata bushes) as mating territories. Systematic observations revealed that both male and female activity schedules were marke...
Article
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The receiver bias model for the evolution of mating signals proposes that selection favors male displays that happen to stimulate a general, ancestral perception in females such that receptivity and successful courtship increase. If these male signals do arise, however, the female perception will operate in two contexts, the original, typically non...
Article
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Ever since the 1970s, biologists studying mechanical perception and signaling, i.e. sound and vibration, in insects and other arthropods have assembled at an independent conference held every 2-3 years to report their recent findings. The most recent conference, the XIIth International Meeting on
Article
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Female evaluation of male signals in the context of sexual selection is often made on the basis of signal energy. Particularly in acoustic species, females may prefer male song that is broadcast at greater amplitude or power. However, song amplitude may be represented by various parameters, and the specific one(s) that are evaluated are not clear....
Article
The fundamental mechanisms by which females respond to and choose males based on the parameters of their calling and courtship songs are now rather well understood in many acoustic insects and anurans. However, they remain relatively unexplored in more complex, natural settings, where displaying males may gather in leks of varying size. We addresse...
Article
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Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that maintain genetic variation in natural populations is one of the fundamental goals of evolutionary biology. There is growing evidence that genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E) can maintain additive genetic variance (V A), but we lack information on the relative performance of genotypes under the...
Article
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Synchronous interactions arise in various animal species that rhythmically broadcast acoustic, vibratory, and visual signals. These interactions are characterized by a coincidence in both rate and phase of the rhythms of neighboring signalers. Theory predicts several ways in which synchronized rhythms may specifically benefit the interacting signal...